|• Total||70 km2 (30 sq mi)|
|Time zone||AZT (UTC+4)|
|• Summer (DST)||AZT (UTC+5)|
|Area code(s)||+994 025 25|
Lankaran (Azerbaijani: Lənkəran; also, Länkäran, Lencoran, and Lenkoran’,Talyshi: Lankon) is a city in Azerbaijan, on the coast of the Caspian Sea, near the southern border with Iran. It has a population of 83,300 (2010 census). It is next to, but independent of Lankaran rayon. The city forms a distinct first-order division of Azerbaijan.
- 1 Etymology
- 2 Geography
- 3 Climate
- 4 History
- 5 Economy
- 6 Demographics
- 7 Education
- 8 Culture
- 9 Transportation
- 10 International relations
- 11 Notable natives
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 External links
The old form of the name was "Langarkanan" that in Persian means "the place of pulling up the anchor(s)" : "Langar" (Persian: لنگر, anchor) + "kan" (Persian: کن, to pull) + "an"(Persian: آن, suffix of places). However, some sources state that Lankaran is said to come from the Talish words for 'Cane house', which sounds as 'Lan Karan'. Alternatively, from Median *Lan(a)karan-, where *karan- means 'border, region, land' and Lan is probably a name of a Caspian tribe.
There are sandy beaches near Lankaran. Thermal sulphide, chloride, sodium-calcium waters of Andjin (Upper and Lower) mineral springs are situated 12 km west of the town. Also to the west are the ruins of Ballabur castle, near the village with the same name.
The region has a vast area of national parks, where a variety of fauna and flora are preserved. Gizil-Agach State Reserve hosts over 250 kinds of plants, 30 species of fish and more than 220 kinds of birds. Lankaran is also known for Parrotia persica, or ironwood. It is naturally grown in the region and could be seen in Hirkan National Park. Local myth has it that it is the only wood that sinks in water, hence the name (ironwood). Historically it has been used for heating, since it burns for a long time and is not easily extinguished. The Persian leopard (Panthera pardus saxicolor) subspecies of the leopard, lives in the national park as well. In 1937, members of the Opilio lepidus species of harvestman were sited in the area.
Lankaran has a humid subtropical climate (Cfa), which borderlines the Mediterranean climate. Lankaran has cool, wet winters and very warm, dry/highly humid summers. The maximum annual precipitation of 1,600 to 1,800 mm, and is the highest precipitation in Azerbaijan.
|Climate data for Lenkaran|
|Average high °C (°F)||7.2
|Average low °C (°F)||0.0
|Precipitation mm (inches)||91
|Avg. precipitation days||10||10||11||8||8||3||2||4||7||13||12||9||97|
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||105.4||98.9||124.0||171.0||226.3||282.0||306.9||254.2||189.0||127.1||99.0||108.5||2,092.3|
|Source #1: World Meteorological Organization (UN) |
|Source #2: Hong Kong Observatory(sun only)|
The city was built on a swamp along the northern bank of the river bearing the city's name. There are remains of human settlements in the area dating back to the Neolithic period as well as ruins of fortified villages from the Bronze and Iron Ages.
Lankaran's history is rather recent, dating from the 16th century. Lankaran was for a long time the capital of the Talysh Khanate, which enjoyed variable degrees of independence throughout history. It was first a part of the Persian Empire. Later it was held by Russia from 1728 to 1735, but only fell definitively to Russia's General Kotlyarevsky in 1813 and the Treaty of Gulistan. The Treaty of Turkmenchay in 1828 just confirmed the transfer of that important port city from Persia to Russia.
Once absorbed into the Russian empire, it became a part of the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic after the Russian revolution in 1917. In 1991, it became a part of independent Azerbaijan.
Dominating spheres in Lankaran economy are vegetable-growing, tea-growing, paddy cultivating, cattle-breeding, citrus plants, beekeeping, fishing, and grain farming. Favourable humid subtropical climate, availability of good arable land, water and sufficient labour resources of city provides a good basis for agricultural activities as well as development of agro-processing enterprises. The city is also home of Azerbaijan's first tea plant, built in 1937.
Lankaran is home to Azerbaijan's largest Talysh community.
The following universities are located in Lankaran:
- Lankaran State University - Founded in 1991, Lankaran State University is Lankaran's first university to start courses.
Lankaran's cuisine has largely been affected by its multicultural history, hence the large variety of food originating during Talysh Khanate. Lankaran’s signature cuisine includes lavangi, Lankaran kulcha, marji plov, white plov, pumpkin plov and turshu kebab.
- Lankaran Fortress - built in the 18th century.
- Boyuk Bazar Mosque
- Kichik Bazar Mosque
In 2012, the city won to host European Masters Weightlifting Championship.
Lankaran is served by national and international flights through the Lankaran International Airport.
Connection with other cities and countries
- Air: The Lankaran International Airport is well served with connections to Turkish and international destinations. Its new international terminal was opened in September 2008 and the airport is set on its way for becoming one of the busiest hubs in Azerbaijan.
- Rail: The city has rail service from historic terminals in downtown to Baku in the east and Astara in the south.
Twin towns — Sister cities
- Jahan Talyshinskaya — folk singer and theatre actress.
- Hazi Aslanov — twice Hero of the Soviet Union.
- Mikhail Pavlov — Hero of Socialist Labor.
- Pasha Tahmazov — National Hero of Azerbaijan.
- Samedbey Mehmandarov — Russian army general, Minister of Defense of Azerbaijan Democratic Republic.
- World Gazetteer: Azerbaijan – World-Gazetteer.com
- lənkəran on ozaramizdi.org (Azerbaijani)
- Lənkəran haqqında tarixi coqrafi məlumat (Azerbaijani)
- А. Периханян (1982), Этимологические заметки // Историко-филологический журнал. Ереван. № 1, pp. 55-62
- Nataly Y. Snegovaya (2007). "Two New Harvestman Species from Lenkoran, Azerbaijan (Arachnida: Opiliones: Phalangiidae)". Bulletin of the British Arachnological Society 14 (2): 88–92.
- "World Weather Information Service – Lenkaran". United Nations. Retrieved 19 January 2011.
- "Climatological Information for Lankaran, Azerbaijan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved November 17, 2012.
- History of Lankaran
-  Monterey Herald article on sister city relationship
- Business opportunities of the region
- Tea culture in Azerbaijan
- "Bacılar" talış folklor mahnı və rəqs kollektivi (Azerbaijani)
- Azerbaijani Cuisine: Şirniyyat (Azerbaijani)
- Cuisine of Lankaran
- Azərbaycanın subtropik zonası (Azerbaijani)
- Lenkoran Travel Guide
- "Weightlifting Masters". Official Website of European Masters Weightlifting 2012. Retrieved 19 March 2011.
- Lənkəranda çay plantasiyalarının sahəsi genişləndirilir (Azerbaijani)
- History of Lankaran:Economy
- Turizm müəssisələri (Azerbaijani)
- (Azerbaijani) The Voice of Happiness and Optimism: Jahan Talyshinskaya by Afruz Mammadova. Musigi-dunya.az
- "Асланов Ази Ахад оглы" (in Russian). Heroes of the country.
- "Павлов Михаил Александрович" (in Russian). Heroes of the country.
- "Tahmazov Pasha Gurban oglu". milliqahraman.az.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lankaran.|
- Official city webpage - (English version)
- Lankaran State University
- Soviet topographic map 1:100,000 (published in 1991)
- Satellite photo via Google Maps
- Lankaran (as Lənkəran) at GEOnet Names Server
Largest cities or towns of Azerbaijan
2013 Demographic statistics according to the administrative divisions, State Statistics Committee
|Rank||Name||Economic regions||Pop.||Rank||Name||Economic regions||Pop.|