Larkhill

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Not to be confused with Larkhall.

Coordinates: 51°11′53″N 1°48′47″W / 51.198°N 1.813°W / 51.198; -1.813

Larkhill
Larkhill Hangers.jpg
The BCAC hangars at Larkhill, the remains of the first military aerodrome in Britain
Larkhill is located in Wiltshire
Larkhill
Larkhill
 Larkhill shown within Wiltshire
Population 2,187 (2001 census)[1]
OS grid reference SU131443
Civil parish Durrington
Shire county Wiltshire
Region South West
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town SALISBURY
Postcode district SP4
Dialling code 01980
Police Wiltshire
Fire Wiltshire
Ambulance Great Western
EU Parliament South West England
List of places
UK
England
Wiltshire

Larkhill is a garrison town in the civil parish of Durrington, Wiltshire, England. It is 800 yards (730 metres) west of Durrington village proper and 1 mi (1.6 km) north of the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge. It is about 10 mi (16 km) north of Salisbury.

The settlement has a long association with the British military and originally grew from military camps. It is now one of the main garrisons on Salisbury Plain, along with Tidworth, Bulford Camp and Warminster.

Etymology[edit]

Before the military garrison was established the area was known as Lark Hill, part of Durrington Down, owing to it being the highest point in the parish.[2] After the first military buildings were established, it came to be known as Larkhill Camp.[3]

History[edit]

Much of Larkhill sits within the Stonehenge World Heritage Site, an area rich in Neolithic and Bronze Age monuments. Several long barrows and round barrow groups are located within the settlement. Robin Hood's Ball, the Stonehenge Cursus and the Lesser Cursus lie close to the garrison.

The first modern settlement came in 1899 when a tented camp was established for units training on an area of Salisbury Plain that became known as Larkhill range. Units were accommodated in large official campsite areas whilst training throughout the summer.[4][5] As Larkhill range was specifically set aside for artillery practice, many of the units were artillery batteries. In 1914, the first permanent huts were built on the down.[5]

During World War I, 34 battalion sized hutted garrisons were built for use by all different types of military forces. A light military railway line was built from the established Amesbury–Bulford line, to carry troops to Larkhill and on to an aerodrome at Stonehenge.[6] After the war, the garrison became an artillery domain and in 1919 the Royal School of Artillery was established there.[5] The light railway was lifted and Stonehenge Aerodrome was closed. However, several other new facilities were established in the interwar years, including a military hospital, married quarters at Strangways, a NAAFI service and military churches. The famed British Ordnance QF 25 pounder was developed by the school of artillery shortly before the outbreak of the Second World War.[5] During World War II, the garrison was extended again, although primarily for artillery units. The 21st Independent Parachute Company of the 1st Airborne Division was also formed there.[7]

After WWII, many of the hutted buildings were replaced with modern structures. The Royal School of Artillery’s garrison was rebuilt and permanently established at the site. A new event was started in 1962 to showcase the military’s artillery technology — originally named Larkhill Day, it evolved into Artillery Day in 1970.[8]

Military flying[edit]

In 1909, a flying enthusiast called Horatio Barber rented a small piece of land in Larkhill. He built a shed to house his new aeroplane, and was soon joined by more enthusiasts. Among these were George Bertram Cockburn,[9] a pioneer aviator, and Captain John Fulton who served with an artillery brigade, and it was partly as a result of their interest that the War Office quickly realised the importance of aircraft and founded the first army aerodrome in Larkhill in 1910.[10][11] Several more huts were built and a three bay hangar was constructed by the British and Colonial Aeroplane Company, a forerunner of British Aerospace. In 1911, No 2 Company of the Air Battalion Royal Engineers was established at Larkhill, the first flying unit of the armed forces to use aeroplanes as opposed to balloons. This evolved into No. 3 Squadron, Royal Flying Corps in May 1912, the first RFC squadron to use aeroplanes.[12]

In August 1912 the first Military Aeroplane Trials were held at Larkhill aerodrome.[13] Several aeroplanes including the Avro Type G and the Bristol Gordon England biplane were entered. The competition was won by Samuel Franklin Cody in his Cody V aircraft.[14] 1912 also saw the first fatal air crash in the RFC. Captain Eustace Loraine and his observer, Staff-Sergeant R.H.V. Wilson were killed when they crashed west of Stonehenge after flying out of Larkhill aerodrome in July of that year.

Memorial to Capt Loraine and Staff-Sgt Wilson, killed 1912, outside the Stonehenge Visitors' Centre (Dec 2013)

The aerodrome was closed in 1914 when the hutted garrisons were built over the airstrip. The original BCAC hangar can be found on the corner of Woods Road and Fargo Road and is the oldest surviving military aerodrome building in the UK. It was given Grade II* listed building status in 2005.[15][16]

Future developments[edit]

Larkhill has been earmarked as part of a future ‘Super-Garrison’ to be established around Salisbury Plain which could see a substantially larger military presence in the area.[17][18] Several sites in or near Larkhill were also suggested for the new Stonehenge visitors' centre. The new Stonehenge Visitors' centre was eventually built at Airman's Cross, by the junction of the A360 and the old A344, south west of Larkhill. It opened in December 2013.

In popular culture[edit]

The comic book V for Vendetta (and its movie adaptation) featured a fictional detention centre at Larkhill. Alan Moore stated in the notes to V for Vendetta that he chose Larkhill because of the obvious military connections, but also because of a particularly unpleasant hitchhiking trip that he had around the area.[19]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Citations[edit]

  1. ^ City Population
  2. ^ Crowley 1995, p.175
  3. ^ Crowley 1995, p.184
  4. ^ James 1987, p.123
  5. ^ a b c d Clarke-Smith 1969
  6. ^ James 1987, p.125
  7. ^ James 1987, p.140
  8. ^ James 1987, p.139
  9. ^ The Old Flying Days Turner ,Charles Cyril, (1972), page 200, Arno Press, ISBN 0-405-03783-X,
  10. ^ James 1987, p.163
  11. ^ Aviation on Salisbury Plain
  12. ^ James 1987, p.165
  13. ^ James 1987, p.166
  14. ^ Hampshire County Council. "Cody’s Kites and Flying Machines". Aldershot Military Museum. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  15. ^ Prudames, David. "Historic First & Second World War Airfields granted listed status". 24 Hour Museum. Retrieved 2008-10-25. 
  16. ^ English Heritage. "Buildings 455 and 456 (Five Aircraft Hangars), Durrington Camp  (Grade II*) (1391475)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 1 October 2012. 
  17. ^ MoD, Army. "HQ Organisations and functions". MoD. Retrieved 2008-10-25. [dead link]
  18. ^ Wynn, Peter. "MOD buys back ABRO site from the Agency". South West DRA. Retrieved 2008-10-25. [dead link]
  19. ^ Moore, Alan; Lloyd, David (2005). V for Vendetta. London: Titan Books. p. 274. ISBN 1-84576-182-0. 

Bibliography[edit]

External links[edit]