Largest prehistoric animals

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The largest prehistoric organisms include both vertebrate and invertebrate species. Many are described below, along with their typical range of size (for the general dates of extinction, see the link to each). Many species mentioned might not actually be the largest representative of their clade due to the incompleteness of the fossil record and many of the sizes given are merely estimates since no complete specimen have been found. Especially their body mass is mostly conjecture because soft tissue was rarely fossilized. Generally the size of extinct species was subject to energetic[1] and biomechanical constraints.[2]

Vertebrates[edit]

Mammals (Mammalia)[edit]

Basilosaurus was once recognized as one of the largest known extinct cetaceans at 18 metres (59 ft) in length.[3]

The largest fossil Odontocete ("toothed whale") was the Miocene physeteroid whale Livyatan melvillei which was estimated to be between 13.5 and 17.5 meters in length.[4][5] One notable feature of L. melvillei was its teeth which could exceed 36 cm in length and were unmatched by any other animal, extinct or alive.[6]

However, the largest fossil whales were baleen whales from the Pliocene and Pleistocene Epochs.[7] A notable example is the bones of a Pliocene age baleen whale, assigned the questionable name "Balaenoptera sibbaldina", which likely rivaled the modern blue whale in size.[7]

The largest monotreme (egg-laying mammal) ever was the extinct long-beaked echidna species known as Zaglossus hacketti, known from a couple of bones found in Western Australia. It was the size of a sheep, weighing probably up to 100 kg (220 lb).[citation needed]

The extinct Hippopotamus gorgops is the most massive of the fossil even-toed ungulates.
  • Even-toed ungulates (Artiodactyla)
    • The largest artiodactyl was Hippopotamus gorgops with a length of 4.3 metres (14 feet) and a height of 2.1 metres (6.9 feet). Bison latifrons reached a shoulder height of 2.5 meters (8.2 feet), and had horns that spanned over 2 meters (6.6 feet). The largest extinct bovid is Aurochs (Bos primigenius) with an average height at the shoulders of 155–180 cm (61–71 in) in bulls and 135–155 cm (53–61 in) in cows, while aurochs populations in Hungary had bulls reaching 155–160 cm (61–63 in).[8]
    • The largest camel that ever lived was the Syrian Camel. It was 3 meters (9.8 feet) at the shoulder and 13 feet tall. Gigantocamelus and Titanotylopus from North America, both possibly reached 2,485.6 kg (5,480 lb) and a shoulder height of over 3.4 m (11 ft).[9][10]
    • Daeodon was the largest entelodont that ever lived, at 12 ft long and 7 ft at the shoulder. The largest wild suid to ever exist was Kubanochoerus gigas, having measured up to 550 kg (1,210 lb) and stood more than 1.3 m (4.3 ft) tall at the shoulder.[11]
    • The extinct Irish Elk (Megaloceros giganteus) and the stag-moose (Cervalces scotti) were of similar or of slightly larger size than the Alaskan Moose. However, the Irish Elk could have antlers spanning up to 4.3 m (14 ft) across, about twice the maximum span for a Moose's antlers.[12]
  • Marsupials (Marsupialia)
    • The largest extinct marsupial was Diprotodon, about 3 metres (9.8 ft) long, standing 2 metres (6.6 ft) tall and weighing up to 2,786 kg (6,142 lb).[13]
    • The two largest carnivorous marsupials were the Marsupial Lion and Thylacosmilus (larger than the Tasmanian Tiger), both about 6 ft long (1.8 m) and weighing 100–160 kilograms (220–350 lb). The largest kangaroo ever was Procoptodon, which could grow to 3.0 m (10 ft) and weigh 230 kilograms (510 lb).[14] Some species from the genus Sthenurus were similar in size as well.
  • Carnivores (Carnivora)
    • The largest terrestrial carnivoran and the largest bear as well as the largest mammalian land-predator of all time was Arctotherium angustidens of the genus Arctotherium or the South American short-faced bears. A humerus of A. angustidens from Buenos Aires indicate that the big males of this species would have weighted 1,588- 1,749 kg and standing at least 11 feet (3.4 meters) tall on the hind-limbs.[15]
    • The largest viverrid known to have existed is Viverra leakeyi, which was around the size of a wolf or small leopard at 41 kg (90 lb).[16]
    • The heaviest felid ever was the saber-toothed cat Smilodon populator, weighing on average between 360– 470 kg while the ngangdong tiger (Panthera tigris acutidens) was the longest ever,[citation needed] with a total length of 4 m (13 ft 1 in) and standing 1.2 metres (4 ft) at the shoulder.[17] The largest wolf is the Dire Wolf (Canis dirus) 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in length and weighed between 50 kg (110 lb) and 79 kg (174 lb).[18][19] The largest canid of all time was Epicyon haydeni, which stood 37 inches tall (0.9 meters) at the shoulder. The largest bear-dog was a species of Pseudocyon weighing around 773 kg, representing a very large individual.[20]
    • The largest mustelid to ever exist was likely the odd cat-like Ekorus from Africa, about the size of a leopard and filling a similar ecological niche before big cats came to the continent. Another contender for largest of this family is the wolverine-like Megalictis, which according to older estimates could have reached the size af a black bear. Newer estimates, however, significantly downgrade its size, although, at a maximum weight more than twice that of a wolverine, it is larger than most (if not all) living mustelids.

The largest fossil hyena is the lion-sized Pachycrocuta, estimated at 200 kg (440 lb).[21]

  • Armadillos, glyptodonts and pampatheres (Cingulata)

The largest cingulate known is Doedicurus, at 4 meters long. (13 ft).[citation needed] Glyptodon easily topped 3.3 m (11 ft) and 2 tonnes (4,400 lb).

The largest creature of this group was Deinogalerix,[22] measuring up to 60 cm in total length, with a skull up to 20 cm long. It occupied the same ecological niche as dogs and cats today.

The largest prehistoric lagomorph is Minorcan Giant Lagomorph (Nuralagus rex) at 23 kg (50 lbs).

The largest land mammal of all time was Indricotherium

The largest cimolestid is Coryphodon, 1 metre (3.3 ft) high at the shoulder and 2.25 metres (7.4 ft) long.

  • Odd-toed ungulates (Perissodactyla)
    • The largest perissodactyl, and land mammal, of all time was Indricotherium. The largest individual known was estimated at 4.8 m (16 ft) tall at the shoulders, 8.0 m (26.2 ft) in length from nose to rump, and 16 t (18 tons) in weight.[23]
    • Some prehistoric horned rhinos also grew to large sizes. The giant woolly rhino Elasmotherium reached 20 ft long and 6.6 ft high.
  • Anteaters and sloths (Pilosa)
  • Primates (Primata)
    • The largest primate of all time was Gigantopithecus blackii, standing 3 m tall (10 ft) and weighing 540 kilograms (1,200 lb).[24][25]
    • The largest old world monkey, the prehistoric baboon Dinopithecus grew even larger than modern Mandrills, weighing as much as a grown man.
    • Some prehistoric prosimians grew to huge sizes as well. Archaeoindris was a 1.5 meter long lemur that lived in Madagascar and weighed 200 kg, more than a silverback gorilla. Megaladapis is another large extinct lemur at 1.3 to 1.5 m (4.3 to 4.9 ft) in length.
Mounted Deinotherium skeleton.
  • Elephants, mammoths, and mastodons (Proboscidea)
  • Rodents (Rodentia)
    • Josephoartigasia monesi was the largest rodent of all time, approximately 3 metres (9.8 feet) long and 1.5 metres (4.9 feet) tall and weighing an estimated 1 tonne.[27]
    • Before the discovery of Josephoartigasia monesi, another giant rodent was known, Phoberomys insolita, but it was known from only a few fragments, so its real size is unknown. A slightly smaller relative, Phoberomys pattersoni, was found, which was 3 m long (10 ft) and weighed 320 kilograms (700 lb).
    • The largest beavers Giant Beaver of North America. It grew over 8 ft (2.4 m) in length and weighed roughly 60 to 100 kg (130 to 220 lb), also making it one of the largest rodents to ever exist.
  • Astrapotherians (Astrapotheria)

The largest astrapotherians had an elongated body, with a total length of about 2.5 metres (8.2 ft),

The largest arsinoithere was Arsinoitherium. When alive, it would have been 1.8 m (5.9 ft) tall at the shoulders, and 3 m (9.8 ft) long.

The largest condylarths of is Phenacodus. It was 1.5 m (4.9 ft) long and weighted up to 56 kg,

The largest dinoceratan was Uintatherium. It was about the size of a rhinoceros. Despite its large size, it had a brain only about as large as an orange.

The largest desmostylian was Desmostylus at 1.8 metres long (6 ft) and weighing about 200 kilograms (440 pounds).

The largest litoptern was Macrauchenia, which had three hoofs per foot. It was a relatively large animal, with a body length of around 3 m (9.8 ft).[28]

The largest notoungulate was Toxodon. It was about 2.7 metres (8.9 feet) in body length, and about 1.5 metres (4.9 feet) high at the shoulder and resembled a heavy rhinoceros.

The largest creodont and oxyaenid was Sarkastodon weighting at 800 kg. The largest hyaenodontid was Megistotherium at 500 kg.[29]

The largest mesonychid was Andrewsarchus mongoliensis. It is known only from one skull which was 83 cm (33 in) long and 56 cm (22 in) wide.[30]

Non-mammal synapsids (Synapsida)[edit]

Anteosaurus overviewing the landscape

The plant-eating pelycosaur Cotylorhynchus probably was the largest of all non-mammal synapsids, at 20 feet (6.1 meters) and 2 tonnes. Among the largest carnivorous synapsids were the therapsids Anteosaurus, which was 5–6 meters long, and weighed 500–600 kg, and Ivantosaurus, with a length of 20 feet (6.1 meters).

Moschops was the largest therapsid, with a weight of 700–1000 kg, and a length of about 5 meters.

Reptiles (Reptilia)[edit]

Megalania skeletal reconstruction on Melbourne Museum steps.
  • Crocodilians (Crocodilia)
    • The largest known crocodilian is likely Sarcosuchus imperator at 12 metres (39 ft) long and weighing 8 tonnes.[31]
    • Some close contenders in size are Deinosuchus estimated at around 12 metres (39 ft),[32] and Purussaurus estimated at 11–13 metres (36–43 ft) in length.[33] Another large crocodilian is Rhamphosuchus, estimated at 8–11 metres (26–36 ft) in length.[34]
    • The largest terrestrial sebecid crocodilian is Barinasuchus, from the Miocene of South America, which reached 9 m (30 ft) long.
    • The largest known rauisuchian is Fasolasuchus tenax, which measured an estimated 8–10 metres. It is both the largest rauisuchian known to science, and the largest non-dinosaurian terrestrial predator ever discovered.
    • The largest known prehistoric snake is Titanoboa cerrejonensis, estimated at 13–15 metres (43–49 ft) in length and 1135 kg - 1819 kg in weight.[39] Another known very large fossil snake is Gigantophis garstini, estimated at around 10–11.6 metres (33–38 ft) in length.[40][41] However, a close rival in size to Gigantophis is a fossil snake, Palaeophis colossaeus, which may have been around 9 metres (30 ft) in length.[39][42]

The longest plesiosauroid was Elasmosaurus at 14 metres (46 feet) long.

There is much controversy over the largest of these reptiles. Fossil remains of a pliosaur nicknamed as Predator X have been discovered and excavated from Norway in 2008. This pliosaur has been estimated at 15 metres (49 ft) in length and 45 metric tons (50 short tons) in weight.[45][46] However, in 2002, a team of paleontologists in Mexico discovered the remains of a pliosaur nicknamed as Monster of Aramberri, which is also estimated at 15 metres (49 ft) in length.[47] This specimen is however claimed to be a juvenile and has been attacked by a larger pliosaur.[48] Some media sources claimed that Monster of Aramberri was a Liopleurodon but its species is unconfirmed thus far.[47] Another very large pliosaur was Pliosaurus macromerus, known from a single 2.8 m long incomplete mandible. It may have reached 18 metres (59 ft), assuming the skull was about 17% of the total body length.[49]

The largest ichthyosaur was Shastasaurus sikanniensis at 21 metres (69 ft) in length.[50]

The largest is Scutosaurus, up to 3 metres (9.8 ft) in length, with bony armor, and a number of spikes decorating its skull.

The largest of this order is Redondasaurus, who attained a length of 10–12 metres (33–39 ft)

  • Pterosaurs (Pterosauria)
    • The largest pterosaur was Quetzalcoatlus northropi, at 127 kg (280 lb) and with a wingspan of 12 m (39 ft). Another close contender is Hatzegopteryx, also with a wingspan of 12 m (this estimate is based on a skull 3 m long (10 ft).[56]
    • Yet another possible contender for the title is Ornithocheirus, which allegedly had a 12-meter (39-foot) wingspan. However, specimen of this size have not been formally described in the literature.

Non-avian dinosaurs (Dinosauria)[edit]

Size comparison of selected giant sauropod dinosaurs.
Main article: Dinosaur size
The largest ornithopods.
Size comparison of selected giant theropod dinosaurs
The largest thyreophoran was Ankylosaurus at 9 metres (30 ft) in length and 6 tonnes in weight.[61][62] Stegosaurus was also 9 meters (30 feet) long but around 5 tonnes in weight.[citation needed]

Birds (Aves)[edit]

The largest birds of all time might have been the elephant birds of Madagascar. Of almost the same size was the Australian Dromornis stirtoni. Both were about 3 m tall (10 ft). The elephant birds were up to 400 kg and Dromornis stirtoni was up to 500 kg in weight. The tallest bird ever was the Giant Moa (Dinornis maximus) at 3.6 m (12 ft) tall.

The largest flight-capable bird was Argentavis magnificens which a wingspan of 8.3 m (27 ft), and a body weight of 110 kg (240 lb).

The largest waterfowl of all time belonged to the Dromornithidae (e.g. Dromornis stirtoni).[66]

The largest shorebird of all time was the Great Auk (Pinguinus impennis) at 5 kg (11 lb) in weight and 75–85 cm (30–33 in) in length.

The largest of Ciconiiformes was Leptoptilos robustus, standing 1.8 metres (5.9 ft) tall and weighing an estimated 16 kilograms (35 lb).[67][68]

The largest falconiform and the largest flying bird presently known was Argentavis magnificens. The immense bird had wingspan estimated up to 8.3 m (27 ft) and a weight up to 110 kg (240 lb). It was as high as an adult human when standing.

The largest pigeon ever was the Dodo (Raphus cucullatus), weighing 23 kg (51 lb) and standing 1 m (3.3 ft) tall. Rodrigues solitaire (Pezophaps solitaria), a brown, long-necked birds that were superficially ratite-like. All three species may have exceeded 1 m (3.3 ft) in height. All were carelessly hunted it into extinction by humans and introduced animals. The Dodo is the most frequently crowned as the largest ever pigeon, as it could have weighed as much as 28 kg (62 lb), although recent estimates have indicated that an average wild Dodo would have weighed around 10.2 kg (22 lb), scarcely larger than a male turkey.[69][70] If Dodos were this light, the Rodrigues solitaire may have been larger. Some estimates claim tha solitaire was merely swan-sized but others estimate weights of up to 27.8 kg (61 lb).[71][72]

The largest of the hesperornithines was Canadaga arctica at 5 ft long.

The largest diatryma was Gastornis 1.75 metres (5.7 feet) tall, with large individuals up to 2 m (6.6 ft) tall.

The largest teratorn and the largest flying bird ever was Argentavis, with a weight of 80 kilograms (180 lb).

The largest ever gruiform and largest phorusrhacid or "terror bird" (highly predatory, flightless birds of South America) was Brontornis, which was about 175 cm tall at the shoulder, could raise its head 2,8 metres above the ground an could have weighed as uch as 400 kg.[73] The immense phorushacid Kelenken with a skull 28 inches (71 cm) long (18 inches of which was beak), had the largest head of any known bird.The largest is Titanis it is about 2.5m. tall,as tall as a forest elephant.

The largest bird of prey ever was the enormous Haast's eagle (Harpagornis moorei), with a wingspan of 2.6 to 3 m (8.5 to 9.8 ft), relatively short for their size. Total length was probably up to 1.4 m (4.6 ft) in female and they weighed about 10 to 15 kg (22 to 33 Ib). the largest extinct Titanohierax was a giant hawk about 8 kilograms that lived in the Antilles, where it was among the top predator.

Haast's eagle, the largest bird of prey, attacking moa

The largest in this group was a giant flightless Sylviornis, a bird 1.70 m (5.6 ft) long and weighing up to about 30 kg (66 lb).

The largest songbird is the extinct Giant Grosbeak (Chloridops regiskongi) at 11 inches (28 cm) long.

The largest cormorants Spectacled Cormorant of the North Pacific (Phalacrocorax perspicillatus), which went extinct around 1850, was larger still, averaging around 6.4 kg (14 lb) and 1.15 m (3.8 ft).[74]

The largest in this group – which has been variously allied with Procellariiformes, Pelecaniformes and Anseriformes – and the largest flying birds of all time other than Argentavis were the huge Cyphornis, Dasornis, Gigantornis and Osteodontornis. They had a wingspan of 5.5–6 m (18–20 ft) and stood about 1.2 meters (3.9 feet) tall. Exact size estimates and judging which one was largest are not yet possible for these birds, as their bones were extremely thin-walled, light and fragile, and thus most are only known from very incomplete remains.

The largest woodpecker is the possibly extinct Imperial Woodpecker (Campephilus imperialis) with a total length of about 22 inches (50 centimeters). The largest woodpecker confirmed to be extant is the Great Slaty Woodpecker (Mulleripicus pulverulentus).

The largest parrot is the extinct Norfolk Island Kaka (Nestor productus), about 38 cm long.

The largest penguin of all time was Anthropornis nordenskjoeldi of New Zealand and Antarctica. It stood 1.7 meters (5 feet 7 inches) in height and was 90 kilograms (200 pounds) in weight. Similar in size were the New Zealand Giant Penguin (Pachydyptes pondeorsus) with a height of 1.4 to 1.6 m (4.6 to 5.2 ft) and weighing around 80 to possibly over 100 kg, and Icadyptes salasi at 1.5 m (4.9 ft) tall.

The largest owl of all time was the Cuban Ornimegalonyx at 43.3 inches tall probably exceeding 9 kg (20 lb).[75]

Amphibians (Amphibia)[edit]

The largest amphibian of all time was the 30 ft long temnospondyli Prionosuchus. Another huge temnospondyli was Koolasuchus at 16 ft long, but only 1 ft high.

The largest frog ever was the 16-inch-long (41 cm) Beelzebufo ampinga, weighing 10 pounds (4.5 kg)

  • Diadectomorpha

The largest diacectid, Diadectes, was a heavily built animal, 1.5 to 3 meters long, with thick vertebrae and ribs.

  • Anthracosauria

The largest anthracosaur was Anthracosaurus, a predator. It could reach up to 12 feet in length. Eogyrinus commonly reached 4.6 metres (15 ft), however, it was more lightly built.[76]

Bony fish (Osteichthyes)[edit]

The largest placoderm was the 9 metres (30 ft) long Dunkleosteus. Its relative, Titanichthys, may have rivaled it in size. These particular animals may have reached lengths of 10 m (33 ft) and are estimated to have weighed in at 3.6 tonnes.

The largest of these was the 5 metres (16 ft) long Hyneria.

The largest bony fish of all time was the pachycormid, Leedsichthys problematicus, at around 27 metres (89 ft) long.[77] Claims of larger individuals persist.

The largest of ichthyodectid fish was the 6.0 metres (19.7 ft) long Xiphactinus .

Cartilaginous fish (Chondrichthyes)[edit]

Megalodon (grey/red) with the whale shark (purple), great white shark (green), and human (black) for scale.

An extinct megatoothed shark, C. megalodon is by far the biggest shark known.[78] This giant shark reached a total length of more than 16 metres (52 ft).[79][80] C. megalodon may have approached a maximum of 20.3 metres (67 ft) in total length and 103 metric tons (114 short tons) in mass.[81]

The largest symmoriid is Stethacanthus at 70 centimetres (2.3 ft) long.

The largest eugenedont is Helicoprion at 7.5 metres (25 ft) long.

The largest hydontiformid is Ptychodus was about 32 feet long (10 meters).

Arthropods (Arthropoda)[edit]

Dinocaridida[edit]

The largest known is Anomalocaris at 2 meters long.

Chelicerata[edit]

The largest in this group was Jaekelopterus rhenaniae at 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) in length. A close contender was Pterygotus at 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) in length.

There are two contenders for largest ever arachnid: Pulmonoscorpius kirktonensis and Brontoscorpio anglicus. Both were 1 metre (3.3 ft). The biggest difference is that Brontoscorpio was aquatic, and Pulmonoscorpius was terrestrial. Brontoscorpio is not to be confused with various Eurypterids: it was a true scorpion with a stinger.

Myriapoda[edit]

  • The largest known myriapod by far was the giant Arthropleura. Measuring 2.5 metres (8.2 ft) and 45 centimetres (18 in) wide, it was the largest terrestrial arthropod of all time.

Trilobitomorpha[edit]

Some of these extinct marine arthropods exceeded 60 centimetres (24 in) in length. A nearly complete specimen of Isotelus rex from Manitoba attained a length over 70 centimetres (28 in), and an Ogyginus forteyi from Portugal was almost as long. Fragments of trilobites suggest even larger record sizes. An isolated pygidium of Hungioides bohemicus implies that the full animal was 90 centimetres (35 in) long.[82]

Insects (Insecta)[edit]

The largest of this group was the giant ant Titanomyrma giganteum at 3 centimetres (1.2 in), with queens growing to 6 centimetres (2.4 in). It had a wingspan of 15 centimetres (5.9 in).[83]

  • Protodonata

The largest in this group was probably Meganeura with a wingspan of 75 centimetres (2.46 ft).[84] Another enormous and possibly larger species was Meganeuropsis permiana.

  • Siphonaptera

The largest in this group was probably Saurophthirus, growing to 1 inch (2.5 cm) in length. It possibly sucked the blood of pterosaurs.

  • Palaeodictyoptera

The largest of this order was Mazothairos, with a wingspan of up to 22 inches (56 cm).

  • Dictyoptera

Several cockroach-like stem dictyopterans from the Carboniferous Period grew to exceptional size. A specimen of Xenoblatta from Ohio was at least 70 mm long, almost the size of the largest cockroach living today.[85][86]

Molluscs (Mollusca)[edit]

Gastropods (Gastropoda)[edit]

The largest of this group were in the genus Campanile, with the extinct Campanile giganteum having shell lengths up to 60 centimetres (24 in).

Bivalves (Bivalvia)[edit]

The largest bivalve ever was Platyceramus platinus, a giant that usually had an axial length of 1 metre (3.3 ft), but some individuals could reach an axial length of up to 3 metres (9.8 ft).

Cephalopods (Cephalopoda)[edit]

Main article: Cephalopod size

The largest ammonite was Parapuzosia seppenradensis. A partial fossil specimen found in Germany had a shell diameter of 1.95 metres (6.4 ft), but the living chamber was incomplete, so the estimated shell diameter was probably about 2.55 metres (8.4 ft) when it was alive.

The largest belemnite was Megateuthis gigantea with a guard of 46 centimetres (18 in) in length and an estimated total length 3 metres (9.8 ft) long.

The longest and largest of this group was Cameroceras with a shell length of 9 metres (30 ft).[87]

  • Neocoleoidea

Both Tusoteuthis and Yezoteuthis are estimated to be similar in size to the modern day giant squid.[88]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  8. ^ René Kysely: "Aurochs and potential crossbreeding with domestic cattle in Central Europe in the Eneolithic period. A metric analysis of bones from the archaeological site of Kutná Hora-Denemark (Czech Republic)", Anthropozoologica, 43(2), 2008.
  9. ^ Giant Camel Disappeared Species. Intechinc.com (2011-07-05)
  10. ^ Mendoza, M.; Janis, C. M.; Palmqvist, P. (2006). "Estimating the body mass of extinct ungulates: a study on the use of multiple regression". Journal of Zoology 270 (1): 90–101. 
  11. ^ Teeth: Kubanochoerus gigas lii (GUAN). tesorosnaturales.es
  12. ^ David Petersen. Of Moose, Megaloceros and Miracles. Motherearthnews.com (1989-03-01)
  13. ^ Ice Age Marsupial Topped Three Tons, Scientists Say, 2003-09-17. Retrieved 2003-09-17.
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  15. ^ Dell'Amore, C. (2011): Biggest Bear Ever Found, National Geographic News, Published February 3, 2011
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  17. ^ Paul S Martin (1984). Quaternary Extinctions. The University of Arizona Press. ISBN 0-8165-1100-4. 
  18. ^ "Wolves, Coyotes, and Dogs (Genus Canis)". Museum.state.il.us. Retrieved 2011-10-23. 
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  20. ^ http://www.app.pan.pl/archive/published/app56/app20100005.pdf
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