Larut War

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Part of a series on the
History of Malaysia
The independence of Malaya and the merger proclamation of North Borneo and Sarawak to formed Malaysia.
Timeline
Portal icon Malaysia portal

Larut War was a series of four wars started in July 1861 and ended with the signing of the Pangkor Treaty of 1874. The conflict was fought among local Chinese secret societies over the control of mining areas in Perak which later involved rivalry between Raja Abdullah and Ngah Ibrahim.

First war (1861-1862)[edit]

The First Larut War began in July 1861 when arguments over control of watercourse to their mines escalated and led members of the Hai San Society to drive the members of the Ghee Hin society out of Klian Bahru (now known as Kamunting).[1][2][3][4] The Governor of Straits Settlements, William Orfeur Cavenagh intervened and the Mentri of Larut, Ngah Ibrahim, was made to compensate the Ghee Hin with $17,447 on behalf of the Sultan of Perak.[5][6][7][8][9]

Second war (1865)[edit]

The Second Larut War took place in 1865 and was sparked off by a gambling quarrel in June of that year between members of the two opposing secret societies. The Hai San members took 14 Ghee Hin as prisoners, 13 of whom were killed. The 14th escaped to inform his clan and the Ghee Hin retaliated by attacking a Hai San village, razing it to the ground and killing 40 men in the process. The battle continued back and forth and spread to Province Wellesley and the island of Penang while other secret societies started to join the fray. Both sides were later exhausted and finally decided to come to terms. An official inquiry took place and both the Hai San and Ghee Hin societies were fined $5,000 each for violating the peace of Penang and their leaders exiled.[10][11][12][13]

By around 1870, there were a combined total of about 40,000 Hakka and Cantonese mine workers in the Larut district and the mining areas between the two groups were near to each other. It is this proximity that might explain how the next battle began.[14][15]

Third war (1871-1872)[edit]

The Third Larut War was rumoured to have erupted in 1871 over a scandal - an extra-marital relationship involving the Ghee Hin leader and the wife of a nephew of the Hai San leader, Chung Keng Quee. Upon discovery, the adulterous couple was caught, tortured, put into a pig basket and thrown into a disused mining pond where they drowned. Avenging the death of their leader, Ghee Hin had 4,000 mercenaries imported from mainland China via Penang attack the Hai San and for the first time, the Hai San were driven out of Larut. About 10,000 Hai San men sought refuge in Penang. Months later, the Hai San supported by Ngah Ibrahim recovered their Matang and Larut mines. At this time, Raja Abdullah a claimant to the throne of Perak and an enemy of Ngah Ibrahim, took sides against the Hai San and Ngah Ibrahim and the wars between the Chinese miners transformed into civil war involving the Malay chiefs of Perak.[16][17][18][19][20][21][22][23]

Final war and the Pangkor Treaty[edit]

The Fourth Larut War occurred in 1873, merely a year after the previous battle. Weeks after Hai Sans regained Larut, Ghee Hin, supported by Raja Abdullah, counter-attacked with arms and men from Singapore and China. Ngah Ibrahim's properties in Matang were destroyed. Local Malay residents were also killed and their property, destroyed. Trouble spread to Krian, Pangkor and Dinding. The quarrelling Malay chiefs who had taken sides in the Larut Wars were now alarmed at the disorder created by the Chinese miners and secret societies. The Straits Settlement Penang Chinese seeing their investments destroyed in the Larut Wars sought intervention form British. Over 40,000 Chinese from the Go-Kuan and Si-Kuan were engaged in the fratricidal war involving the Perak royal family.[24][25][26][27][28]

The Perak sultanate, involved in a protracted succession struggle was unable to maintain order. Things were increasingly getting out of hand and chaos was proving bad for the Malays, Chinese and British.[29][30][31][32][33][34][35] In her book "The Golden Chersonese and The Way Thither" (Published 1892 G.P. Putnam's Sons) Victorian traveller and adventuress Isabella Lucy Bird (1831–1904) describes how Raja Muda Abdullah as he then was turned to his friend in Singapore, Tan Kim Ching. Tan, together with an English merchant in Singapore drafted a letter to Governor Sir Andrew Clarke which Abdullah signed. The letter expressed Abdullah's desire to place Perak under British protection, and "to have a man of sufficient abilities to show (him) a good system of government."[36][37][38][39] On the 26th of September, 1872 Chung Keng Quee had already presented a petition, signed by himself and 44 other Chinese leaders, seeking British interference following the attack of 12,000 men of Chung Shan by 2,000 men of Sen Ning.[40][41][42] (The Petition)

The need to restore law and order in Perak gave cause for a new British policy concerning intervention in the affairs of the Malay States which resulted in the Pangkor Treaty. In 1874, the Straits Settlements governor Sir Andrew Clarke convened a meeting on Pulau Pangkor, at which Sultan Abdullah was installed on the throne of Perak in preference to his rival, Sultan Ismail.[43][44][45]

Documents were signed on 20 January 1874 aboard the ship The Pluto at Pangkor Island to settle the Chinese dispute, clear the Sultan succession dispute and pave the way for the acceptance of British Residency - Captain Speedy was appointed to administer Larut as assistant to the British Resident.[46][47][48][49][50][51]

Chung Keng Quee and Chin Ah Yam, leaders of the Hai San and Ghee Hin, respectively, were ennobled by the British with the title of Chinese Kapitan and the town of Larut was renamed Taiping ("太平" in Chinese, meaning "everlasting peace") as a confirmation of the new state of truce. Three days later, Chung Keng Quee was appointed a member of the Pacification Commission headed by Captain S. Dunlop and Messrs. Frank Swettenham and William A. Pickering - one of the objectives of the commission was to arrange an amicable settlement of the squabbles over the tin mines at Larut.[52][53][54][55][56]

The Commissioners decided to allocate the mines in Klian Pauh (Taiping) to the Hai Sans and the mines in Klian Bharu (Kamunting) to the Ghee Hins.[57][58]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Notes on the Larut Disturbances by Khoo Kay Kim, A history of Perak, Sir Richard Olof Winstedt, Richard James Wilkinson, Sir William Edward Maxwell, republished by Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1974, PPiv&v
  2. ^ History of Malaya, 1400-1959, Joginder Singh Jessy, Jointly published by the United Publishers and Peninsular Publications, 1963, P151
  3. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore, Soo Hai Ding Eing Tan, Oxford University Press, 1978, ISBN 0195807227, ISBN 9780195807226, PP78&123
  4. ^ The Malayan tin industry to 1914: with special reference to the states of Perak, Selangor, Negri, Sembilan, and Pahang by Lin Ken Wong, Published for the Association for Asian Studies by the University of Arizona Press, 1965, P27
  5. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore, Soo Hai Ding Eing Tan, Oxford University Press, 1978, ISBN 0195807227, ISBN 9780195807226, PP79
  6. ^ The Western Malay States, 1850-1873: the effects of commercial development on Malay politics, Kay Kim Khoo, Oxford University Press, 1972, P129
  7. ^ A history of Malaya, Joseph Kennedy, Macmillan, 1970, P138
  8. ^ A short history of Malaya, Gerald Percy Dartford, Longmans, Green, 1963, P128
  9. ^ The Making of Modern South-East Asia: The European conquest, D. J. M. Tate, Oxford University Press, 1971, P276
  10. ^ History of Malaya, 1400-1959, Joginder Singh Jessy, Jointly published by the United Publishers and Peninsular Publications, 1963, P152
  11. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 64, MBRAS, 1991, P10
  12. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore, Soo Hai Ding Eing Tan, Oxford University Press, 1978, ISBN 0195807227, ISBN 9780195807226, P79
  13. ^ The impact of Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a historical study, Wilfred Blythe, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs [by] Oxford U.P., 1969, P115
  14. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 36, Part 2, MBRAS, 1968, P44
  15. ^ The dynamics of Chinese dialect groups in early Malaya, Lau-Fong Mak, Singapore Society of Asian Studies, 1995, P72
  16. ^ The Making of Modern South-East Asia: The European conquest, D. J. M. Tate, Oxford University Press, 1971, PP274&276
  17. ^ A gallery of Chinese kapitans, Choon San Wong, Ministry of Culture, Singapore, 1963, P72
  18. ^ The journals of J. W. W. Birch, first British resident to Perak, 1874-1875, James Wheeler Woodford Birch, Oxford University Press, 1976
  19. ^ The Chinese in Malaya, Victor Purcell, Oxford Univ. Press, 1948, P107
  20. ^ Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a survey of the Triad Society from 1800 to 1900, Leon Comber, Published for the Association for Asian Studies by J.J. Augustin, 1959, P158
  21. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore, Soo Hai Ding Eing Tan, Oxford University Press, 1978 ISBN 0195807227, ISBN 9780195807226, P80
  22. ^ The impact of Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a historical study, Wilfred Blythe, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Oxford U.P., 1969, P179
  23. ^ Triad and tabut: a survey of the origin and diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan secret societies in the Malay Peninsula, A.D. 1800-1935, Parts 1800-1935, Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne, Govt. Print. Off., 1941, PP267,270
  24. ^ Triad and tabut: a survey of the origin and diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan secret societies in the Malay Peninsula, A.D. 1800-1935, Parts 1800-1935, Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne, Govt. Print. Off., 1941, P270,275
  25. ^ History of Malaya, 1400-1959Joginder Singh Jessy, Jointly published by the United Publishers and Peninsular Publications, 1963, P158
  26. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore, Soo Hai Ding Eing Tan, Oxford University Press, 1978, ISBN 0195807227, ISBN 9780195807226, P
  27. ^ The first 150 years of Singapore, Donald Moore, Joanna Moore, 1969, P361
  28. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 64, MBRAS, 1991, P11
  29. ^ A History of Malaysia By Barbara Watson Andaya, Leonard Y. Andaya, Palgrave Macmillan, 1984, ISBN 0312381212, ISBN 9780312381219, P150-151
  30. ^ A portrait of Malaysia and Singapore, Soo Hai Ding Eing Tan, Oxford University Press, 1978, ISBN 0195807227, ISBN 9780195807226, P80
  31. ^ Pasir Salak: pusat gerakan menentang British di Perak, Abdullah Zakaria Ghazali, Yayasan Perak, 1997, PP8,24
  32. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 64, MBRAS, 1991, P13
  33. ^ Triad and tabut: a survey of the origin and diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan secret societies in the Malay Peninsula, A.D. 1800-1935, Parts 1800-1935, Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne, Govt. Print. Off., 1941, P279
  34. ^ The development of British Malaya 1896-1909, Hon-chan Chai, Oxford U.P., 1968, P5
  35. ^ A short history of Malaysia, Singapore and Brunei, Constance Mary Turnbull, Graham Brash, 1981, P134
  36. ^ The Golden Chersonese and the Way Thither, By Isabella Bird, Cambridge University Press, 2010, ISBN 1108014739, ISBN 9781108014731, P269
  37. ^ Life of Lieutenant General the Honorable Sir Andrew Clarke, By Robert Hamilton Vetch, Kessinger Publishing, 2005, ISBN 1417951303, ISBN 9781417951307, P149
  38. ^ The impact of Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a historical study, Wilfred Blythe, Royal Institute of International Affairs, Oxford U.P., 1969, P186
  39. ^ British Intervention in Malaya, 1867-1877Cyril Northcote Parkinson, University of Malaya Press, 1964, PP122, 255
  40. ^ Triad and tabut: a survey of the origin and diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan secret societies in the Malay Peninsula, A.D. 1800-1935, Parts 1800-1935, Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne, Govt. Print. Off., 1941, P276
  41. ^ A gallery of Chinese kapitansChoon San Wong, Ministry of Culture, Singapore, 1963, P102
  42. ^ The impact of Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a historical study, Wilfred Blythe, Issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs [by] Oxford U.P., 1969, P177
  43. ^ Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei By Simon Richmond, Lonely Planet, 2010, ISBN 1741048877, ISBN 9781741048872, P144
  44. ^ Triad and tabut: a survey of the origin and diffusion of Chinese and Mohamedan secret societies in the Malay Peninsula, A.D. 1800-1935, Parts 1800-1935, Mervyn Llewelyn Wynne, Govt. Print. Off., 1941, P299
  45. ^ Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a survey of the Triad Society from 1800 to 1900, Leon Comber, Published for the Association for Asian Studies by J.J. Augustin, 1959, P200
  46. ^ Nineteenth-century Malaya: the origins of British political control, Charles Donald Cowan, Oxford University Press, 1967, P184
  47. ^ Swettenham by Henry Sackville Barlow, Southdene, 1995, P119
  48. ^ Footprints in Malaya by Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham, Hutchinson, 1942, P30
  49. ^ Journal of the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, Volume 27, MBRAS, 1 Jan 1954, P12
  50. ^ Imperial Connections: India in the Indian Ocean Arena, 1860-1920 By Thomas R. Metcalf, University of California Press, 2008, ISBN 0520258053, ISBN 9780520258051, P39
  51. ^ Absent history: the untold story of Special Branch Operations in Singapore, 1915-1942, Kah Choon Ban, Raffles, 2001, ISBN 9814071021, 9789814071024, P41
  52. ^ The Mandarin-Capitalists from Nanyang: Overseas Chinese Enterprise in the Modernisation of China 1893-1911 By Michael R. Godle, Cambridge University Press, Jul 25, 2002, ISBN 0521526957, ISBN 9780521526951, P28
  53. ^ A gallery of Chinese kapitans, Choon San Wong, Ministry of Culture, Singapore, 1963, P77
  54. ^ Rough guide to Malaysia, Singapore & Brunei By Charles de Ledesma, Mark Lewis, Pauline Savage, ISBN 1843530945, ISBN 9781843530947, P181
  55. ^ Taiping, ibukota Perak by Kay Kim Khoo, Persatuan Muzium Malaysia, 1981, P8
  56. ^ The evolution of the urban system in Malaya, Heng Kow Lim. Penerbit Universiti Malaya, 1978, PP51&54
  57. ^ A gallery of Chinese kapitans by Choon San Wong, Ministry of Culture, Singapore. 1963, P78
  58. ^ The impact of Chinese secret societies in Malaya: a historical study by Wilfred Blythe, Issued under the auspices of the Royal Institute of International Affairs [by] Oxford U.P., 1969, PP121, 123, 180

Further reading[edit]

  • Chung Keng Quee
  • Southeast Asia: a historical encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Volume 2Southeast Asia: A Historical Encyclopedia, from Angkor Wat to East Timor, Edited by Keat Gin Ooi, Published by ABC-CLIO, 2004, ISBN 1576077705, ISBN 9781576077702, P775
  • Ipoh: when tin was king By Ho Tak Ming, Perak Academy, 2009, ISBN 9834250029, ISBN 9789834250027, PP9&67
  • Thai south and Malay north: ethnic interactions on the plural Peninsula, Michael John Montesano, Patrick Jory, NUS Press, 2008, ISBN 9971694115, ISBN 9789971694111, P208
  • Fifteenth Report of the United States Civil Service Commission, Congressional edition, Volume 3826, United States Congress, U.S. G.P.O., 1899, PP529, 530, 534
  • The New Encyclopædia Britannica, Volume 9, 2003, ISBN 0852299613, ISBN 9780852299616, PP113,278
  • Sir Frank Swettenham's Malayan journals, 1874-1876 by Sir Frank Athelstane Swettenham, illustrated, reprint, Oxford University Press, 1975
  • Nineteenth-century Malaya: the origins of British political control, Volume 11 of London oriental series, Charles Donald Cowan, Oxford University Press, 1967
  • In search of Southeast Asia: a modern history, David P. Chandler, David Joel Steinberg, University of Hawaii Press, 1987, ISBN 0824811100, ISBN 9780824811105
  • In quest of unity: the centralization theme in Malaysian Federal-State relations, 1957–75, Issue 39 of Occasional paper, Institute of Southeast Asian Studies, Robert O. Tilman, Institute of Southeast Asian, 1976
  • Monthly summary of commerce and finance of the United States, United States. Dept. of the Treasury. Bureau of Statistics, United States. Dept. of Commerce and Labor. Bureau of Statistics, United States. Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, GPO, 1901, PP1249&1250
  • The protected Malay States, 1874-1895, Emily Sadka, University of Malaya Press, 1968
  • Papers on Malayan history, K. G. Tregonning, Journal South-East Asian History, 1962
  • Papers on Malay subjects, Richard James Wilkinson, Oxford University Press, 1971
  • A history of Perak, Issue 3 of M.B.R.A.S. reprints, Sir Richard Olof Winstedt, Richard James Wilkinson, Sir William Edward Maxwell, MBRAS, 1974
  • Pickering: protector of Chinese, Robert Nicholas Jackson, Oxford U. P., 1966
  • The development of the tin mining industry of Malaya, Yat Hoong Yip, University of Malaya Press, 1969
  • The Malayan tin industry to 1914: with special reference to the states of Perak, Selangor, Negri, Sembilan, and Pahang, Volume 14 of Monographs of the Association for Asian Studies, Lin Ken Wong, University of Arizona Press, 1965
  • The Malay States, 1877-1895: political change and social policy, Philip Fook Seng Loh, Oxford University Press, 1969