Larry Sanger

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Larry Sanger
L Sanger.jpg
Sanger in July 2006
Born Lawrence Mark Sanger
(1968-07-16) July 16, 1968 (age 46)
Bellevue, Washington, U.S.
Alma mater Reed College (BA)
Ohio State University (MA, PhD)
Occupation Internet Project Developer
Website
LarrySanger.org

Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger (born July 16, 1968[1]) is an American Internet project developer, co-founder of Wikipedia, and the founder of Citizendium.[2][3][4] He grew up in Anchorage, Alaska.[3] From an early age he has been interested in philosophy.[5] Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from Reed College in 1991 and a Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000.[6] Most of his philosophical work has focused on epistemology, the theory of knowledge.[5]

He has been involved with various online encyclopedia projects.[7] He is the former editor-in-chief of Nupedia,[8] chief organizer (2001–02) of its successor, Wikipedia,[9] and founding editor-in-chief of Citizendium.[10] From his position at Nupedia, he assembled the process for article development.[11] Sanger proposed implementing a wiki, which led directly to the creation of Wikipedia.[12] Initially Wikipedia was a complementary project for Nupedia.[12] He was Wikipedia's early community leader[13] and established many of its original policies.[14]

Sanger left Wikipedia in 2002, and has since been critical of the project.[15][16] He states that, despite its merits, Wikipedia lacks credibility due to, among other things, a lack of respect for expertise.[17] In October 2006, Sanger started a somewhat similar encyclopedia to Wikipedia, Citizendium.[18] The size of Citizendium's audience is much smaller than Wikipedia's.[18] The site has fewer than 100 contributors.[19]

Sanger has taught philosophy at Ohio State University[5] and was an early strategist for the expert-authored Encyclopedia of Earth.[20] He has worked on developing educational projects for individuals behind WatchKnowLearn.[21] He has designed a web-based reading program named Reading Bear which aims to teach children how to read.[22]

Early life and education[edit]

Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington. When he was seven years old, the family moved to Anchorage, Alaska.[3][23] His father was a marine biologist and his mother cared for the children.[24] At an early age, he was interested in philosophical topics.[5][25]

He graduated from high school in 1986 and went off to Reed College, majoring in philosophy.[25] In college he became interested in the Internet and its publishing abilities.[5] He set up a listserver as a medium for students and tutors to meet up for "expert tutoring" and "to act as a forum for discussion of tutorials, tutorial methods, and the possibility and merits of a voluntary, free network of individual tutors and students finding each other via the Internet for education outside the traditional university setting."[26] He started and moderated a philosophy discussion list, the Association for Systematic Philosophy.[27] Sanger wrote in 1994 a manifesto for the discussion group:

The history of philosophy is full of disagreement and confusion. One reaction by philosophers to this state of things is to doubt whether the truth about philosophy can ever be known, or whether there is any such thing as the truth about philosophy. But there is another reaction: one may set out to think more carefully and methodically than one's intellectual forebears.[23]

Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts degree in philosophy from Reed College in 1991, a Master of Arts from Ohio State University in 1995, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000.[6] Beginning in 1998 he ran a website called "Sanger's Review of Y2K News Reports", a resource for those concerned about the year 2000 problem, such as managers of computer systems.[12]

Philosophy[edit]

In 2007, Sanger examined the possibilities for education online. He explained, "Imagine that education were not delivered but organized and managed in a way that were fully digitized, decentralized, self-directed, asynchronous, and at-a-distance." He further stated, "There would be no bureaucracy to enforce anything beyond some very basic rules, and decision-making would be placed almost entirely in the hands of teachers and students."[28]

In 2007, Sanger wrote an essay for the Edge stating in part:

As it turns out, our many Web 2.0 revolutionaries have been so thoroughly seized with the successes of strong collaboration that they are resistant to recognizing some hard truths. As wonderful as it might be that the hegemony of professionals over knowledge is lessening, there is a downside: our grasp of and respect for reliable information suffers. With the rejection of professionalism has come a widespread rejection of expertise—of the proper role in society of people who make it their life's work to know stuff. This, I maintain, is not a positive development; but it is also not a necessary one. We can imagine a Web 2.0 with experts. We can imagine an Internet that is still egalitarian, but which is more open and welcoming to specialists. The new politics of knowledge that I advocate would place experts at the head of the table, but—unlike the old order—gives the general public a place at the table as well.[29]

In 2008, Sanger was at Oxford University to debate the proposition that "the internet is the future of knowledge." Sanger agreed that today's wikis and blogs are fundamentally changing the way knowledge is created and distributed.[30]

In 2010, Sanger wrote an article for Educause stating in part:

In the last several years, many observers of education and learning have been stunned by the abundance of information online, the ever-faster findability of answers, and the productivity of online 'crowds,' which have created information resources like Wikipedia and YouTube. The enormous scope of these developments has surprised me too, despite the fact that they are more or less what many of us had hoped for and deliberately tried to bring into being. These sudden, revolutionary developments demand analysis: How is this latest information explosion changing the way we live? Is the relationship between society and individual changing? More to the point for this article, how is the Internet revolution changing education?[31]

Nupedia and Wikipedia[edit]

Further information: History of Wikipedia
The Bomis staff, summer 2000
The Bomis staff in the summer of 2000. Sanger is second from the left in the front row seated.
Nupedia's logo

Nupedia was a Web-based encyclopedia whose articles, written by volunteer contributors possessing relevant subject matter expertise and reviewed by editors prior to publication, would be licensed as free content.[11][32] It was co-founded by Jimmy Wales and underwritten by Bomis, with Sanger hired as editor-in-chief.[33][34] In February 2000, Sanger began to oversee Nupedia.[24] He developed a review process for articles and recruited editors.[11] Articles were reviewed through Nupedia's e-mail system before being posted on the site.[35] With Wales and Sanger frustrated at the slow progress of Nupedia,[36] in January 2001, Sanger proposed a wiki be created to spur article development, and the result of this proposal was Wikipedia,[12][37] officially launched on January 15, 2001.[38][39] It was initially intended as a collaborative wiki for the public to write entries that would then be fed into the Nupedia review process of expertise,[12] but the majority of Nupedia's experts wanted little to do with this project.[12] Originally, Bomis planned to make Wikipedia profitable.[40]

Shortly after a blank wiki was set up Sanger wrote the initial pages and promoted the site.[41] To the surprise of Sanger and Wales, within a few days of launching, Wikipedia had outgrown Nupedia, and a small community of editors gathered.[12] By virtue of his position with Nupedia, Sanger ran the project, and formulated much of the original policy, including "Ignore all rules", "Neutral point of view", and "Verifiability".[14] Wikipedia quickly took off, but just months after it was launched, things started to go off the rails, Sanger says, and by the summer of 2001 the new online community was being "overrun" by what he described as "trolls" and "anarchist-types", who were "opposed to the idea that anyone should have any kind of authority that others do not".[42] Sanger responded by proposing a stronger emphasis for expert editors, individuals with the authority to resolve disputes and enforce the rules.[42]

Tired of endless content battles and feeling he had a lack of support from Wales, Sanger eventually left the project.[42] Sanger was the only paid editor of Wikipedia,[7] a status he held from January 15, 2001, until March 1, 2002. In early 2002 Bomis announced plans to sell advertising on Wikipedia in part to pay for Sanger's job, but the project was against any commercialization.[43] Sanger worked on and promoted both the Nupedia and Wikipedia projects until Bomis discontinued funding for his position in February 2002 after the collapse in Internet advertising spending;[44][45] Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as chief organizer of Wikipedia on March 1.[44] Sanger's stated reason for ending his participation in Wikipedia and Nupedia as a volunteer was that he could not do justice to the task as a part-time volunteer.[44] Nupedia shut down in 2003,[46] shortly after Wikipedia's second anniversary.[35]

Origins of Wikipedia[edit]

A screenshot of Wikipedia's main page on 28 September 2002.

Wales started to play down Sanger's role in the founding of the project in 2005, a few years after Sanger left Wikipedia.[47][48][49] In light of Wales' view, Sanger posted on his personal webpage several links which supported his role as a co-founder.[13] Sanger was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia at least as early as September 2001.[50] Wales identified himself in August 2002 as "co-founder" of Wikipedia.[51][52] Sanger said "While I was organizing Wikipedia, Wales was in the background and focused on Bomis.com."[53] Wales stated in 2005 that he had initially heard of the wiki concept in 2001 not from Sanger, but instead from Jeremy Rosenfeld.[53] Wales stated in October 2001 that it was "Larry (who) had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project."[45]

The critical concept of marrying the three fundamental elements of Wikipedia, namely an encyclopedia, a wiki, and essentially unrestricted editorial access to the public, first took form when Sanger met up with an old friend, Ben Kovitz.[7][9] This meeting occurred at a dinner on January 2, 2001, and it was here that Sanger was first introduced to the functionality of wiki software. Kovitz was a computer programmer and a regular on Ward Cunningham's wiki.[7][9] Sanger thought a wiki would be a good platform to use and decided to present the idea to Jimmy Wales, at that time the head of Bomis.[54][55] Sanger initially proposed the wiki concept to Wales and suggested it be applied to Nupedia and, after some initial skepticism, Wales agreed to try it.[55][56]

It was Jimmy Wales, along with other people, who came up with the broader idea of an open-source, collaborative encyclopedia that would accept contributions from ordinary people and it was Wales who invested in it.[43] Sanger came up with the name "Wikipedia", which he later said was "a silly name for what was at first a very silly project".[43][57] Sanger first conceived of the wiki-based encyclopedia project only as a means to hopefully accelerate Nupedia's slow growth.[58] During Wikipedia's critical first year of growth, Sanger spearheaded and guided the following that gathered around this nucleus.[58] Through this early period, he served as Wikipedia's "chief organizer",[59] a position which has not been filled since his departure from Wikipedia.[13][43][60] Sanger is also credited with creating and enforcing many of the policies and strategy that made Wikipedia possible during its first formative year.[14][61] By the end of the year in 2001, the site had about 15,000 articles and upwards of 350 Wikipedians.[55]

Post-Wikipedia[edit]

Since Sanger parted ways with Wikipedia in 2002, he has been critical of its accuracy, among other things.[15] In December 2004, Sanger wrote a critical article for the website Kuro5hin, in which he stated that Wikipedia is not perceived as credible among librarians, teachers, and academics when it does not have a formal review process and it is "anti-elitist."[16][17] In September 2009, Sanger mentioned one reason for distancing himself from Wikipedia: "I thought that the project would never have the amount of credibility it could have if it were not somehow more open and welcoming to experts."[45] He pointed out "The other problem was the community had essentially been taken over by trolls to a great extent. That was a real problem, and Jimmy Wales absolutely refused to do anything about it."[45] Wales responded by stating, "I think very highly of Larry Sanger, and think that it is unfortunate that this silly debate has tended to overshadow his work."[45]

Sanger, a philosophy instructor,[62] began work as a lecturer at The Ohio State University, where he taught philosophy until June 2005.[5] His professional interests are epistemology (in particular), early modern philosophy, and ethics.[5][25]

In December 2005, Digital Universe Foundation announced that Sanger had been hired as Director of Distributed Content Programs.[63] He would be a key organizer of the Digital Universe Encyclopedia web projects which was launched in early 2006.[64][65] The Digital Universe encyclopedia has recruited recognized experts to write articles, and to check user-submitted articles for accuracy.[20] The first step in this effort was the expert-authored and edited Encyclopedia of Earth,[20] an electronic reference about the Earth.[66]

The question of accuracy over Wikipedia article content spurred Sanger to unveil plans for a new encyclopedia called Citizendium, short for "citizens' compendium".[67] At the Wizards of OS conference in September 2006, Sanger announced Citizendium as a fork of Wikipedia. The objectives of the fork were to address various perceived flaws in the Wikipedia system. The main differences would be no anonymous editing: every author/editor would have to be identified by his/her real name, no "top-down" hierarchy of editors: it would aspire to be a "real encyclopedia."[68]

Citizendium[edit]

Main article: Citizendium
A screenshot of Citizendium's homepage on 2 January 2010.

On March 25, 2007, Citizendium officially launched.[69] In early 2007, Sanger announced he would not head Citizendium indefinitely.[70] Two weeks after the launch of Citizendium, Sanger criticized Wikipedia, stating the latter was "broken beyond repair," and had a range of problems "from serious management problems, to an often dysfunctional community, to frequently unreliable content, and to a whole series of scandals."[71][72] Citizendium has a form of peer-review, in which the site's content is subject to "gentle expert oversight."[73][74][75]

Citizendium offers more than 16,000 articles, of which 159 have been expert reviewed.[76] Citizendium was criticized in 2009 as a failed effort because of its slow growth.[77] Larry Sanger said in November 2011 that the project collected enough donations to keep the server running "for several months" and "people are still writing articles for it."[78] Ars Technica reporter Timothy B. Lee said in 2011 that Citizendium was unlikely to succeed on the scale of Wikipedia.[18] Lee noted that Citizendium's late start was a disadvantage, and that Citizendium's growth was also hindered by an "unwieldy editing model".[18] The number of Citizendium contributors is fewer than 100, and the number of edits per day is about "a dozen or so", according to Winthrop University's Dean of Library Services.[19]

Contrast to Wikipedia[edit]

Building on Sanger's experience from other collaborative encyclopedias,[7] Citizendium represented an effort to establish a scholarly and credible online encyclopedia[70][79] which aimed to bring more accountability and academic quality to articles.[10][80]

Citizendium is wiki-based, and several aspects set it apart from Wikipedia.[81] Prospective contributors on Citizendium are required to sign in using real names in contrast to Wikipedia users who may remain anonymous.[82][83] Wikipedia editors often debate over policy, but Citizendium editors agree to follow the rules that are on the site.[81] Wikipedia invites anyone to contribute while Sanger set up a system in which experts work alongside other editors on the wiki.[81] The size of Citizendium's audience is much smaller than Wikipedia's and the likelihood of Citizendium overtaking Wikipedia appears fairly remote.[18]

Post-Citizendium[edit]

In early 2009, Sanger effectively ceased to edit Citizendium, although an announcement confirming this was not made until July 30, 2009, on the Citizendium-l mailinglist.[84] On September 22, 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief of Citizendium but said, at the time, that he was still willing to offer advice and would continue to support the goals of the project.[85]

In April 2010 Sanger sent a letter to the FBI detailing his concern that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography in its pedophilia and lolicon categories later clarified as "obscene visual representations of the abuse of children".[86][87] Sanger said that he felt it was his civic duty to report the images.[88] Sanger told FoxNews.com that, in 2012, he worked with NetSpark to get them to donate or heavily discount its pornographic image filtering technology for use by Wikipedia.[89] NetSpark attempted to contact the Wikimedia Foundation in July/August 2012, but received no response at that time.[89] In December 2010, commenting to WikiLeaks, Sanger said: "I consider you enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people."[90]

He has worked at the WatchKnowLearn project, a non-profit organization which focuses on educating young children using educational videos and other media on the web.[78] Sanger was the executive director of the system.[22] It is a non-profit funded by grants, philanthropists, and the Community Foundation of Northwest Mississippi.[91] Sanger headed the development of WatchKnowLearn from 2008 to 2010.[92] It has of repository of educational videos for kindergarten to the 12th grade.[93] In February 2013, it ranked as the No. 1 search result among educational videos on Google's search engine, with page views surmounting 6 million each month.[94] In 2010 and 2011, he continued working on developing a web-based reading-tutorial application for beginning readers which was launched as Reading Bear in 2012.[21][22] It uses the principles of phonics, using multimedia presentations such as videos, PowerPoint presentations, and ebooks.[21] In addition to aiming to teach children to pronounce words, it aims to teach the meaning and context of each word.[21]

Personal life[edit]

Sanger moved to San Diego, California, in February 2000 when he was first hired by Wales to develop Nupedia.[95] He was married in Las Vegas, Nevada, in December 2001.[96] In January 2002 he returned to Columbus, Ohio,[23] where he currently resides with his wife and two children.[16]

Selected writings[edit]

A partial list of academic work, essays, and presentations Sanger has written:[97]

Academic work
  • Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification – doctoral thesis.
  • Descartes' methods and their theoretical background – bachelor thesis.
Essays
Presentations

References[edit]

  1. ^ Jennifer Joline Anderson (2011). Wikipedia: The Company and Its Founders (1 ed.). Abdo Group. p. 20. ISBN 1617148121. 
  2. ^ Morris, Kevin (13 February 2013). "Wikipedia cofounder Larry Sanger on his next revolution". The Daily Dot. Retrieved 14 February 2013. 
  3. ^ a b c Chillingworth, Mark (November 27, 2006). "Expert edition". Information World Review. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  4. ^ Anderson, Nate (November 21, 2007). "Larry Sanger says "tipping point" approaching for expert-guided Citizendium wiki". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2007-11-21. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f g Roush, Wade (January 2005). "Larry Sanger's Knowledge Free-for-All". Technology Review. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  6. ^ a b Sanger, Larry. "Larry Sanger – Education". larraysanger.org. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  7. ^ a b c d e Sidener, Jonathan (September 23, 2006). "Wikipedia co-founder looks to add accountability, end anarchy". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "The origins of Wikipedia date to 2000, when Sanger was finishing his doctoral thesis in philosophy and had an idea for a Web site." 
  8. ^ Nauffts, Mitch (March 27, 2007). "5 Questions For...: Larry Sanger, Founder, Citizendium". Philanthropy News Digest (Foundation Center). Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  9. ^ a b c Moody, Glyn (July 13, 2006). "This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Larry Sanger seems to have a thing about free online encyclopedias. Although his main claim to fame is as the co-founder, along with Jimmy Wales, of Wikipedia, that is just one of several projects to produce large-scale, systematic stores of human knowledge he has been involved in. [Wales] saw that I was essentially looking for employment online and he was looking for someone to lead Nupedia... Career: 1992–1996, 1997–1998 Graduate teaching associate, OSU; 2000–2002 Editor-in-chief, Nupedia; Co-founder and 'chief organiser,' Wikipedia." 
  10. ^ a b LeClaire, Jennifer (March 27, 2007). "Wikipedia Cofounder Launches Citizendium". NewsFactor Network. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  11. ^ a b c Gouthro, Liane (March 10, 2000). "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia". PCWorld. Archived from the original on March 14, 2000. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  12. ^ a b c d e f g Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 2013-10-22. "Wales and Sanger created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001. The initial purpose was to get the public to add entries that would then be 'fed into the Nupedia process' of authorization. Most of Nupedia's expert volunteers, however, wanted nothing to do with this, so Sanger decided to launch a separate site called 'Wikipedia.' Neither Sanger nor Wales looked on Wikipedia as anything more than a lark. This is evident in Sanger's flip announcement of Wikipedia to the Nupedia discussion list. 'Humor me,' he wrote. 'Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes.' And, to Sanger's surprise, go they did. Within a few days, Wikipedia outstripped Nupedia in terms of quantity, if not quality, and a small community developed. In late January, Sanger created a Wikipedia discussion list (Wikipedia-L) to facilitate discussion of the project." 
  13. ^ a b c Bergstein, Brian (March 25, 2007). "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy PhD who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp. The claim doesn't seem particularly controversial – Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder. Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, isn't happy about it." 
  14. ^ a b c Schiff, Stacy (July 31, 2006). "Know It All". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25. 
  15. ^ a b "Wikipedia founder sets up rival". Australian IT. October 19, 2006. Retrieved 2014-08-04. 
  16. ^ a b c Pink, Daniel H (March 2005). "The Book Stops Here". Wired. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  17. ^ a b Sanger, Larry (December 31, 2004). "Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism". Kuro5hin. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  18. ^ a b c d e Lee, Timothy B. (October 27, 2011). "Citizendium turns five, but the Wikipedia fork is dead in the water". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2013-10-22. 
  19. ^ a b Mark Y. Herring (2014). Are Libraries Obsolete?: An Argument for Relevance in the Digital Age (1 ed.). McFarland & Company. p. 52. ISBN 0786473568. 
  20. ^ a b c Terdiman, Daniel (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia alternative aims to be 'PBS of the Web'". CNET. Archived from the original on 2012-07-11. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  21. ^ a b c d Sawers, Paul (November 2, 2011). "Wikipedia co-founder launches Reading Bear, an online phonics tutorial for kids". The Next Web, Inc. Retrieved 2013-10-09. 
  22. ^ a b c Kelley, Michael. "Web-based reading program targets young learners". Scripps Interactive Newspapers Group. 
  23. ^ a b c Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. p. 2. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  24. ^ a b Lydgate, Chris (June 2010). "Deconstructing Wikipedia". Reed Magazine. Retrieved 2013-11-01. 
  25. ^ a b c Boraas, Alan (September 2, 2006). "Hometown kid an Internet revolutionary". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  26. ^ Sanger, Larry (August 30, 1995). "Tutor-L: Higher education outside the universities". scout.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  27. ^ Sanger, Larry (March 22, 1994). "Association for Systematic Philosophy". George Mason University. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  28. ^ Sanger, Larry (June 2007). "Education 2.0". Egon Zehnder International (The Focus Online). Archived from the original on June 15, 2007. Retrieved 2007-06-01. "The future of education could lie in a digital degree-granting institution that lives on the Internet." 
  29. ^ Sanger, Larry (2007). "WHO SAYS WE KNOW: On the New Politics of Knowledge". Edge Foundation, Inc. Retrieved November 2, 2013. 
  30. ^ Keen, Andrew (June 2, 2008). "Andrew Keen on New Media". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2008-06-08. 
  31. ^ Sanger, Larry (April 15, 2010). "Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age". Educause Review. Retrieved November 1, 2013. 
  32. ^ "Nupedia.com Editorial Policy Guidelines, Overview: Assignment". Nupedia.com. May 2000. 
  33. ^ Williams, Sam (April 27, 2004). "Everyone is an editor". Salon Media Group. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-04-15. 
  34. ^ Sidener, Jonathan (December 6, 2004). "Everyone's Encyclopedia". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  35. ^ a b Lanxon, Nate (June 5, 2008). "The greatest defunct Web sites and dotcom disasters". CNET. p. 5. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-27. 
  36. ^ Betz, Lindsay (June 1, 2007). "Wikipedia formed by former Buckeye". The Lantern (The Ohio State University). Retrieved 2007-06-01. 
  37. ^ Sanger, Larry (August 19, 2012). "On the moral bankruptcy of Wikipedia’s anonymous administration". Larry Sanger. Retrieved November 1, 2013. 
  38. ^ Walker, Leslie (September 9, 2004). "Spreading knowledge, the Wiki way". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  39. ^ Long, Tony (January 15, 2008). "Enter Wikipedia, for Better and Worse". Wired (Wired News). Retrieved 2008-02-05. 
  40. ^ Finkelstein, Seth (2008-09-25). "Read me first: Wikipedia isn't about human potential, whatever Wales says". London: The Guardian. 
  41. ^ Terdiman, Daniel (December 21, 2005). "Wikipedia founder modifies his bio". CNET. Retrieved 2014-03-26. 
  42. ^ a b c Waters, Richard (November 10, 2006). "Wikipedia stand-off in search for online truth". Financial Times. Retrieved 2009-10-15. 
  43. ^ a b c d Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir". SourceForge (Slashdot). Retrieved 2007-03-25. "The actual development of this encyclopedia was the task he gave me to work on. So I arrived in San Diego in early February, 2000, to get to work." 
     • Sanger, Larry (April 19, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II". SourceForge (Slashdot). Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  44. ^ a b c Sanger, Larry (March 1, 2002). "My resignation—Larry Sanger". Meta-Wiki. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  45. ^ a b c d e Ferraro, Nicole (October 9, 2009). "Wikipedia Co-Founder Speaks Out Against Jimmy Wales". Internet Evolution. UBM LLC. Retrieved 2013-10-23. "Nupedia was started first, and is extremely high quality in the limited content that it does produce. After a year or so of working on Nupedia, Larry had the idea to use Wiki software for a separate project specifically for people like you (and me!) who are intimidated and bored (sorry, Nupedia!) with the tedium of the process." 
  46. ^ Youngwood, Susan (April 1, 2007). "Wikipedia: What do they know; when do they know it, and when can we trust it?". Vermont Sunday Magazine (Rutland Herald). Retrieved 2007-04-01. 
  47. ^ Mitchell, Dan (December 24, 2005). "Insider Editing at Wikipedia". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  48. ^ Hansen, Evan (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio". Wired (Wired News). Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  49. ^ Finkelstein, Seth (February 12, 2009). "What's in a name? Everything, when you're talking wiki value". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-02-12. 
  50. ^ Meyers, Peter (September 20, 2001). "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  51. ^ Wales, Jimmy (August 6, 2002). "3apes open content web directory". Yahoo! Tech Groups forum post. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-01. "I'm Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Nupedia and Wikipedia, the open content encyclopedias." 
  52. ^ "Wikipedia boss challenged over claims made in Hot Press". Hot Press. April 24, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-25. 
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  54. ^ "Ben Kovitz". WikiWikiWeb. January 19, 2008. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  55. ^ a b c Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. p. 3. Retrieved 2007-03-25.  Over tacos that night, Sanger explained his concerns about Nupedia's lack of progress, the root cause of which was its serial editorial system. As Nupedia was then structured, no stage of the editorial process could proceed before the previous stage was completed. Kovitz brought up the wiki and sketched out "wiki magic," the mysterious process by which communities with common interests work to improve wiki pages by incremental contributions. If it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz said, it could work for any online collaborative project. The wiki could break the Nupedia bottleneck by permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project. With Kovitz in tow, Sanger rushed back to his apartment and called Wales to share the idea. Over the next few days he wrote a formal proposal for Wales and started a page on Cunningham's wiki called "WikiPedia."
  56. ^ "WikiPedia". WikiWikiWeb. January 19, 2008. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
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  64. ^ "Digital Universe Seeks to Become Free 'PBS of the Web'". PR Newswire (Digital Universe). January 17, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  65. ^ "Contributor: Lawrence Sanger". Encyclopedia of Earth (Digital Universe). Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
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