Languages of Malaysia

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Life in Malaysia

The indigenous languages of Malaysia belong to the Mon-Khmer and Malayo-Polynesian families. The national, or official, language is Malay which is the mother tongue of the majority Malay ethnic group. The main ethnic groups within Malaysia comprise the Malays, Chinese and Indians, with many other ethnic groups represented in smaller numbers, each with its own languages. The largest native languages spoken in East Malaysia are the Iban, Dusunic and the Kadazan languages. English is widely understood in service industries and is a compulsory subject in primary and secondary school. It is also the main language spoken in most private colleges and universities. English may take precedence over Malay in certain official contexts as provided for by the National Language Act, especially in the states of Sabah and Sarawak, where it may be the official working language.

Malaysia contains speakers of 137 living languages,[1] 41 of which are found in Peninsula Malaysia.[2] The government provides schooling at the primary level in each of the three major languages, Malay, Chinese (Mandarin), and Tamil. Within these three there are a number of dialectal differences.[3]

The distribution of language families of Malaysia shown by colours:
(click image to enlarge)
  Aslian
  Creole
  Areas with multiple languages

Malay[edit]

Main article: Malaysian language

The official language of Malaysia is known as Bahasa Malaysia. It is a standardised form of the Malay language.[4] There are 10 dialects of Malay used throughout Malaysia.[3] Malay became predominant after the 1969 race riots.[5] A variant of the Malay language that is spoken in Brunei is also commonly spoken in East Malaysia.

Other indigenous languages[edit]

Citizens of Minangkabau, Bugis or Javanese origins, who can be classified "Malay" under constitutional definitions may also speak their respective ancestral tongues. The native tribes of East Malaysia have their own languages which are related to, but easily distinguishable from, Malay. Iban is the main tribal language in Sarawak while Dusun and Kadazan languages are spoken by the natives in Sabah.[6] Some of these languages remain strong, being used in education and daily life.[3] Sabah has tenth sub-ethnic languages, Bajau, Bruneian, Murut, Lundayeh/Lun Bawang, Rungus, Bisaya, Iranun, Sama, Suluk and Sungai. There are over 30 native groupings, each of which has its own dialect. These languages are in danger of dying out, unlike the major ones such as Kadazandusuns which have developed educational syllabuses. Iban also has developed an educational syllabus.[7] Languages on the peninsular can be divided into three major groups, Negrito, Senoi, and Malayic, further divided into 18 subgroups.[3] The Semai is used in education.[7] Thai is also spoken in northern parts of Peninsular especially in Northern Kedah and Langkawi, Perlis, Northern Perak, Northern Terengganu, and Northern Kelantan.[8]

English[edit]

Main article: Malaysian English

Malaysian English, also known as Malaysian Standard English (MySE), is a form of English derived from British English, although there is little official use of the term except with relation to education. Malaysian English also sees wide usage in business, along with Manglish, which is a colloquial form of English with heavy Malay, Chinese dialect and Tamil influences. Most Malaysians are conversant in English, although some are only fluent in the Manglish form. The Malaysian government officially discourages the use of Manglish.[9] Many businesses in Malaysia conduct their transactions in English, and it is sometimes used in official correspondence. Examinations are based on British English.

English was the predominant language in government until 1969.[5] English served as the medium of instruction for Maths and Sciences in all public schools per the PPSMI policy, but reverted to Bahasa Malaysia in national schools and mother-tongue languages in 2012. [10] The Parent Action Group for Education and former Prime Minister Tun Dr Mahathir Mohamad has called for science and math to be taught in English again.[3][dead link][11][12]

Chinese languages[edit]

As a whole, Standard Chinese is most widely spoken among Malaysian Chinese, due to it being the lingua franca for Chinese from different dialect groups, the language of instruction in Chinese schools and an important language in business.[3]

As most Malaysian Chinese have ancestry from the southern provinces of China, various southern Chinese dialects are spoken in Malaysia. The more common dialects in Peninsular Malaysia are Cantonese, Hokkien, Hakka, Hainanese, and Hokchew.[8] Hokkien is mostly spoken in Penang, Northern Perak and Kedah whereas Cantonese is mostly spoken in Ipoh and Kuala Lumpur. In Sarawak, most ethnic Chinese speak either Hokchew or Hakka while Hakka predominates in Sabah except in the city of Sandakan where Cantonese is more often spoken despite the Hakka-origins of the Chinese residing there.

As with Malaysian youths of other races, most Chinese youth are multilingual and can speak at least three languages with at least moderate fluency - Mandarin, English and Malay, as well as their native Chinese dialect and/or the dominant Chinese dialect in their area. However, Chinese dialects are losing ground to Mandarin, due to the prestige of Mandarin and its status as language of instruction in school. Some parents speak Mandarin with their children and do not pass down their native dialects. Some of the less-spoken dialects such as Hainanese are facing extinction.

Indian languages[edit]

Tamil is used predominantly by Tamils, who form a majority of Malaysian Indians.[13] It is especially used in Peninsular Malaysia. Other south Asian languages such as Malayalam, Hindi, Telugu and Punjabi are also spoken.

Creoles[edit]

A small number of Malaysians have Eurasian ancestry and speak creole languages, such as the Portuguese based Malaccan Creoles.[14] A Spanish based creole, Zamboangueño, has spread into Sabah from the southern Philippines.[15]

Sign languages[edit]

Sign languages include Malaysian Sign Language and the older Selangor Sign Language and Penang Sign Language. No sign language is used in the education of the deaf. Instead, Manually Coded Malay is used.

List of languages[edit]

Malay Dialects or related languages[edit]

Johor-Riau Malay
Malaysian - Official standard register of Malay language
Kelantanese
Terengganuan
Kedahan
Sarawakian
Bruneian
Sabahan
Negeri Sembilan Malay
Rawa
Pahangese
Perak Malay
Malaccan Malay
Banjarese
Tioman Malay
Temuan
Orang Kanaq
Orang Seletar
Jakun
Duano' (Orang Kuala)

- Various Malay-based creoles are also spoken in Malaysia such as Baba Malay, Sabah Malay, Bahasa Rojak and others.

Malaysian Chinese languages[edit]

Mandarin
Cantonese
Hokkien
Hakka
Hokchew
Teochew

Malaysian Indian languages[edit]

Tamil - also by ethnic Tamils of Sri Lankan origin
Malayalam
Telugu
Hindi
Punjabi

East Malaysian languages[edit]

Iban
Kadazan
Dusun
Bajau
Bruneian
Kelabit
Bidayuh
Kayan
Lun Bawang
Penan

Other languages and groups[edit]

Kristang
English
Burmese
Thai
Sinhalese
Filipinos
Pakistani
Aslian languages

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Ethnologue report for Malaysia". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 18 October 2010. 
  2. ^ "Ethnologue report for Malaysia (Peninsular)". Ethnologue.com. Retrieved 18 October 2010. 
  3. ^ a b c d e f Kamila Ghazali. "National Identity and Minority Languages". UN Chronicle. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  4. ^ Constitution of Malaysia:Article 152
  5. ^ a b Barbara Watson Andaya; Leonard Y. Andaya (15 September 1984). A History of Malaysia. Palgrave Macmillan. ISBN 978-0-312-38121-9. 
  6. ^ K. Alexander Adelaar; Nikolaus Himmelmann (1 January 2005). The Austronesian Languages of Asia and Madagascar. Psychology Press. pp. 397–. ISBN 978-0-7007-1286-1. 
  7. ^ a b Luke Rintod (30 November 2010). "Speak up, native language champions urged". Free Malaysia Today. Retrieved 4 September 2013. 
  8. ^ a b "Malaysia". Cia.gov. Retrieved 26 October 2010. 
  9. ^ Zimmer, Benjamin (5 October 2006). "Language Log: Malaysia cracks down on "salad language"". Itre.cis.upenn.edu. Retrieved 14 September 2010. 
  10. ^ "Math and Science back to Bahasa, mother tongues". The Star Online. 8 July 2009. Retrieved 8 September 2010. 
  11. ^ Mohd Farhan Darwis (12 November 2013). "Dr Mahathir calls for Science and Maths to be taught in English, again". The Malaysian Insider. Archived from the original on 2014-10-17. Retrieved 3 October 2014. 
  12. ^ "PAGE hands in second memorandum". The Star Online. 9 July 2010. Archived from the original on 2014-10-17. Retrieved 8 September 2010. "Deputy Prime Minister Tan Sri Muhyiddin Yassin announced last year that the policy of Teaching of Mathematics and Science in English (known by its Malay acronym, PPSMI) would be scrapped from 2012." 
  13. ^ Barbara A. West (1 January 2009). Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania. Infobase Publishing. ISBN 978-1-4381-1913-7. 
  14. ^ "Malaysian Creole Portuguese: Asian, African or European?". University of Texas. 1975. JSTOR 30027570. 
  15. ^ Susanne Michaelis (2008). Roots of Creole Structures: Weighing the Contribution of Substrates and Superstrates. John Benjamins Publishing. ISBN 90-272-5255-6.