Lansdowne Letter

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Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne

The "Lansdowne Letter" was named after a letter published by Henry Petty-Fitzmaurice, 5th Marquess of Lansdowne which called for Britain to negotiate a peace with Imperial Germany during the Great War.

Background[edit]

In November 1916 Lansdowne circulated a paper to the Cabinet, in which he argued that the war would destroy civilisation and that therefore peace should be negotiated on the basis of the status quo ante bellum.[1] Lansdowne's proposal received a hostile response from other Unionists in the Cabinet like Arthur Balfour and Robert Cecil.[2]

Lansdowne invited the editor of The Times, Geoffrey Dawson, to his house and showed him the letter he wanted to publish. Dawson was "appalled" and decided that publication would not be in the national interest.[3] Lansdowne also showed the text to the Foreign Office who did not veto it. He then offered the letter to The Daily Telegraph, which accepted it.

Publication[edit]

On 29 November 1917 Lansdowne's letter was published in The Daily Telegraph. It again called for a negotiated peace with Germany:

"We are not going to lose this war, but its prolongation will spell ruin for the civilised world, and an infinite addition to the load of human suffering which already weighs upon it...We do not desire the annihilation of Germany as a great power ... We do not seek to impose upon her people any form of government other than that of their own choice... We have no desire to deny Germany her place among the great commercial communities of the world.[4]"

The letter also called for a guarantee of the 'freedom of the seas'.

Reaction[edit]

Lansdowne became a pariah and his letter "a deed of shame".[3] Andrew Bonar Law publicly criticised Lansdowne's letter although President Wilson was said to be "impressed" by the letter's arguments. H. G. Wells said Lansdowne's letter "was the letter of a Peer who fears revolution more than national dishonour".[5]

Military leaders dismissed Lansdowne's proposals. Douglas Haig said that the prospects for 1918 were "excellent". Sir William Robertson, when asked whether the war could be won, replied:

"Quite frankly, and at the same time quite respectfully, I can only say I am surprised that the question should be asked. The idea had not before entered my head that any member of His Majesty's Government had a doubt on the matter."[6]

Most of the British press were critical of Lansdowne's proposals. The Times attacked it as did The Morning Post and The Daily Mail.[3] The Manchester Guardian and the Daily News welcomed the letter, as did the German press.

However, as post-war research has discovered, the German government under Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg would have rejected any status quo ante bellum peace offer but preferred a vae victis approach to the war. Bethmann Hollweg's own minimum peace terms were Belgium and Poland under German control, German acquisition of the Belgian Congo, part of Persia, and the cession by France of her rich industrial area of Longwy-Briey to Germany.[2][7]

In February 1918 Lansdowne promoted his ideas by founding the Lansdowne Committee and by using his platform in the House of Lords.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ A. J. P. Taylor, English History 1914 - 1945 (Oxford, 1990), p. 65.
  2. ^ a b Taylor, p. 65.
  3. ^ a b c "Anthony Howard on ''The Westminster Hour''". BBC News. 2005-06-14. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  4. ^ [1][dead link]
  5. ^ "H. G. Wells, ''In the Fourth Year Anticipations of a World Peace'' (1918)". Infomotions.com. Retrieved 2010-05-02. 
  6. ^ Taylor, p. 66.
  7. ^ Correlli Barnett, The Great War (BBC Worldwide Limited, 2003), p. 114.

Further reading[edit]

  • Harold Kurtz, 'The Lansdowne Letter', History Today, 18 (1968), pp. 84–92.

External links[edit]