It is an annual or perennial herbaceous plant growing to 1-1.2 m tall, with hairy stems and clear (not milky) sap. The leaves are spirally arranged; larger leaves at the base of the flowering stem are often pinnate, with a large oval terminal leaflet and one to four small side leaflets, while smaller leaves higher on the stem are simple oval; all leaves have a toothed margin. The flowers are yellow, produced in a capitulum 1-2 cm diameter, the capitula being numerous in loose clusters at the top of the stem.
- Lapsana communis subsp. adenophora (Boiss.) Rech.f. -- Southeast Europe.
- Lapsana communis subsp. alpina (Boiss. & Balansa) P.D.Sell. -- Crimea.
- Lapsana communis subsp. communis. -- Most of Europe, except the southeast. Annual.
- Lapsana communis subsp. grandiflora (M. Bieb.) P.D.Sell. -- Southwest Asia.
- Lapsana communis subsp. intermedia (M. Bieb.) Hayek. -- Southwest Asia, southeast Europe. Perennial.
- Lapsana communis subsp. pisidica (Boiss. & Heldr.) Rech.f. -- Greece.
Cultivation and uses
The young leaves are edible, and can be used in salads or cooked like spinach. The scientific name comes from Lapsane, an edible herb described by Marcus Terentius Varro of ancient Rome. The English name 'Nipplewort' derives from its closed flower buds, which resemble nipples. Because of its resemblance to nipples, under the doctrine of signatures it was once used as treatment for breast ulcers.
Away from its native area, Lapsana communis is naturalised, and sometimes considered an invasive species, in many areas around the world, including Australia, Chile, New Zealand, Greenland, and most of North America.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Lapsana communis.|
- Flora of Northwestern Europe: Lapsana communis
- Blamey, M. & Grey-Wilson, C. (1989). Flora of Britain and Northern Europe. ISBN 0-340-40170-2
- Flora Europaea: [ Lapsana communis]
- Germplasm Resources Information Network: Lapsana communis
- Pak, J.-H. & Bremer, K. (1995). Phylogeny and reclassification of the genus Lapsana (Asteraceae: Lactuceae). Taxon 44: 13–21. Abstract
- Huxley, A, ed. (1992). New RHS Dictionary of Gardening. Macmillan ISBN 0-333-47494-5.
- Plants for a Future: Lapsana communis.
- Parkinson, J. (1640). Theatrum Botanicum; or an Herball of Large Extent.
- Flora of New South Wales: Lapsana communis.
- Flora of Chile: Lapsana communis.
- Flora of New Zealand: Lapsana communis.
- Flora of North America: Lapsana communis.