Languages of Monaco
French is the only official—and by far the most common—language in Monaco, a result of the role France has had over the microstate, since the annexation of Nice and the Nizzardo (the territory surrounding Monaco), then culturally and ethnically Italian, as part of the Kingdom of Piedmont-Sardinia.
Monégasque is the national language of the Monegasque people (who represent only 21.6% of the total population, but growing from 19.0% in 2000). It is a dialect of Ligurian, and is somewhat similar to Italian.
Because the Monégasques are only a minority in Monaco, their tongue was threatened with extinction in the 1970s. However, the language is now being taught in schools, and its continuance is regarded as secured. In the old part of Monaco, the street signs are marked with Monégasque in addition to French.
Italian is also the paternal language of Andrea Casiraghi, Charlotte Casiraghi and Pierre Casiraghi—the children of Caroline of Monaco, Princess of Hanover and Heiress Presumptive of Monaco, as her late husband, Stefano Casiraghi, was born in the Lombard town of Como, Italy.
There is also an Anglophone community in Monaco (8.5% of which are from the United Kingdom or the United States, with English-speakers from other nations as too insignificant and thus listed within the category of "other," below), in addition to English-speaking tourists visiting the city.
Belgian, Swiss, and German nationals are approximately 2.5% each of the overall population, and "other" constitute a further 15%. Some 125 nationalities make up the population of Monaco.
- Monaco IQ (English language), referencing Chapter One of Files and Reports&InfoSujet=General Population Census 2008&6Gb|2008 census (gouv.mc not an English source)
- History of Monaco
- Biographie de Stefano Casiraghi.
- Grace Kelly's last interview, 22 June 1982, on ABC's 20/20