Sanger in July 2006
|Born||Lawrence Mark Sanger
July 16, 1968
Bellevue, Washington, U.S.
|Alma mater||Reed College (BA)
Ohio State University (MA, PhD)
|Occupation||Internet Project Developer|
Lawrence Mark "Larry" Sanger (born July 16, 1968) is an American former philosophy lecturer/assistant professor, co-founder of Wikipedia, and the founder of Citizendium. He grew up in Anchorage, Alaska. From an early age he has been interested in philosophy. Sanger received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from Reed College in 1991 and a Doctor of Philosophy in philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000. Most of his philosophical work has focused on epistemology, the theory of knowledge.
He has been involved with various online encyclopedia projects. He is the former editor-in-chief of Nupedia, chief organizer (2001–02) of its successor, Wikipedia, and founding editor-in-chief of Citizendium. From his position at Nupedia, he assembled the process for article development. Sanger proposed implementing a wiki, which led directly to the creation of Wikipedia. Initially Wikipedia was a complementary project for Nupedia. He was Wikipedia's early community leader and established many of its original policies. He spearheaded an alternative wiki-based project, Citizendium.
Sanger left Wikipedia in 2002, and has since been critical of the project. He articulated that despite its merits, Wikipedia lacks credibility due to, among other things, a lack of respect for expertise. After leaving the project, Sanger taught philosophy at Ohio State University and was an early strategist for the expert-authored Encyclopedia of Earth. On September 15, 2006 he publicly announced Citizendium, first envisioned as a fork of Wikipedia. It was launched on March 25, 2007. Citizendium represents an effort to create a credible and free-access encyclopedia. Sanger had aimed to bring more accountability to the Internet encyclopedia model.
He is working on developing educational projects for individuals behind WatchKnowLearn and is designing a program to teach children how to read. He started blogging on various subjects, including baby reading. He also works part-time as a writer, speaker, and consultant on the topic of collaborative online communities.
Early life and education
Sanger was born in Bellevue, Washington. When he was seven years old, the family moved to Anchorage, Alaska, where Sanger spent his formative years and excelled in the classroom. At an early age, he was interested in philosophical topics. Alan Boraas from Anchorage Daily News writes "I can visualize the scene in his high school counselor's office when he announced his intended major. 'Kid,' I can hear the counselor say, 'What are you ever going to do with philosophy?' 'Well, change the way the world thinks, for one thing.'"
He graduated from high school in 1986 and went off to Reed College, majoring in philosophy. As a college student, he explored the understanding and sources of knowledge. He also became interested in the Internet and its publishing abilities. These interests later helped him to realize the benefits of using a wiki for an online encyclopedia. He set up an early attempt with a listserver as a medium for students and tutors to meet up for "expert tutoring" and "to act as a forum for discussion of tutorials, tutorial methods, and the possibility and merits of a voluntary, free network of individual tutors and students finding each other via the Internet for education outside the traditional university setting." He started and moderated a philosophy discussion list – The Association for Systematic Philosophy list – managed by Sanger. Dated March 22, 1994, Sanger wrote in his opening manifesto:
The history of philosophy is full of disagreement and confusion. One reaction by philosophers to this state of things is to doubt whether the truth about philosophy can ever be known, or whether there is any such thing as the truth about philosophy. But there is another reaction: one may set out to think more carefully and methodically than one's intellectual forebears.
He received a Bachelor of Arts in philosophy from Reed College in 1991, a Master of Arts from Ohio State University in 1995, and a Doctor of Philosophy from Ohio State University in 2000. His bachelor thesis is titled Descartes' methods and their theoretical background and his doctoral thesis concerned Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification. From 1998 to 2000 he ran a website called "Sanger's Review of Y2K News Reports" (formerly at sangersreview.com), a resource for Y2K watchers.
Nupedia and Wikipedia
Nupedia was a Web-based encyclopedia whose articles were written by experts and licensed as free content. It was co-founded by Jimmy Wales and underwritten by Bomis, with Sanger hired as editor-in-chief. He developed a review process for articles and recruited editors. Articles were reviewed before being posted on the site. With Wales and Sanger frustrated at the slow progress of Nupedia, in January 2001, Sanger proposed a wiki be created to spur article development, and the result of this proposal was Wikipedia, officially launched on January 15, 2001. It was initially intended as a collaborative wiki for the public to write entries that would then be fed into the Nupedia review process of expertise. The majority of Nupedia's experts wanted little to do with this project, so Sanger initiated a separate site named Wikipedia.
To the surprise of Sanger and Wales, within a few days of launching, Wikipedia had outgrown Nupedia, and a small community of editors gathered. By virtue of his position with Nupedia, Sanger spearheaded and named the project, and formulated much of the original policy, including "Ignore all rules", "Neutral point of view", and "Verifiability". Wikipedia quickly took off, but just months after it was launched, things started to go off the rails, Sanger says, and by the summer of 2001 the new online community was being "overrun" by what he described as "trolls" and "anarchist-types", who were "opposed to the idea that anyone should have any kind of authority that others do not". Sanger responded by proposing a stronger emphasis for expert editors, individuals with the authority to resolve disputes and enforce the rules.
Tired of endless content battles and feeling he had a lack of support from Wales, Sanger eventually left the project. Sanger was the only paid editor of Wikipedia, a status he held from January 15, 2001, until March 1, 2002. Sanger worked on and promoted both the Nupedia and Wikipedia projects until Bomis discontinued funding for his position in February 2002 after the collapse in Internet advertising spending; Sanger resigned as editor-in-chief of Nupedia and as chief organizer of Wikipedia on March 1. Sanger's stated reason for ending his participation in Wikipedia and Nupedia as a volunteer was that he could not do justice to the task as a part-time volunteer. Nupedia shut down in 2003, shortly after Wikipedia's second anniversary.
Origins of Wikipedia
Wales started to play down Sanger's role in the founding of the project in 2005, a few years after Sanger left Wikipedia. In light of Wales' view, Sanger posted on his personal webpage several links which supported his role as a co-founder. The citations include earlier versions of selected Wikipedia pages, press releases from Wikipedia in the years of 2002–04, and early media coverage stories describing Wikipedia as founded by Wales and Sanger. Sanger was identified as a co-founder of Wikipedia at least as early as September 2001. Jimmy Wales identified himself in August 2002 as "co-founder" of Wikipedia. During the time of Sanger's involvement in the project, he was routinely known as a co-founder. The Wikimedia Foundation's first press release in 2004 described Sanger as co-founder. Sanger is widely cited in the media as a co-founder. Sanger said "While I was organizing Wikipedia, Wales was in the background and focused on Bomis.com.
In 2005, Wales stated that he had initially heard of the wiki concept in 2001 not from Sanger, but instead from Jeremy Rosenfeld. Wales has, however, also been quoted in the press as far back as October 2001, stating that it was "Larry (who) had the idea to use Wiki software."
According to all known documents actually dating from before 2005, the critical concept of marrying two of the three fundamental elements of Wikipedia, namely an encyclopedia and a wiki, first took form when Sanger met up with an old friend, Ben Kovitz. This meeting occurred at a dinner on January 2, 2001, and it was here that Sanger was first introduced to the functionality of wiki software. Kovitz was a computer programmer and a regular on Ward Cunningham's wiki. Sanger thought a wiki would be a good platform to use and decided to present the idea to Jimmy Wales, at that time the head of Bomis. Sanger initially proposed the wiki concept to Wales and suggested it be applied to Nupedia and, after some initial skepticism, Wales agreed to try it. Sanger formally proposed a "feeder" project for Nupedia titled "Nupedia Wiki" and created a new page on Ward's wiki named "WikiPedia."
It was Jimmy Wales who added the third critical ingredient to the mix. He directed Sanger to give essentially unrestricted editorial access to this new wiki to the "non expert" public. Sanger came up with the name 'Wikipedia', which at the time, Sanger wrote that he believed would merely be, "a silly name for what was at first a very silly project." Sanger first conceived of the wiki-based encyclopedia project only as a means to hopefully accelerate Nupedia's slow growth. During Wikipedia's critical first year of growth, Sanger spearheaded and guided the following that gathered around this nucleus. Through this early period, he served as Wikipedia's "chief organizer", a position which has not been filled since his departure from Wikipedia. Sanger is also credited with creating and enforcing many of the policies and strategy that made Wikipedia possible during its first formative year. Thus it was that Wikipedia was in fact an accidental spin-off of Nupedia. Originally it was only intended to act as a 'feeder site' to generate rough articles for Nupedia, where the articles would then theoretically be 'polished up' by the 'more qualified' volunteer editors that were expected to be found there.
Since Sanger parted ways with Wikipedia in 2002 he has been critical of its accuracy, among other things. In December 2004, Sanger wrote a critical article for the website Kuro5hin, in which he admitted that there had existed "a certain poisonous social or political atmosphere in the project" that had also accounted for his departure. While stating "to appreciate the merits of Wikipedia fully" and to know and support "the mission and broad policy outlines of Wikipedia very well," Sanger expressed that there are serious problems with the project. There was, he wrote, a lack of public perception of credibility, and the project put "difficult people, trolls, and their enablers" into too much prominence; these problems, he maintained, were a feature of the project's "anti-elitism, or lack of respect for expertise." The article was the subject of much controversy in the blogosphere, and led to some reaction in the news media as well. In September 2009, Sanger mentioned one reason for distancing himself from Wikipedia: "I thought that the project would never have the amount of credibility it could have if it were not somehow more open and welcoming to experts." He pointed out "The other problem was the community had essentially been taken over by trolls to a great extent. That was a real problem, and Jimmy Wales absolutely refused to do anything about it."
Sanger identifies the purpose of the Internet as being equally about communication, as it is about information; Stressing that successful communication need not be informative, and that good communication is very different than good information. Sanger is careful to point out his criticisms of Wikipedia are not as much based on its lack of meritocracy, but rather in its credibility as an informational medium. Sanger sees most web 2.0 websites as being built upon communication and socialization, instead of impersonal information resources. As a consequence of this, Sanger sees a continuing demand for more authoritative information sources. Saying: "Even in the field of encyclopedias, while the industry does seem to have taken a blow, some of the heavyweights are still alive and kicking."
Sanger, a philosophy instructor, began work as a lecturer at The Ohio State University, where he taught philosophy until June 2005. His professional interests are epistemology (in particular), early modern philosophy, and ethics. In his spare time, he plays and teaches Irish traditional music on the fiddle in Columbus and Dayton, Ohio, and also manages a site about the Donegal fiddle tradition.
In December 2005, Digital Universe Foundation announced that Sanger had been hired as Director of Distributed Content Programs. He would be a key organizer of the Digital Universe Encyclopedia web projects which was launched in early 2006. The Digital Universe encyclopedia plans to recruit recognized experts to write articles, and to check user-submitted articles for accuracy. The first step in this effort is the expert-authored and edited Encyclopedia of Earth, an electronic reference about the Earth.
In April 2006, Sanger published "Text and Collaboration: A personal manifesto for the Text Outline Project" arguing for the importance of what he called "strong collaboration" (that is, collaboration in which people work on the parts they're interested and nobody gets to claim control), the possibility that strong collaboration could be more effective with a less anarchistic set of ground rules than Wikipedia, and the creation of a new Text Outline Project to create The Book of the World, featuring summaries of the arguments of the great philosophers, organized by topic and time, along with summaries of their debates.
The question of accuracy over Wikipedia article content spurred Sanger to unveil plans for a new encyclopedia called Citizendium, the citizen's compendium. At the Wizards of OS conference in September 2006, Sanger announced Citizendium as a fork of Wikipedia. The objectives of the fork were to address various perceived flaws in the Wikipedia system. The main differences would be no anonymous editing: every author/editor would have to be identified by his/her real name, no "top-down" hierarchy of editors: it would aspire to be a "real encyclopedia." More differences are discussed at the Citizendium website in the FAQ. The initial fork was of the English language Wikipedia. Prior to its March 2007 public launch, Citizendium favored an emphasis on its own original articles. On September 27, 2006 Sanger announced that he would take a leave of absence from Digital Universe "in order to set up a fully independent Citizendium Foundation." In 2007 Sanger examined the possibilities for education online. He explained, "Imagine that education were not delivered but organized and managed in a way that were fully digitized, decentralized, self-directed, asynchronous, and at-a-distance." He further stated, "There would be no bureaucracy to enforce anything beyond some very basic rules, and decision-making would be placed almost entirely in the hands of teachers and students." In 2008, Sanger was at Oxford University to debate the proposition that "the internet is the future of knowledge." Sanger agreed that today's wikis and blogs are fundamentally changing the way knowledge is created and distributed.
On March 25, 2007, Citizendium ended its pilot phase, entering a live and publicly readable beta phase. The launch coincided with a feature-length Associated Press article that ran widely, with a title in USA Today of "Citizendium aims to be better Wikipedia." Unlike Wales, who has compared his role in Wikipedia with that of a British monarch, Sanger said he would not head Citizendium indefinitely, and in 2007 announced his intention to step off the leadership team in two or three years.
Two weeks after the launch of Citizendium, Sanger criticized Wikipedia, stating the latter was "broken beyond repair," and had a range of problems "from serious management problems, to an often dysfunctional community, to frequently unreliable content, and to a whole series of scandals." Sanger stated in part:
The work of the Wikipedians has astounded the world, but the amateur nature of Wikipedia's contributions, whose authors remain anonymous, is not for everyone. Some experts are hostile toward the idea of Wikipedia and many avoid Wikipedia altogether. We may take Wikipedia as an early prototype of the application of open source hacker principles to content rather than code. I want to argue that it is just that, an early prototype, rather than a mature model of how such principles should be applied to reference, scholarly and educational content. Where Wikipedia shares the culture of anonymity found in the broader Internet, the Citizendium will have a culture of real-world, personal responsibility.
Citizendium has a form of peer-review, in which the site's content is subject to "gentle expert oversight." In reference to creating a new encyclopedia project Sanger stated: "I think there is a need for a more reliable and free [online] encyclopedia. If we can create a more reliable and free encyclopedia, particularly if we adopt a different system than Wikipedia's, then we should." As Citizendium's editor-in-chief, Sanger commented in late October 2007 about its first anniversary, from its initial private launch date of October 30, 2006. Citizendium's readers, he said, have only just begun to see the power of the project's model:
Simply put, we've pioneered a new and better way to use wikis, and an interesting, dynamic way to build an online knowledge base. Increasingly, the Citizendium is looking like the next step in the evolution of the collaborative Internet. The project's fundamentals are solid and growing stronger through motivated, diligent effort. Given enough time and enough people, the results would surely be amazing. If this possibility is amazing, it is even more amazing that it's within our grasp. What I do know is that if we do have a good chance to create something so stupefyingly useful for humanity, we must try.
When asked in an interview with The Minnesota Daily: Do you see a role for Citizendium anywhere in academia? He responded: "Of course. The idea is it will be good enough for professors to be able to send their students and students to get reliable information from. I know a lot of students use Wikipedia as a place to start to learn about a subject. For that purpose it's fine. I actually think, as a place to start to get some information, it's a fine resource. Approved articles on Citizendium hopefully will be more reliable than articles on Wikipedia."
Contrast to Wikipedia
Building on Sanger's experience from other collaborative encyclopedias, Citizendium represents an effort to establish a scholarly and credible online encyclopedia. Sanger aims to improve upon the wiki-based encyclopedia model by bringing more accountability and academic quality to articles. In an interview with CNET News in 2007 Sanger explained the reasons for starting a Wikipedia alternative:
I think we absolutely need another wiki—first of all, simply because Wikipedia lacks credibility, unfortunately. It's a good starting place, as people say—on some subjects anyway—but it isn't really what we want out of a reliable reference resource. And frankly, I don't think that the Wikipedia community is prepared to make the changes that I think need to be made in order to transform Wikipedia into something that's really reliable.
Citizendium is wiki-based, and several aspects set it apart from Wikipedia. Prospective contributors on Citizendium are required to sign in using real names. Users of Wikipedia may contribute anonymously, or create a username. This username does not necessarily have a connection with their real name. Experts in their field of expertise have a role in the Citizendium community to approve articles on the basis of accuracy. The Good Article and the Featured Article systems on Wikipedia employs a review by editors. Wikipedia is perceived to promote consensus and not truth and verifiability is the inclusion criteria – reporting on what other sources have to say. Citizendium experts have the final say for article content and it is not necessary to cite a source for a content decision on Citizendium. Citizendium attempts to prevent future wiki-vandalism in the tradition of Stephen Colbert, who once asked users on air to add false information to articles about elephants.
In early 2009, Sanger effectively ceased to edit Citizendium, although an announcement confirming this was not made until July 30, 2009 on the Citizendium-l mailinglist. He had worked at WatchKnowLearn project, a non-profit online community devoted to rating and organizing into a large directory hundreds of thousands of short videos and other media, making it possible to find subjects taught to school kids watchable on one website. Business Edge Services and Technologies, Inc. completed the project under the direction of Larry Sanger. Sanger was the executive director of the system.
In April 2010 Sanger sent a letter to the FBI detailing his concern that Wikimedia Commons was hosting child pornography in its pedophilia and lolicon categories later clarified as "obscene visual representations of the abuse of children". Sanger said that he felt it was his civic duty to report the images.
On September 22, 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief of Citizendium but is still willing to offer advice and continues to support the goals of the project. In December 2010, commenting to WikiLeaks, he said: "Speaking as Wikipedia's co-founder, I consider you enemies of the U.S.—not just the government, but the people."
He is working on developing educational projects for individuals behind WatchKnowLearn, originally named WatchKnow. He is producing a reading-tutorial application that will be applicable for beginning readers of all ages. The name of his new reading project is Reading Bear. He began blogging on various subjects, including baby reading. A blog post, "Is There a New Geek Anti-Intellectualism?" was discussed in 2011. Sanger is interested in incorporating vast online teaching video multimedia encyclopedias for early education using technology. He is a writer, speaker, and a consultant on the topic of collaborative online communities.
In February 2013, Sanger posted an advert on Craigslist seeking a developer for a crowdsourcing project named InfoBitt. On Twitter, he described the project: "My new project will show the world how to crowdsource high-quality content—a problem I've long wanted to solve. Not a wiki".
A partial list of academic work, essays, and presentations Sanger has written:
- Academic work
- Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification – doctoral thesis.
- Descartes' methods and their theoretical background – bachelor thesis.
- How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read (PDF). LarrySanger.org, December, 2010.
- Individual Knowledge in the Internet Age. Educause Review, April 2010.
- The Fate of Expertise after Wikipedia (PDF). Episteme – Edinburgh University Press, February 2009.
- Who Says We Know: On The New Politics of Knowledge. Edge Foundation – Edge Reality Club, April 2007.
- Why the Citizendium Will (Probably) Succeed. Citizendium, March 2007.
- Humanity's Coming Enlightenment. (Archived) Edge Foundation – World Question Center, 2007.
- Toward a New Compendium of Knowledge. Citizendium, September 2006.
- What Strong Collaboration Means for Scholarly Publishing. Keynote at the Annual Meeting of Society for Scholarly Publishing, San Francisco, CA, June 7, 2007.
- How to Think about Strong Collaboration among Professionals. Keynote at the Handelsblatt IT Congress, Bonn, Germany, January 30, 2007.
- Why Make Room for Experts in Web 2.0?. Opening keynote at the SVForum, The Business of New Media, Santa Clara, CA, October 25, 2006.
- Sanger, Larry (2000). "Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification". Enlightenment: Objectivist Scholarship. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Chillingworth, Mark (November 27, 2006). "Expert edition". Information World Review. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Wikipedia co-founder Larry Sanger explains what his Citizendium project will bring to the wiki reference world."
- Anderson, Nate (November 21, 2007). "Larry Sanger says "tipping point" approaching for expert-guided Citizendium wiki". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2007-11-21.
- Jay, Paul (April 19, 2007). "I, editor — The Wikipedia experiment". CBC News. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Roush, Wade (January 2005). "Larry Sanger's Knowledge Free-for-All". Technology Review. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry. "Larry Sanger — Education". larraysanger.org. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sidener, Jonathan (September 23, 2006). "Wikipedia co-founder looks to add accountability, end anarchy". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "The origins of Wikipedia date to 2000, when Sanger was finishing his doctoral thesis in philosophy and had an idea for a Web site."
- Nauffts, Mitch (March 27, 2007). "5 Questions For...: Larry Sanger, Founder, Citizendium". Philanthropy News Digest (Foundation Center). Retrieved 2007-03-27.
- Moody, Glyn (July 13, 2006). "This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Larry Sanger seems to have a thing about free online encyclopedias. Although his main claim to fame is as the co-founder, along with Jimmy Wales, of Wikipedia, that is just one of several projects to produce large-scale, systematic stores of human knowledge he has been involved in. [Jimmy Wales] saw that I was essentially looking for employment online and he was looking for someone to lead Nupedia... Career: 1992–1996, 1997–1998 Graduate teaching associate, OSU; 2000–2002 Editor-in-chief, Nupedia; Co-founder and 'chief organiser,' Wikipedia."
- LeClaire, Jennifer (March 27, 2007). "Wikipedia Cofounder Launches Citizendium". NewsFactor Network. Retrieved 2007-03-27.
- Gouthro, Liane (March 10, 2000). "Building the world's biggest encyclopedia". PCWorld. Archived from the original on March 14, 2000. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (January 10, 2001). "Let's make a wiki" (Email). Nupedia-l mailing list (Nupedia). Archived from the original on April 14, 2003. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Wales and Sanger created the first Nupedia wiki on January 10, 2001. The initial purpose was to get the public to add entries that would then be 'fed into the Nupedia process' of authorization. Most of Nupedia's expert volunteers, however, wanted nothing to do with this, so Sanger decided to launch a separate site called 'Wikipedia.' Neither Sanger nor Wales looked on Wikipedia as anything more than a lark. This is evident in Sanger's flip announcement of Wikipedia to the Nupedia discussion list. 'Humor me,' he wrote. 'Go there and add a little article. It will take all of five or ten minutes.' And, to Sanger's surprise, go they did. Within a few days, Wikipedia outstripped Nupedia in terms of quantity, if not quality, and a small community developed. In late January, Sanger created a Wikipedia discussion list (Wikipedia-L) to facilitate discussion of the project."
- Bergstein, Brian (March 25, 2007). "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy PhD who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp. The claim doesn't seem particularly controversial – Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder. Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, isn't happy about it."
- Schiff, Stacy (July 31, 2006). "Know It All". The New Yorker. Archived from the original on February 23, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-25.
- Blakely, Rhys (September 7, 2007). "Wikipedia amateurs face backlash from the experts". The Times (London). Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- "Wikipedia founder sets up rival". Australian IT. October 19, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (December 31, 2004). "Why Wikipedia Must Jettison Its Anti-Elitism". Kuro5hin. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Terdiman, Daniel (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia alternative aims to be 'PBS of the Web'". CNET. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (September 27, 2006). "Citizendium launch plan as of September 26". Citizendium-l mail list. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Bergstein, Brian (March 25, 2007). "Citizendium aims to be better Wikipedia". USA Today. Associated Press. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "This week, Sanger takes the wraps off a Wikipedia alternative, Citizendium. His goal is to capture Wikipedia's bustle but this time, avoid the vandalism and inconsistency that are its pitfalls."
- Dawson, Christopher (February 23, 2007). "Citizendium seeks to be the Wikipedia you can cite". ZDNet. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (September 22, 2010). "Citizendium Charter Ratified". Citizendium blog. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
- Sanger, Larry (December 14, 2010). "How and Why I Taught My Toddler to Read". Larry Sanger. Retrieved 2010-12-17.
- Sanger, Larry. "Consulting". larrysanger.org. Retrieved 2008-08-10.
- Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. p. 2. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Boraas, Alan (September 2, 2006). "Hometown kid an Internet revolutionary". Anchorage Daily News. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (August 30, 1995). "Tutor-L: Higher education outside the universities". scout.wisc.edu. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (March 22, 1994). "Association for Systematic Philosophy". George Mason University. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Larry Sanger — Works". Citizendium. February 5, 2008. Retrieved 2009-03-03.
- Sanger, Larry. "Sanger's Review of Y2K News Reports". sangersreview.com. Archived from the original on January 2, 2001. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Meta:Historical/Community". wikimedia.org. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- Larry Sanger (February 28, 2009). Larry Sanger – SISCTI 34 (SWF,FLV,FLASH) (Videotaped) (in English, Español). Monterrey, México: SISCTI. Event occurs at 19:30.
- Williams, Sam (April 27, 2004). "Everyone is an editor". Salon Media Group. p. 2. Retrieved 2009-04-15.[dead link]
- Sidener, Jonathan (December 6, 2004). "Everyone's Encyclopedia". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Lanxon, Nate (June 5, 2008). "The greatest defunct Web sites and dotcom disasters". CNET. p. 5. Archived from the original on August 22, 2008. Retrieved 2009-02-27.
- Betz, Lindsay (June 1, 2007). "Wikipedia formed by former Buckeye". The Lantern (The Ohio State University). Retrieved 2007-06-01.
- Sanger, Larry. "My role in Wikipedia (links)". larrysanger.org. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Wales, Jimmy (October 30, 2001). "LinkBacks?" (Email). wikipedia-l archives (Bomis). Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Cohen, Noam (October 18, 2007). "Wikipedia". The New York Times. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Walker, Leslie (September 9, 2004). "Spreading knowledge, the Wiki way". Washington Post. Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- Long, Tony (January 15, 2008). "Jan. 15, 2001: Enter Wikipedia, for Better and Worse". Wired (Wired News). Retrieved 2008-02-05.
- "Rules To Consider". Ignore all rules (wikipedia.com). Archived from the original on April 16, 2001. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Waters, Richard (November 10, 2006). "Wikipedia stand-off in search for online truth". Financial Times. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- Sanger, Larry (March 1, 2002). "My resignation—Larry Sanger". Meta-Wiki. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Ferraro, Nicole (October 9, 2009). "Wikipedia Co-Founder Speaks Out Against Jimmy Wales". Internet Evolution. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- Youngwood, Susan (April 1, 2007). "Wikipedia: What do they know; when do they know it, and when can we trust it?". Vermont Sunday Magazine (Rutland Herald). Retrieved 2007-04-01.
- Mitchell, Dan (December 24, 2005). "Insider Editing at Wikipedia". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Hansen, Evan (December 19, 2005). "Wikipedia Founder Edits Own Bio". Wired (Wired News). Retrieved 2007-03-25. "'I must say I am amused,' Sanger wrote in a posting on Wikipedia on Monday. 'Having seen edits like this, it does seem that Jimmy is attempting to rewrite history. But this is a futile process because in our brave new world of transparent activity and maximum communication, the truth will out.'"
- Finkelstein, Seth (February 12, 2009). "What's in a name? Everything, when you're talking wiki value". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 2009-02-12.
- "History Version of the 'Wikipedia' Article". Wikipedia. June 2004. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• "History Version of the 'History of Wikipedia' Article". Wikipedia. August 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• "History Version of the 'Larry Sanger' Article". Wikipedia. August 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• "History Version of the 'Jimmy Wales' Article". Wikipedia. September 2004. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Free Encyclopedia Project, Wikipedia, Creates 20,000 Articles in a Year (Wikipedia 2002 Press release)". describing Sanger and Wales as "co-founders" (Wikipedia). January 15, 2002. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• "Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia, reaches its 100,000th article (Wikipedia 2003 Press release)". stating Sanger and Wales founded the site (Wikipedia). January 21, 2003. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• "Wikipedia publishes 500,000 articles in 50 languages (Wikipedia 2004 Press release)". describes Sanger as a founder (Wikipedia). February 25, 2004. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Meyers, Peter (September 20, 2001). "Fact-Driven? Collegial? This Site Wants You". The New York Times. Retrieved 2007-03-25."I can start an article that will consist of one paragraph, and then a real expert will come along and add three paragraphs and clean up my one paragraph," said Larry Sanger of Las Vegas, who founded Wikipedia with Mr. Wales.
- Heim, Judy (September 4, 2001). "Free the Encyclopedias!". Technology Review. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• Mayfield, Kendra (January 28, 2003). "Not Your Father's Encyclopedia". Wired (Wired News). Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Wales, Jimmy (August 6, 2002). "3apes open content web directory". Yahoo! Tech Groups forum post. Archived from the original on March 31, 2009. Retrieved 2009-04-01. "I'm Jimmy Wales, co-founder of Nupedia and Wikipedia, the open content encyclopedias."
- "Wikipedia boss challenged over claims made in Hot Press". Hot Press. April 24, 2009. Retrieved 2009-05-25.
- "Wikimedia press releases/500,000 Wikipedia articles". Wikimedia Foundation. 2004. Retrieved 2009-04-23. "The Wikipedia project was founded in January 2001 by Internet entrepreneur Jimmy Wales and philosopher Larry Sanger."
- Hammersley, Ben (January 30, 2003). "Common knowledge". The Guardian (London). Archived from the original on June 18, 2003. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• Olsen, Stefanie (October 16, 2006). "Wikipedia co-founder plans 'expert' rival". CNET. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• Del Conte, Natali T (October 20, 2006). "Wikipedia Co-Founder Starting Rival Online 'Encyclopedia Project'". Fox News. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
• Carvin, Andy (April 10, 2007). "Wikipedia’s New Competition: Citizendium". Public Broadcasting Service. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
- Boran, Marie (July 16, 2007). "Wikipedia disrespects experts says co-founder". Silicon Republic. Archived from the original on September 28, 2007. Retrieved 2007-07-16. "Apart from advertising, Sanger and co-founder Wales also disagree about who actually founded Wikipedia in the first place. Wales has previously claimed to be the sole founder of the online collaborative encyclopedia. Maybe he should check his facts on Wikipedia which says that both men were identified as co-founders in 2001."
- O'Toole, Jason (May 7, 2009). "Citizen Sanger". Hot Press. Retrieved 2009-05-25. "Larry Sanger is widely credited as "co-founder" of Wikipedia – something Wales disputes." In a 2009 Hot Press interview Sanger said in part: "I essentially guided what was a blank, infinitely expandable community bulletin board into a rapidly growing encyclopedia. I formulated or articulated many of the most basic policies of the website and, more importantly, actually enforced these policies. Had I not enforced the policies in those early months, the project simply would have become another wiki – which is to say, nothing in particular, or whatever users happen to want to make it. What really made Wikipedia catch on was the notion, which I was very keen to promote, that we were merely using a wiki for the special purpose of creating an encyclopedia, not a collection of opinions, not a dictionary, not many other things that you can use a wiki to create. Jimmy was understood to be a very hands-off owner or distant overseer, and so his involvement in that seminal first year was far less than mine. This makes sense, of course, because while he was busy being CEO of Bomis, my job was to start Wikipedia – which I did."
- NewsAssignment.net (May 3, 2007). "Assignment Zero First Take: Wiki Innovators Rethink Openness". Wired. Retrieved 2009-04-25. "Larry Sanger was my employee working under my direct supervision during the entire process of launching Wikipedia. He was not the originator of the proposal to use a wiki for the encyclopedia project -- that was Jeremy Rosenfeld. And Larry has himself publicly stated, 'To be clear, the idea of an open source, collaborative encyclopedia, open to contribution by ordinary people, was entirely Jimmy's, not mine."
- "Ben Kovitz". WikiWikiWeb. January 19, 2008. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Poe, Marshall (September 2006). "The Hive". The Atlantic Monthly. p. 3. Retrieved 2007-03-25.Over tacos that night, Sanger explained his concerns about Nupedia's lack of progress, the root cause of which was its serial editorial system. As Nupedia was then structured, no stage of the editorial process could proceed before the previous stage was completed. Kovitz brought up the wiki and sketched out "wiki magic," the mysterious process by which communities with common interests work to improve wiki pages by incremental contributions. If it worked for the rambunctious hacker culture of programming, Kovitz said, it could work for any online collaborative project. The wiki could break the Nupedia bottleneck by permitting volunteers to work simultaneously all over the project. With Kovitz in tow, Sanger rushed back to his apartment and called Wales to share the idea. Over the next few days he wrote a formal proposal for Wales and started a page on Cunningham's wiki called "WikiPedia."
- "WikiPedia". WikiWikiWeb. January 19, 2008. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (April 18, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia: A Memoir". SourceForge (Slashdot). Retrieved 2007-03-25. "The actual development of this encyclopedia was the task he gave me to work on. So I arrived in San Diego in early February, 2000, to get to work. One of the first things I asked Jimmy is how free a rein I had in designing the project. What were my constraints, and in what areas was I free to exercise my own creativity? He replied, as I clearly recall, that most of the decisions should be mine; and in most respects, as a manager, Jimmy was indeed very hands-off. Nevertheless, I always did consult with him about important decisions, and moreover, I wanted his advice. Now, Jimmy was quite clear that he wanted the project to be in principle open to everyone to develop, just as open source software is (to an extent). Beyond this, however, I believe I was given a pretty free rein. So I spent the first month or so thinking very broadly about different possibilities."—Larry Sanger.
• Sanger, Larry (April 19, 2005). "The Early History of Nupedia and Wikipedia, Part II". SourceForge (Slashdot). Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sidener, Jonathan (October 9, 2006). "Wikipedia family feud rooted in San Diego". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2009-05-05.
- "Larry Sanger on co-founding Wikipedia and how online education could change the world". Retrieved 2012-12-28. "At first I resigned as Chief Organizer of Wikipedia – that was my title, by the way. I was never called 'Editor'."
- Singer, Michael (January 16, 2002). "Free Encyclopedia Project Celebrates Year One". Jupitermedia. Archived from the original on March 16, 2003. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Wales has supplied the financial backing and other support for the project, and Sanger, who earned a PhD in Philosophy from Ohio State in 2000, has led the project."
- Tally, Steve (March 20, 2006). "Wikipedia co-founder to speak on campus". Purdue University News Service. Archived from the original on October 17, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Blundo, Joe (April 26, 2007). "Web encyclopedia won't include 'giving up'". The Columbus Dispatch. Retrieved 2007-04-26.[dead link]
- Pink, Daniel H (March 2005). "The Book Stops Here". Wired. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Terdiman, Daniel (January 6, 2006). "Wikipedia's co-founder eyes a Digital Universe". CNET. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Larry Sanger (February 28, 2009). Larry Sanger – SISCTI 34 (SWF,FLV,FLASH) (Videotaped) (in English, Español). Monterrey, México: SISCTI. Event occurs at 19:09.
- Sanger, Larry. "THE FATE OF EXPERTISE AFTER WIKIPEDIA" (PDF). larrysanger.org. LAWRENCE M. SANGER. Retrieved August 21, 2011.
- Aviv, Rachel (January 10, 2006). "Mondo Wikipedia". The Village Voice. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "An Appreciation of the Donegal Fiddle". GeoCities. Archived from the original on October 26, 2009. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Lawrence Sanger, PhD, Director of Distributed Content Programs". Digital Universe. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Digital Universe Seeks to Become Free 'PBS of the Web'". PR Newswire (Digital Universe). January 17, 2006. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Contributor: Lawrence Sanger". Encyclopedia of Earth (Digital Universe). Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "About the EoE". Encyclopedia of Earth (Digital Universe). Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (April 2006). "Text and Collaboration: A personal manifesto for the Text Outline Project". The Text Outline Project. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Niccolai, James (September 26, 2006). "Wikipedia to fight vandals in Germany". InfoWorld. Retrieved 2009-10-15.
- "Next Wikipedia, take a right". Wikipedia, Citizendium, and the politics of knowledge: An interview with Larry Sanger (Dossier Open Source). Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Citizendium FAQ". Citizendium. March 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Fisher, Ken (September 19, 2006). "New Citizendium to correct Wikipedia's wrongs?". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- "Citizendium". Citizendium. March 25, 2007. Retrieved 2007-03-25.
- Sanger, Larry (June 2007). "Education 2.0". Egon Zehnder International (The Focus Online). Retrieved 2007-06-01. "The future of education could lie in a digital degree-granting institution that lives on the Internet."
- Keen, Andrew (June 2, 2008). "Andrew Keen on New Media". The Independent (London). Retrieved 2008-06-08.
- Sanger, Larry (March 25, 2007). "We have launched". Citizendium Blog. Retrieved 2007-03-25.[dead link]
- McNichol, Tom (March 1, 2007). "Building a Wiki World". Business 2.0 (CNN). Retrieved 2007-03-25."I'm sort of like a British monarch," Wales said, while smiling.
- Anderson, Nate (February 25, 2007). "Citizendium: building a better Wikipedia". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Citizendium has over 500 participants, most of whom have been individually screened. Growth has been sometimes erratic; Sanger says that the site gained 50–75 contributors on a single day after being featured on Slashdot. Edits have now topped 500 per day, which Sanger says compares favorably with the earliest days of Wikipedia."
- Thomson, Iain (April 13, 2007). "Wikipedia 'broken beyond repair' says co-founder". iTnews. Retrieved 2011-12-18.
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- "Use with caution: The perils of Wikipedia". CNN. Associated Press. November 4, 2007. Retrieved 2007-11-04.
- McCarthy, Caroline (January 23, 2007). "Citizendium: Wikipedia co-founder Sanger's Wikipedia rival". CNET News. Retrieved 2007-04-05. "There will also be "gentle expert oversight" to provide some guidance, and presumably to prevent future wiki-vandalism in the manner of Stephen Colbert."
- "Citizendium After One Year". Slashdot. October 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
- "Citizendium Wiki Celebrates One Year Online New Knowledge Society Takes Root, Flourishes". Citizendium Press Release — October 30, 2007 (Citizendium). October 30, 2007. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
- Sanger, Larry (October 30, 2007). "The Citizendium one year on: a strong start and an amazing future". Citizendium. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
- Sanger, Larry (October 30, 2007). "The coming explosion of growth". Citizendium. Retrieved 2007-10-30.
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- Tiwari, Neha (April 5, 2007). "Wikipedia today, Citizendium tomorrow". CNET. Retrieved 2007-04-05. "Sanger now believes that the world deserves something better than his former start-up when it comes to online research."
- Frith, Holden (March 26, 2007). "Wikipedia founder launches rival online encyclopaedia". The Times (London). Retrieved 2007-03-27.
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- Kamm, Oliver (August 16, 2007). "Wisdom? More like dumbness of the crowds". The Times (London). Retrieved 2007-08-16. "Wikipedia seeks not truth but consensus, and like an interminable political meeting the end result will be dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices."
- Hendry, Andrew (June 6, 2007). "Who's behind Wikipedia?". Computer World. Retrieved 2009-02-13.
- Orlowski, Andrew (September 18, 2006). "Wikipedia founder forks Wikipedia". More experts, less fiddling? (The Register). Retrieved 2007-03-25. "Larry Sanger describes the Citizendium project as a "progressive or gradual fork," with the major difference that experts have the final say over edits."
- Sanger, Larry. "CZ:We aren't Wikipedia". Citizendium. Retrieved 2007-10-04.
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- "About WatchKnow". WatchKnow.org. Retrieved 2009-12-29.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Larry Sanger|
- Larry Sanger on Twitter
- Larry Sanger on Facebook
- Larry Sanger – Sanger's personal website.
- User:Larry Sanger – Sanger's account on the English Wikipedia.
- User:Larry Sanger/Origins of Wikipedia – An essay discussing the origins of Wikipedia.
- Epistemic Circularity: An Essay on the Problem of Meta-Justification – index.
- Looong interview with me by Dan Schneider in Cosmoetica – An in-depth interview with Sanger.
- Video interview: Larry Sanger talks about Wikipedia and his plans with Citizendium – Mostly in English, with a German introduction and subtitles.