Adam's apple

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Laryngeal prominence
Gray1195.png
Front view of the laryngeal prominence.
Latin Prominentia laryngea
Precursor 4th and 6th branchial arch

The laryngeal prominence (commonly referred to as the Adam's apple), a feature of the human neck, refers to the lump or protrusion that is formed by the angle of the thyroid cartilage surrounding the larynx.

Structure[edit]

The structure of the laryngeal prominence forms a bump under the skin. It is larger in adult men, in whom it is usually clearly visible and palpable. In women the bump is much less visible and is hardly perceived on the upper edge of the thyroid cartilage.[1]

The meeting point of the two portions of the cartilage generally forms an acute angle (of about 90°) in men, while in women, an open arc (of about 120°).

Sex difference[edit]

Although both sexes have it, Adam's apples are considered to be a characteristic feature of adult men, because its size tends to increase considerably during puberty.[2]

Its development is considered a secondary sexual characteristic of males that appears as a result of hormonal activity. Its level of development varies among individuals and the widening of that area in the larynx can occur very suddenly and quickly.

Function[edit]

The Adam's apple, in conjunction with the thyroid cartilage which forms it, helps to protect the walls and the frontal part of the larynx, including the vocal cords (which are located directly behind it).

Another function of the laryngeal prominence is related to the deepening of the voice. During adolescence, the thyroid cartilage grows together with the larynx. Consequently, the laryngeal prominence grows in size mainly in men. Together, a larger soundboard is made up in phonation apparatus and, as a result, the man gets a deeper tone.[3][4]

Society and culture[edit]

Cosmetic surgery to reduce the size of laryngeal prominence is called chondrolaryngoplasty (thyroid chondroplasty). The surgery is effective, such that complications tend to be few and, if present, transient.[5]

History[edit]

Etymology[edit]

An example of male laryngeal prominence.

There are two main theories as to the origin of the term' "Adam's apple". The "Brewer's Dictionary of Phrase and Fable" and the 1913 edition of Webster's Dictionary point at an ancient belief that a piece of forbidden fruit was embedded in Adam's throat (the first man, according to Abrahamic religions).[6] However, neither the Bible nor other Judeo-Christian writings mention such a story. In fact, the biblical story does not even specify the type of fruit that Adam ate.[7]

Linguist Alexander Gode claimed that the Latin phrase to designate the laryngeal prominence was very probably translated incorrectly from the beginning. The phrase in Latin was "pomum Adami" (literally: 'Adam's apple'). This, in turn, came from the Hebrew "tappuach ha adam" meaning "apple of man". The confusion lies in the fact that in Hebrew language the proper name "Adam" (אדם) literally means "man", while the late Hebrew word used to refer "bump" is very similar to the word used to refer "apple".[8][9] Proponents of this version contend that the subsequent phrases in Latin and other Romance languages represent a mistranslation from the beginning.[10]

The medical term "prominentia laryngea" was introduced by the Basle Nomina Anatomica in 1895.[11]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Laringe". Sisbib.unmsm.edu.pe. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  2. ^ "Prominentia laryngea Medical Term Medical Dictionary". Medicine Online. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  3. ^ P. J. Bentley (1980), "Endocrine Pharmacology: Physiological Basis and Therapeutic Applications", CUP Archive, pág 240
  4. ^ "Pubertad, nuestras diferencias". Esmas.com. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  5. ^ Wolfort FG, Dejerine ES, Ramos DJ, Parry RG (1990). "Chondrolaryngoplasty for appearance". Plast. Reconstr. Surg. 86 (3): 464–9; discussion 470. doi:10.1097/00006534-199009000-00012. PMID 2385664. 
  6. ^ E. Cobham Brewer (1810–1897). Dictionary of Phrase and Fable. 1898. "Adam's Apple"
  7. ^ George Crabb (1823), "Universal technological dictionary", Baldwin, Cradock, and Joy, "Pomum Ada'mi"
  8. ^ William S. Haubrich (2003), "Medical Meanings: A Glossary of Word Origins", ACP Press, pág 5.
  9. ^ "Adam's apple". Medicine.academic.ru. Retrieved 2013-02-27. 
  10. ^ Robert B. Taylor (2008), "White Coat Tales: Medicine's Heroes, Heritage and Misadventures", Springer, pág 82.
  11. ^ Axel Karenberg, Amor, Äskulap & Co: klassische Mythologie in der Sprache der modernen Medizin, Schattauer, Stuttgart 2006, S. 128-129.

External links[edit]