Languages of the Isle of Man
|Languages of Isle of Man|
|Main immigrant languages||Irish|
|Main foreign languages||French, German|
|Revived national language(s)||Manx|
Both English and Manx are official languages in Tynwald.
The Manx language is a Celtic language of the Goidelic subdivision, and descendant of Old Irish. It is sometimes called Manx Gaelic to distinguish it from the local variety of English.
The language was historically the dominant one on the island, but fell out of use during the twentieth century, and is considered to have become extinct in 1974 after the death of Ned Maddrell. At the present time, less than one hundred children receive their education exclusively in Manx. There are an additional 1,689 second-language speakers, comprising 2.2% of the population of the Isle of Man. The language has been offered in public schools since 1992, and has been mandatory since 2001.
English has replaced Manx as the dominant language on the island. The native dialect is known as Anglo-Manx or Manx English, and has been employed by a number of the island's more notable writers such as T.E. Brown and "Cushag". which distinguishes itself by considerable influence and a large number of loanwords and phrases from Manx Gaelic. However, this dialect is being supplanted by other dialects of English, especially from north west England.
For formal purposes British English is the usual form of English used in the Isle of Man. For many years, the BBC has been the main broadcaster to the island, and many English people have settled in the IOM.
Other minority languages
Extinct languages of the Isle of Man
Historical forms of "Irish"
During the Middle Ages, the three Gaelic languages maintained a single standard for higher registers and poetry. This is sometimes misleadingly referred to as "Classical Irish" - despite the fact it was much in use in Scotland and presumably the Isle of Man. It is also known as Classical Gaelic.