Laozi

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Laozi
老子
DaodeTianzun.jpg
Laozi, depicted as Daode Tianzun
Born Zhou Dynasty
Died Zhou Dynasty
Era Ancient philosophy
Region Chinese philosophy
School Taoism
Notable ideas Wu wei
Influenced

Laozi (also Lao-Tzu or Lao-tze) was a philosopher and poet of ancient China. He is best known as the reputed author of the Tao Te Ching[1] and the founder of philosophical Taoism, but he is also revered as a deity in religious Taoism and traditional Chinese religions. Although a legendary figure, he is usually dated to around the 6th century BC and reckoned a contemporary of Confucius, but some historians contend that he actually lived during the Warring States period of the 5th or 4th century BC.[2] A central figure in Chinese culture, Laozi is claimed by both the emperors of the Tang dynasty and modern people of the Li surname as a founder of their lineage. Throughout history, Laozi's work has been embraced by various anti-authoritarian movements.

Names[edit]

In traditional accounts, Laozi's personal name is usually given as Li Er (, Old * Nə,[3] Mod. Lǐ Ěr) and his courtesy name as Boyang (trad. , simp. , Old *Pʕrak-lang,[3] Mod. Bóyáng). A prominent posthumous name was Li Dan (, Lǐ Dān).[4][5][6]

Laozi itself is an honorific title: (Old *rʕu, "old, venerable"[3]) and (Old *tsə, "master"[3]). It is usually pronounced /ˌlˈdzʌ/[7][8] in English. It has been romanized numerous ways, sometimes leading to confusion. The most common present form is Laozi or Lǎozǐ,[9] based on the Hanyu Pinyin system adopted by Mainland China in 1958[10] and Taiwan in 2009.[11] During the 20th century, Lao-tzu[12] was more common,[9] based on the formerly prevalent Wade–Giles system. In the 19th century, the title was usually romanized as Lao-tse.[9][13] Other forms include the variants Lao-tze[14] and Lao-tsu[15] and the Latinate Laocius.

As a religious figure, he is worshipped under the name "Supreme Old Lord" (太上老君, Tàishàng Lǎojūn)[16] and as one of the "Three Pure Ones". During the Tang, he was granted the title "Supremely Mysterious and Primordial Emperor" (太上玄元皇帝, Táishāng Xuānyuán Huángdì).

Historical views[edit]

In the mid-twentieth century, a consensus emerged among scholars that the historicity of the person known as Laozi is doubtful and that the Tao Te Ching was "a compilation of Taoist sayings by many hands."[17] Alan Watts urged more caution, holding that this view was part of an academic fashion for skepticism about historical spiritual and religious figures and stating that not enough would be known for years – or possibly ever – to make a firm judgment.[18]

The earliest certain reference to the present figure of Laozi is found in the 1st-century BCE Records of the Grand Historian collected by the historian Sima Qian from earlier accounts. In one account, Laozi was said to be a contemporary of Confucius during the 6th or 5th century BCE. His surname was Li and his personal name was Er or Dan. He was an official in the imperial archives and wrote a book in two parts before departing to the west. In another, Laozi was a different contemporary of Confucius titled Lao Laizi () and wrote a book in 15 parts. In a third, he was the court astrologer Lao Dan who lived during the 4th-century BCE reign of Duke Xian of Qin.[19][20] The oldest text of the Tao Te Ching so far recovered was written on bamboo slips and dates to the late 4th century BCE.[1]

According to traditional accounts, Laozi was a scholar who worked as the Keeper of the Archives for the royal court of Zhou.[21] This reportedly allowed him broad access to the works of the Yellow Emperor and other classics of the time. The stories assert that Laozi never opened a formal school but nonetheless attracted a large number of students and loyal disciples. There are many variations of a story retelling his encounter with Confucius, most famously in the Zhuangzi.[22][23]

According to Chinese legend, Laozi left China for the west on a water buffalo.[24]

He was sometimes held to have come from the village of Chu Jen in Chu.[25] In accounts where Laozi married, he was said to have had a son named Zong who became a celebrated soldier. Many clans of the Li family trace their descent to Laozi, including the emperors of the Tang dynasty.[26] According to the Simpkinses, while many (if not all) of these lineages are questionable, they provide a testament to Laozi's impact on Chinese culture.[27]

Laozi meets Yinxi

The third story in Sima Qian states that Laozi grew weary of the moral decay of life in Chengzhou and noted the kingdom's decline. He ventured west to live as a hermit in the unsettled frontier at the age of 160. At the western gate of the city (or kingdom), he was recognized by the guard Yinxi. The sentry asked the old master to record his wisdom for the good of the country before he would be permitted to pass. The text Laozi wrote was said to be the Tao Te Ching, although the present version of the text includes additions from later periods. In some versions of the tale, the sentry was so touched by the work that he became a disciple and left with Laozi, never to be seen again.[28] In others, the "Old Master" journeyed all the way to India and was the teacher of Siddartha Gautama, the Buddha. Others claim he was the Buddha himself.[22][29]

Depiction of Laozi in E.T.C. Werner's Myths and Legends of China.

A seventh-century work, the Sandong Zhunang ("Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns"), embellished the relationship between Laozi and Yinxi. Laozi pretended to be a farmer when reaching the western gate, but was recognized by Yinxi, who asked to be taught by the great master. Laozi was not satisfied by simply being noticed by the guard and demanded an explanation. Yinxi expressed his deep desire to find the Tao and explained that his long study of astrology allowed him to recognize Laozi's approach. Yinxi was accepted by Laozi as a disciple. This is considered an exemplary interaction between Daoist master and disciple, reflecting the testing a seeker must undergo before being accepted. A would-be adherent is expected to prove his determination and talent, clearly expressing his wishes and showing that he had made progress on his own towards realizing the Tao.[30]

The Pearly Bag of the Three Caverns continues the parallel of an adherent's quest. Yinxi received his ordination when Laozi transmitted the Daodejing, along with other texts and precepts, just as Taoist adherents receive a number of methods, teachings and scriptures at ordination. This is only an initial ordination and Yinxi still needed an additional period to perfect his virtue, thus Laozi gave him three years to perfect his Dao. Yinxi gave himself over to a full-time devotional life. After the appointed time, Yinxi again demonstrates determination and perfect trust, sending out a black sheep to market as the agreed sign. He eventually meets again with Laozi, who announces that Yinxi's immortal name is listed in the heavens and calls down a heavenly procession to clothe Yinxi in the garb of immortals. The story continues that Laozi bestowed a number of titles upon Yinxi and took him on a journey throughout the universe, even into the nine heavens. After this fantastic journey, the two sages set out to western lands of the barbarians. The training period, reuniting and travels represent the attainment of the highest religious rank in medieval Taoism called "Preceptor of the Three Caverns". In this legend, Laozi is the perfect Daoist master and Yinxi is the ideal Taoist student. Laozi is presented as the Tao personified, giving his teaching to humanity for their salvation. Yinxi follows the formal sequence of preparation, testing, training and attainment.[31]

The story of Laozi has taken on strong religious overtones since the Han dynasty. As Taoism took root, Laozi was worshipped as a god. Belief in the revelation of the Tao from the divine Laozi resulted in the formation of the Way of the Celestial Master, the first organized religious Taoist sect. In later mature Taoist tradition, Laozi came to be seen as a personification of the Tao. He is said to have undergone numerous "transformations" and taken on various guises in various incarnations throughout history to initiate the faithful in the Way. Religious Taoism often holds that the "Old Master" did not disappear after writing the Tao Te Ching but rather spent his life traveling and revealing the Tao.[32]

Taoist myths state that Laozi was conceived when his mother gazed upon a falling star. He supposedly remained in her womb for 62 years before being born while his mother was leaning against a plum tree. (The Chinese surname Li shares its character with "plum".) Laozi was said to have emerged as a grown man with a full grey beard and long earlobes, both symbols of wisdom and long life.[33][34] Other myths claim that he was reborn 13 times after his first life during the days of Fuxi. In his last incarnation as Laozi, he lived nine hundred and ninety years and spent his life traveling to reveal the Tao.[32]

Tao Te Ching[edit]

See also: Tao Te Ching, Tao and Wu wei

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the author of the Daodejing (Tao Te Ching), though the identity of its author(s) and/or compiler(s) has been debated throughout history.[35][36] It is one of the most significant treatises in Chinese cosmogony. As with most other ancient Chinese philosophers, Laozi often explains his ideas by way of paradox, analogy, appropriation of ancient sayings, repetition, symmetry, rhyme, and rhythm. In fact, the whole book can be read as an analogy – the ruler is the awareness, or self, in meditation and the myriad creatures or empire is the experience of the body, senses and desires.

The Tao Te Ching, often called simply Laozi after its reputed author, describes the Dao (or Tao) as the source and ideal of all existence: it is unseen, but not transcendent, immensely powerful yet supremely humble, being the root of all things. People have desires and free will (and thus are able to alter their own nature). Many act "unnaturally", upsetting the natural balance of the Dao. The Daodejing intends to lead students to a "return" to their natural state, in harmony with Dao.[37] Language and conventional wisdom are critically assessed. Taoism views them as inherently biased and artificial, widely using paradoxes to sharpen the point.[38]

Livia Kohn provides an example of how Laozi encouraged a change in approach, or return to "nature", rather than action. Technology may bring about a false sense of progress. The answer provided by Laozi is not the rejection of technology, but instead seeking the calm state of wu wei, free from desires. This relates to many statements by Laozi encouraging rulers to keep their people in "ignorance", or "simple-minded". Some scholars insist this explanation ignores the religious context, and others question it as an apologetic of the philosophical coherence of the text. It would not be unusual political advice if Laozi literally intended to tell rulers to keep their people ignorant. However, some terms in the text, such as "valley spirit" (gushen) and "soul" (po), bear a metaphysical context and cannot be easily reconciled with a purely ethical reading of the work.[38]

Wu wei (無爲), literally "non-action" or "not acting", is a central concept of the Daodejing. The concept of wu wei is multifaceted, and reflected in the words' multiple meanings, even in English translation; it can mean "not doing anything", "not forcing", "not acting" in the theatrical sense, "creating nothingness", "acting spontaneously", and "flowing with the moment."[39]

It is a concept used to explain ziran (自然), or harmony with the Dao. It includes the concepts that value distinctions are ideological and seeing ambition of all sorts as originating from the same source. Laozi used the term broadly with simplicity and humility as key virtues, often in contrast to selfish action. On a political level, it means avoiding such circumstances as war, harsh laws and heavy taxes. Some Taoists see a connection between wu wei and esoteric practices, such as zuowang "sitting in oblivion" (emptying the mind of bodily awareness and thought) found in the Zhuangzi.[38]

Some of Laozi's famous sayings include:

"When goodness is lost, it is replaced by morality."

"The usefulness of a pot comes from its emptiness."

"The best people are like water, which benefits all things and does not compete with them. It stays in lowly places that others reject. This is why it is so similar to the Way."

"When people see some things as beautiful, other things become ugly. When people see some things as good, other things become bad."

“Try to change it and you will ruin it. Try to hold it and you will lose it.”

"The more that laws and regulations are given prominence, the more thieves and robbers there will be."
—Laozi, Tao Te Ching

Taoism[edit]

See also: Daoism

Laozi is traditionally regarded as the founder of Taoism, intimately connected with the Daodejing and "primordial" (or "original") Taoism. Popular ("religious") Taoism typically presents the Jade Emperor as the official head deity. Intellectual ("elite") Taoists, such as the Celestial Masters sect, usually present Laozi (Laojun, "Lord Lao") and the Three Pure Ones at the top of the pantheon of deities.[40][41]

Influence[edit]

A stone sculpture of Laozi, located north of Quanzhou at the foot of Mount Qingyuan

Eremitism[edit]

Zhuāngzi (莊子) is a central authority regarding eremitism, a particular variation of monasticism sacrificing social aspects for religious aspects of life. Zhuāngzi considered eremitism the highest ideal, if properly understood.[42]

Scholars such as Aat Vervoorn have postulated that Zhuāngzi advocated a hermit immersed in society. This view of eremitism holds that seclusion is hiding anonymously in society. To a Zhuāngzi hermit, being unknown and drifting freely is a state of mind. This reading is based on the "inner chapters" of the self-titled Zhuangzi.[43]

Scholars such as James Bellamy hold that this could be true and has been interpreted similarly at various points in Chinese history. However, the "outer chapters" of Zhuāngzi have historically played a pivotal role in the advocacy of reclusion. While some scholars state that Laozi was the central figure of Han Dynasty eremitism, historical texts do not seem to support that position.[44]

Politics[edit]

Potential officials throughout Chinese history drew on the authority of non-Confucian sages, especially Laozi and Zhuangzi, to deny serving any ruler at any time. Zhuangzi, Laozi's most famous follower in traditional accounts, had a great deal of influence on Chinese literati and culture.

Political theorists influenced by Laozi have advocated humility in leadership and a restrained approach to statecraft, either for ethical and pacifist reasons, or for tactical ends. In a different context, various anti-authoritarian movements have embraced the Laozi teachings on the power of the weak.[45]

Left-libertarians have been highly influenced by Laozi as well. In his 1937 book Nationalism and Culture, the anarcho-syndicalist writer and activist Rudolf Rocker praised Laozi's "gentle wisdom" and understanding of the opposition between political power and the cultural activities of the people and community.[46] In his 1910 article for the Encyclopedia Britannica, Peter Kropotkin also noted that Laozi was among the earliest exponents of essentially anarchist concepts.[47] More recently, anarchists such as John P. Clark and Ursula K. Le Guin have written about the conjunction between anarchism and Taoism in various ways, highlighting the teachings of Laozi in particular.[48] In her translation of the Tao Te Ching, Le Guin writes that Laozi "does not see political power as magic. He sees rightful power as earned and wrongful power as usurped... He sees sacrifice of self or others as a corruption of power, and power as available to anyone who follows the Way. No wonder anarchists and Taoists make good friends."[49]

The right-libertarian economist Murray Rothbard suggested that Laozi was the first libertarian,[50] likening Laozi's ideas on government to F.A. Hayek's theory of spontaneous order.[51] James A. Dorn agreed, writing that Laozi, like many 18th century liberals, "argued that minimizing the role of government and letting individuals develop spontaneously would best achieve social and economic harmony."[52] Similarly, the Cato Institute's David Boaz includes passages from the Daodejing in his 1997 book The Libertarian Reader.[53] Philosopher Roderick Long, however, argues that libertarian themes in Taoist thought are actually borrowed from earlier Confucian writers.[54]

References[edit]

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Laozi". Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy by Stanford University. "The discovery of two Laozi silk manuscripts at Mawangdui, near Changsha, Hunan province in 1973 marks an important milestone in modern Laozi research. The manuscripts, identified simply as “A” (jia) and “B” (yi), were found in a tomb that was sealed in 168 BCE. The texts themselves can be dated earlier, the “A” manuscript being the older of the two, copied in all likelihood before 195 BCE.

    Until recently, the Mawangdui manuscripts have held the pride of place as the oldest extant manuscripts of the Laozi. In late 1993, the excavation of a tomb (identified as M1) in Guodian, Jingmen city, Hubei province, has yielded among other things some 800 bamboo slips, of which 730 are inscribed, containing over 13,000 Chinese characters. Some of these, amounting to about 2,000 characters, match the Laozi. The tomb...is dated around 300 BCE." 

  2. ^ Kohn (2000, p. 4)
  3. ^ a b c d Baxter, William & al. "Baxter–Sagart Old Chinese Reconstruction". 20 Feb 2011. Accessed 17 Jan 2014.
  4. ^ Luo (2004, p. 118)
  5. ^ Kramer (1986, p. 118)
  6. ^ Kohn (2000, p. 2)Bryce Link
  7. ^ Lau-tzu. Dictionary.com.[1] 2013
  8. ^ Free Dictionary. From the American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition copyright. Houghton Mifflin Company: 2009.[2] 2013
  9. ^ a b c Franz, Alex & al. ed. Google corpus. 2008. Accessed 17 Jan;2014.
  10. ^ Xinhua News Agency. "Pinyin celebrates 50th birthday". 11 Feb 2008. Accessed 20 Sept 2008.
  11. ^ Taipei Times. "Hanyu Pinyin to be standard system in 2009". 18 Sept 2008. Accessed 20 Sept 2008.
  12. ^ Also encountered as Lao Tzu and Lao-Tzu.
  13. ^ Also encountered as Lao Tse and Lao-Tse.
  14. ^ Also encountered as Lao Tze and Lao-Tze.
  15. ^ Also encountered as Lao Tsu and Lao-Tsu.
  16. ^ http://sacu.org/daovirtue.html
  17. ^ Watson (1968, p. 8)
  18. ^ Watts (1975, p. xxiii)
  19. ^ Fowler (2005, p. 96)
  20. ^ Robinet (1997, p. 26)
  21. ^ "Lao Tzu (Lao Zi) Scroll Paintings and Posters". Edepot.com. Retrieved 2013-02-15. 
  22. ^ a b Simpkins & Simpkins (1999, pp. 12–13)
  23. ^ Morgan (2001, pp. 223–224)
  24. ^ Renard (2002, p. 16)
  25. ^ Morgan, Diane (2001), The best guide to eastern philosophy and religion (1st ed.), Los Angeles, Calif.: Renaissance Books, ISBN 978-1580631976 
  26. ^ Kenneth Scott Latourette (1934), The Chinese: their history and culture, Volume 1 (2 ed.), Macmillan, p. 191, retrieved February 2012 8, "[T’ai Tsung]'s family professed descent from Lao Tzu (for the latter's reputed patronymic was likewise Li)" 
  27. ^ Simpkins & Simpkins (1999, p. 12)
  28. ^ Kohn & Lafargue (1998, pp. 14, 17, 54–55)
  29. ^ Morgan (2001, pp. 224–225)
  30. ^ Kohn & Lafargue (1998, p. 55)
  31. ^ Kohn & Lafargue (1998, pp. 55–56)
  32. ^ a b Kohn (2000, pp. 3–4)
  33. ^ Simpkins & Simpkins (1999, pp. 11–12)
  34. ^ Morgan (2001, p. 303)
  35. ^ Simpkins & Simpkins (1999, pp. 11–13)
  36. ^ Morgan (2001, p. 223)
  37. ^ Van Norden & Ivanhoe (2005, p. 162)
  38. ^ a b c Kohn (2000, p. 22)
  39. ^ Watts (1975, pp. 78–86)
  40. ^ Maspero (1981, p. 41)
  41. ^ Robinet (1997, p. 63)
  42. ^ Bellamy (1993, pp. 55–56)
  43. ^ Bellamy (1993, pp. 58–63)
  44. ^ Bellamy (1993, pp. 64, 67)
  45. ^ Roberts (2001, pp. 1–2)
  46. ^ Black Rose Books (1997, pp. 256, 82)
  47. ^ "Britannica: Anarchism". Dwardmac.pitzer.edu. Retrieved 2011-11-14. 
  48. ^ "CLARK, John P. "Master Lao and the Anarchist Prince"". 
  49. ^ Le Guin (2009, p. 20)
  50. ^ Rothbard, Murray (2005). Excerpt from "'Concepts of the Role of Intellectuals in Social Change Toward Laissez Faire,' The Journal of Libertarian Studies, Vol IX No. 2 (Fall 1990)" at mises.org
  51. ^ Rothbard, Murray (2005). "'The Ancient Chinese Libertarian Tradition,' Mises Daily, (December 5, 2005)" (original source unknown) at mises.org
  52. ^ Dorn (2008)
  53. ^ Boaz (1997)
  54. ^ Long (2003)

Bibliography[edit]

  • Ariel, Yoav; Gil, Raz (2010), "Anaphors or Cataphors? A Discussion of the Two qi 其 Graphs in the First Chapter of the Daodejing", PEW, 3 60: 391–421 
  • Bellamy, James A.B. (1993), "Some Proposed Emendations to the Text of the Koran", The Journal of the American Oriental Society, 4 113  – citing work by Aad Vervoorn.
  • Boaz, David (1998), The libertarian reader: classic and contemporary readings from Lao-tzu to Milton Friedman, New York: Free Press, ISBN 0-684-84767-1 
  • Creel, Herrlee G. (1982), What Is Taoism?: and Other Studies in Chinese Cultural History, Chicago: University of Chicago Press, ISBN 0-226-12047-3 
  • Dumoulin, Heinrich (2005), Zen Buddhism: A History (Volume 1: India and China ed.), Bloomington, IN: World Wisdom, ISBN 0-941532-89-5 
  • Dorn, James A. (2008), Hamowy, Ronald, ed., The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism, SAGE, p. 282, ISBN 1-4129-6580-2, retrieved May 12, 2010 
  • Drompp, Michael Robert (2004), Tang China And The Collapse Of The Uighur Empire: A Documentary History, Brill Academic Publishers, p. 366, ISBN 90-04-14096-4 
  • Fowler, Jeaneane (2005), An Introduction To The Philosophy And Religion Of Taoism: Pathways To Immortality, Brighton: Sussex Academic Press, p. 342, ISBN 1-84519-085-8 
  • Kohn, Livia (2000), Daoism Handbook (Handbook of Oriental Studies / Handbuch der Orientalisk – Part 4: China, 14), Boston: Brill Academic Publishers, p. 954, ISBN 90-04-11208-1 
  • Kohn, Livia; Lafargue, Michael, eds. (1998), Lao-Tzu and the Tao-Te-Ching, Albany: State University of New York Press, p. 320, ISBN 0-7914-3599-7 
  • Komjathy, Louis (2008), Handbooks for Daoist Practice, 10 vols., Hong Kong: Yuen Yuen Institute 
  • Kramer, Kenneth (1986), World scriptures: an introduction to comparative religions, New York, NY: Paulist Press, p. 320, ISBN 0-8091-2781-4 
  • Lao, Tzu (2009), Lao-Tzu's Taoteching, Porter, Bill (Red Pine) (3rd Revised ed.), Port Townsend, WA: Copper Canyon Press, p. 200, ISBN 978-1-55659-290-4 
  • Long, Roderick T. (Summer 2003), "Austro-Libertarian Themes in Early Confucianism" (PDF), The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 3 (Ludwig von Mises Institute) 17: 35–62. 
  • Le Guin, Ursula K. (2009), Lao Tzu: Tao Te Ching: A Book about the Way and the Power of the Way, Washington, D.C: Shambhala Publications Inc., p. 192, ISBN 978-1-59030-744-1 
  • Luo, Jing (2004), Over a cup of tea: an introduction to Chinese life and culture, Washington, D.C: University Press of America, p. 254, ISBN 0-7618-2937-7 
  • Maspero, Henri (1981), Taoism and Chinese religion, Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, p. 578, ISBN 0-87023-308-4 
  • Morgan, Diane (2001), The Best Guide to Eastern Philosophy and Religion, New York: St. Martin's Griffin, p. 352, ISBN 1-58063-197-5 
  • Renard, John (2002), 101 Questions and answers on Confucianism, Daoism, and Shinto, New York, NY: Paulist Press, p. 256, ISBN 0-8091-4091-8 
  • Roberts, Moss (2004), Dao De Jing: The Book of the Way, Berkeley: University of California Press, p. 235, ISBN 0-520-24221-1 
  • Robinet, Isabelle (1997), Taoism: Growth of a Religion, Stanford: Stanford University Press, p. 320, ISBN 0-8047-2839-9 
  • Rothbard, Murray N. (December 5, 2005), The Ancient Chinese Libertarian Tradition, Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute 
  • Rothbard, Murray N. (Fall 1990), "Concepts in the Role of Intellectuals in Social Change Towards Laissez Faire" (PDF), The Journal of Libertarian Studies, 2 (Auburn, AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute) IX: 43–67. 
  • Simpkins, Annellen M.; Simpkins, C. Alexander (1999), Simple Taoism: a guide to living in balance (3rd Printing ed.), Boston: Tuttle Publishing, p. 192, ISBN 0-8048-3173-4 
  • Van Norden, Bryan W.; Ivanhoe, Philip J. (2006), Readings in Classical Chinese Philosophy (2nd ed.), Indianapolis, Ind: Hackett Publishing Company, p. 394, ISBN 0-87220-780-3 
  • Watson, Burton (1968), Complete Works of Chuang Tzu, New York: Columbia Univ. Press (UNESCO Collection of Representative Works: Chinese Series), p. 408, ISBN 0-231-03147-5 
  • Watts, Alan; Huan, Al Chung-liang (1975), Tao: The Watercourse Way, New York: Pantheon Books, p. 134, ISBN 0-394-73311-8 

Further reading[edit]

  • Dorn, James A. (2008). "Lao Tzu (c. 600 B.C.)". In Hamowy, Ronald. The Encyclopedia of Libertarianism. Thousand Oaks, CA: SAGE; Cato Institute. pp. 282–3. ISBN 978-1-4129-6580-4. LCCN 2008009151. OCLC 750831024. 
  • Fung, You-lan (1983), A history of Chinese philosophy, Volume 1: The Period of the Philosophers (from the Beginnings to Circa 100 B.C.), Translated by Bodde, Derk, Princeton, N.J: Princeton University Press, p. 492, ISBN 0-691-02021-3 
  • Kaltenmark, Max (1969), Lao Tzu and Taoism, Translated by Greaves, Roger, Stanford, Calif: Stanford University Press, p. 176, ISBN 0-8047-0689-1 
  • Klaus, Hilmar (2008), Das Tao der Weisheit. 3 German translations, English Introduction, many English + German sources (140 pp.) (in German, Chinese, English), Aachen, Germany: Hochschulverlag, p. 548, ISBN 978-3-8107-0032-2 
  • Klaus, Hilmar (2009), The Tao of Wisdom. Laozi – Daodejing. Chinese-English-German. Aachen: Hochschulverlag), Aachen, Germany: Hochschulverlag, p. 600, ISBN 978-3-8107-0055-1 
  • Lao, Tzu (1992), Lao Tzu: Te-Tao Ching – A New Translation Based on the Recently Discovered Ma-wang-tui Texts (Classics of Ancient China), Translated by Henricks, Robert G., New York: Ballantine Books, p. 320, ISBN 0-345-37099-6 
  • Lao, Tzu (1994), The Way and Its Power: Lao Tzu's Tao Te Ching and Its Place in Chinese Thought, UNESCO Collection of Representative Works, Translated by Waley, Arthur, New York: Grove Press, p. 262, ISBN 0-8021-5085-3 
  • Moeller, Hans-Georg (2006), The philosophy of the Daodejing, New York: Columbia University Press, p. 184, ISBN 0-231-13678-1 
  • Peerenboom, R. P. (1993), Law and morality in ancient China: the silk manuscripts of Huang-Lao, S U N Y Series in Chinese Philosophy and Culture, Albany, N.Y.: State University of New York Press, p. 380, ISBN 0-7914-1237-7 

External links[edit]