Languages of Uttar Pradesh
The languages of Uttar Pradesh belong to two zones in the Indo-Aryan languages, the Central and the Eastern.
Individual mother tongues in Uttar Pradesh are many, but well-recognised dialects number around 6 or 7.
The languages of Uttar Pradesh mainly derive from the Prakrits of the Old Indo-Aryan, along with the influence of Persian in the medieval era.
Linguists generally distinguish the terms "language" and "dialects" on the basis of 'mutual comprehension'. The Indian census uses two specific classifications in its own unique way: (1) 'language' and (2) 'mother tongue'. The 'mother tongues' are grouped within each 'language'. Many 'mother tongues' so defined would be considered a language rather than a dialect by linguistic standards. This is specifically the case for many 'mother tongues' with tens of millions of speakers that are officially grouped under the 'language' Hindi.
The dominant language family of Uttar Pradesh is Indo-Aryan, with the two major zones represented being Central and Eastern. Except for Bhojpuri, which belongs to the Eastern zone of Indo-Aryan, the rest of the languages belong to the Central zone.
Footnotes and References
- Languages of India (SIL Ethnologue list)
- Languages and Scripts of India
- Reconciling Linguistic Diversity: The History and the Future of Language Policy in India by Jason Baldridge
- Words and phrases in 26 Indian languages
- Titus - Languages of India
- Diversity of Languages in India
- KeyTrans Hindi intelligent transliteration email and spell check