Lidar (also written LIDAR or LiDAR) is a remote sensing technology that measures distance by illuminating a target with a laser and analyzing the reflected light. The term lidar comes from combining the words light and radar.
Lidar is popularly known as a technology used to make high resolution maps, geomatics, archaeology, geography, geology, geomorphology, seismology, forestry, remote sensing, atmospheric physics, airborne laser swath mapping (ALSM), laser altimetry, and contour mapping.
History and etymology of lidar/LIDAR
Lidar was developed in the early 1960s, shortly after the invention of the laser, and combined laser’s focused imaging with radar’s ability to calculate distances by measuring the time for the signal to return. Its first applications were in meteorology, where it was used to measure clouds by the National Center for Atmospheric Research.
Although commonly considered to be an acronym, the term lidar is more likely a portmanteau of "light" and "radar." The first published mention of lidar makes this clear: "Eventually the laser may provide an extremely sensitive detector of particular wavelengths from distant objects. Meanwhile, it is being used to study the moon by 'lidar' (light radar)..." The Oxford English Dictionary supports this etymology.
The assumption that lidar was an acronym (LIDAR) came later, beginning in 1970, and was based on the assumption that since the base term "radar" originally started as an acronym for "RAdio Detection And Ranging", that LIDAR must stand for "LIght Detection And Ranging", or "Laser Imaging, Detection and Ranging". Although "radar" is no longer treated as an acronym and is universally uncapitalized, the word "lidar" became capitalized as LIDAR in some publications beginning in the 1980s. Today there is no consensus in capitalization, reflecting uncertainty about whether or not it is an acronym, and if it is an acronym, if it should be lowercase, like "radar". Lidar is also sometimes spelled "LIDAR", "LiDAR", "LIDaR", or "Lidar", depending on the publication, the USGS uses both LIDAR and lidar, sometimes in the same document, and the New York Times uses both "lidar" and "Lidar".
Lidar uses ultraviolet, visible, or near infrared light to image objects and can be used with a wide range of targets, including non-metallic objects, rocks, rain, chemical compounds, aerosols, clouds and even single molecules. A narrow laser beam can be used to map physical features with very high resolution.
Lidar has been used extensively for atmospheric research and meteorology. Downward-looking lidar instruments fitted to aircraft and satellites are used for surveying and mapping – a recent example being the NASA Experimental Advanced Research Lidar. In addition lidar has been identified by NASA as a key technology for enabling autonomous precision safe landing of future robotic and crewed lunar landing vehicles.
Wavelengths from about 10 micrometers to the UV (ca. 250 nm) are used to suit the target. Typically light is reflected via backscattering. Different types of scattering are used for different lidar applications; most common are Rayleigh scattering, Mie scattering, Raman scattering, and fluorescence. Based on different kinds of backscattering, the lidar can be accordingly called Rayleigh Lidar, Mie Lidar, Raman Lidar, Na/Fe/K Fluorescence Lidar, and so on. Suitable combinations of wavelengths can allow for remote mapping of atmospheric contents by looking for wavelength-dependent changes in the intensity of the returned signal.
In general there are two kinds of lidar detection schemes: "incoherent" or direct energy detection (which is principally an amplitude measurement) and Coherent detection (which is best for doppler, or phase sensitive measurements). Coherent systems generally use Optical heterodyne detection, which, being more sensitive than direct detection, allows them to operate a much lower power but at the expense of more complex transceiver requirements.
In both coherent and incoherent lidar, there are two types of pulse models: micropulse lidar systems and high energy systems. Micropulse systems have developed as a result of the ever increasing amount of computer power available combined with advances in laser technology. They use considerably less energy in the laser, typically on the order of one microjoule, and are often "eye-safe," meaning they can be used without safety precautions. High-power systems are common in atmospheric research, where they are widely used for measuring many atmospheric parameters: the height, layering and densities of clouds, cloud particle properties (extinction coefficient, backscatter coefficient, depolarization), temperature, pressure, wind, humidity, trace gas concentration (ozone, methane, nitrous oxide, etc.).
There are several major components to a lidar system:
- Laser — 600–1000 nm lasers are most common for non-scientific applications. They are inexpensive, but since they can be focused and easily absorbed by the eye, the maximum power is limited by the need to make them eye-safe. Eye-safety is often a requirement for most applications. A common alternative, 1550 nm lasers, are eye-safe at much higher power levels since this wavelength is not focused by the eye, but the detector technology is less advanced and so these wavelengths are generally used at longer ranges and lower accuracies. They are also used for military applications as 1550 nm is not visible in night vision goggles, unlike the shorter 1000 nm infrared laser. Airborne topographic mapping lidars generally use 1064 nm diode pumped YAG lasers, while bathymetric systems generally use 532 nm frequency doubled diode pumped YAG lasers because 532 nm penetrates water with much less attenuation than does 1064 nm. Laser settings include the laser repetition rate (which controls the data collection speed). Pulse length is generally an attribute of the laser cavity length, the number of passes required through the gain material (YAG, YLF, etc.), and Q-switch speed. Better target resolution is achieved with shorter pulses, provided the lidar receiver detectors and electronics have sufficient bandwidth.
- Scanner and optics — How fast images can be developed is also affected by the speed at which they are scanned. There are several options to scan the azimuth and elevation, including dual oscillating plane mirrors, a combination with a polygon mirror, a dual axis scanner (see Laser scanning). Optic choices affect the angular resolution and range that can be detected. A hole mirror or a beam splitter are options to collect a return signal.
- Photodetector and receiver electronics — Two main photodetector technologies are used in lidars: solid state photodetectors, such as silicon avalanche photodiodes, or photomultipliers. The sensitivity of the receiver is another parameter that has to be balanced in a lidar design.
- Position and navigation systems — Lidar sensors that are mounted on mobile platforms such as airplanes or satellites require instrumentation to determine the absolute position and orientation of the sensor. Such devices generally include a Global Positioning System receiver and an Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU).
3D imaging can be achieved using both scanning and non-scanning systems. "3D gated viewing laser radar" is a non-scanning laser ranging system that applies a pulsed laser and a fast gated camera.
Imaging lidar can also be performed using arrays of high speed detectors and modulation sensitive detectors arrays typically built on single chips using CMOS and hybrid CMOS/CCD fabrication techniques. In these devices each pixel performs some local processing such as demodulation or gating at high speed down converting the signals to video rate so that the array may be read like a camera. Using this technique many thousands of pixels / channels may be acquired simultaneously. High resolution 3D lidar cameras use homodyne detection with an electronic CCD or CMOS shutter.
Other than those applications listed above, there are a wide variety of applications of lidar, as often mentioned in National LIDAR Dataset programs.
Lidar also can be used to help farmers determine which areas of their fields to apply costly fertilizer. Lidar can create a topographical map of the fields and reveals the slopes and sun exposure of the farm land. Researchers at the Agricultural Research Service blended this topographical information with the farm land’s yield results from previous years. From this information, researchers categorized the farm land into high-, medium-, or low-yield zones. This technology is valuable to farmers because it indicates which areas to apply the expensive fertilizers to achieve the highest crop yield.
Lidar has many applications in the field of archaeology including aiding in the planning of field campaigns, mapping features beneath forest canopy, and providing an overview of broad, continuous features that may be indistinguishable on the ground. Lidar can also provide archaeologists with the ability to create high-resolution digital elevation models (DEMs) of archaeological sites that can reveal micro-topography that are otherwise hidden by vegetation. LiDAR-derived products can be easily integrated into a Geographic Information System (GIS) for analysis and interpretation. For example at Fort Beauséjour - Fort Cumberland National Historic Site, Canada, previously undiscovered archaeological features below forest canopy have been mapped that are related to the siege of the Fort in 1755. Features that could not be distinguished on the ground or through aerial photography were identified by overlaying hillshades of the DEM created with artificial illumination from various angles. With lidar the ability to produce high-resolution datasets quickly and relatively cheaply can be an advantage. Beyond efficiency, its ability to penetrate forest canopy has led to the discovery of features that were not distinguishable through traditional geo-spatial methods and are difficult to reach through field surveys, as in work at Caracol by Arlen Chase and his wife Diane Zaino Chase. The intensity of the returned signal can be used to detect features buried under flat vegetated surfaces such as fields, especially when mapping using the infrared spectrum. The presence of these features affects plant growth and thus the amount of infrared light reflected back. In 2012, Lidar was used by a team attempting to find the legendary city of La Ciudad Blanca in the Honduran jungle. During a seven−day mapping period, they found evidence of extensive man-made structures that had eluded ground searches for hundreds of years. In June 2013 the rediscovery of the city of Mahendraparvata was announced.
Autonomous vehicles use lidar for obstacle detection and avoidance to navigate safely through environments.
Biology and conservation
Lidar has also found many applications in forestry. Canopy heights, biomass measurements, and leaf area can all be studied using airborne lidar systems. Similarly, lidar is also used by many industries, including Energy and Railroad, and the Department of Transportation as a faster way of surveying. Topographic maps can also be generated readily from lidar, including for recreational use such as in the production of orienteering maps.
In addition, the Save-the-Redwoods League is undertaking a project to map the tall redwoods on California's northern coast. Lidar allows research scientists to not only measure the height of previously unmapped trees but to determine the biodiversity of the redwood forest. Stephen Sillett who is working with the League on the North Coast Lidar project claims this technology will be useful in directing future efforts to preserve and protect ancient redwood trees.[full citation needed]
Geology and soil science
High-resolution digital elevation maps generated by airborne and stationary lidar have led to significant advances in geomorphology (the branch of geoscience concerned with the origin and evolution of Earth's surface topography). Lidar’s abilities to detect subtle topographic features such as river terraces and river channel banks, to measure the land-surface elevation beneath the vegetation canopy, to better resolve spatial derivatives of elevation, and to detect elevation changes between repeat surveys have enabled many novel studies of the physical and chemical processes that shape landscapes.
In geophysics and tectonics, a combination of aircraft-based lidar and GPS has evolved into an important tool for detecting faults and for measuring uplift. The output of the two technologies can produce extremely accurate elevation models for terrain - models that can even measure ground elevation through trees. This combination was used most famously to find the location of the Seattle Fault in Washington, USA. This combination also measures uplift at Mt. St. Helens by using data from before and after the 2004 uplift. Airborne lidar systems monitor glaciers and have the ability to detect subtle amounts of growth or decline. A satellite-based system, NASA's ICESat, includes a lidar sub-system for this purpose. NASA's Airborne Topographic Mapper is also used extensively to monitor glaciers and perform coastal change analysis. The combination is also used by soil scientists while creating a soil survey. The detailed terrain modeling allows soil scientists to see slope changes and landform breaks which indicate patterns in soil spatial relationships.
Meteorology and atmospheric environment
The first lidar systems were used for studies of atmospheric composition, structure, clouds, and aerosols. Initially based on ruby lasers, lidar for meteorological applications was constructed shortly after the invention of the laser and represent one of the first applications of laser technology.
Differential Absorption lidar (DIAL) is used for range-resolved measurements of a particular gas in the atmosphere, such as ozone, carbon dioxide, or water vapor. The lidar transmits two wavelengths: an "on-line" wavelength that is absorbed by the gas of interest and an off-line wavelength that is not absorbed. The differential absorption between the two wavelengths is a measure of the concentration of the gas as a function of range. DIAL lidars are essentially dual-wavelength backscatter lidars.
Doppler Lidar and Rayleigh Doppler Lidar are used to measure temperature and/or wind speed along the beam by measuring the frequency of the backscattered light. The Doppler broadening of gases in motion allows the determination of properties via the resulting frequency shift. Scanning lidars, such as NASA's HARLIE LIDAR, have been used to measure atmospheric wind velocity in a large three dimensional cone. ESA's wind mission ADM-Aeolus will be equipped with a Doppler lidar system in order to provide global measurements of vertical wind profiles. A doppler lidar system was used in the 2008 Summer Olympics to measure wind fields during the yacht competition. Doppler lidar systems are also now beginning to be successfully applied in the renewable energy sector to acquire wind speed, turbulence, wind veer and wind shear data. Both pulsed and continuous wave systems are being used. Pulsed systems using signal timing to obtain vertical distance resolution, whereas continuous wave systems rely on detector focusing.
Synthetic Array Lidar allows imaging lidar without the need for an array detector. It can be used for imaging Doppler velocimetry, ultra-fast frame rate (MHz) imaging, as well as for speckle reduction in coherent lidar. An extensive lidar bibliography for atmospheric and hydrospheric applications is given by Grant.
Few military applications are known to be in place and are classified, but a considerable amount of research is underway in their use for imaging. Higher resolution systems collect enough detail to identify targets, such as tanks. Examples of military applications of lidar include the Airborne Laser Mine Detection System (ALMDS) for counter-mine warfare by Areté Associates.
A NATO report (RTO-TR-SET-098) evaluated the potential technologies to do stand-off detection for the discrimination of biological warfare agents. The potential technologies evaluated were Long-Wave Infrared (LWIR), Differential Scatterring (DISC), and Ultraviolet Laser Induced Fluorescence (UV-LIF). The report concluded that : Based upon the results of the lidar systems tested and discussed above, the Task Group recommends that the best option for the near-term (2008–2010) application of stand-off detection systems is UV LIF . However, in the long-term, other techniques such as stand-off Raman spectroscopy may prove to be useful for identification of biological warfare agents.
Short-range compact spectrometric lidar based on Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) would address the presence of bio-threats in aerosol form over critical indoor, semi-enclosed and outdoor venues like stadiums, subways, and airports. This near real-time capability would enable rapid detection of a bioaerosol release and allow for timely implementation of measures to protect occupants and minimize the extent of contamination.
The Long-Range Biological Standoff Detection System (LR-BSDS) was developed for the US Army to provide the earliest possible standoff warning of a biological attack. It is an airborne system carried by a helicopter to detect man-made aerosol clouds containing biological and chemical agents at long range. The LR-BSDS, with a detection range of 30 km or more, was fielded in June 1997.
Lidar is used in the mining industry for various tasks. The calculation of ore volumes is accomplished by periodic (monthly) scanning in areas of ore removal, then comparing surface data to the previous scan.
Physics and astronomy
A worldwide network of observatories uses lidars to measure the distance to reflectors placed on the moon, allowing the moon's position to be measured with mm precision and tests of general relativity to be done. MOLA, the Mars Orbiting Laser Altimeter, used a lidar instrument in a Mars-orbiting satellite (the NASA Mars Global Surveyor) to produce a spectacularly precise global topographic survey of the red planet.
In atmospheric physics, lidar is used as a remote detection instrument to measure densities of certain constituents of the middle and upper atmosphere, such as potassium, sodium, or molecular nitrogen and oxygen. These measurements can be used to calculate temperatures. lidar can also be used to measure wind speed and to provide information about vertical distribution of the aerosol particles.
Lidar technology is being used in Robotics for the perception of the environment as well as object classification. The ability of lidar technology to provide three-dimensional elevation maps of the terrain, high precision distance to the ground, and approach velocity can enable safe landing of robotic and manned vehicles with a high degree of precision. Refer to the Military section above for further examples.
Lidar is increasingly being utilized for rangefinding and orbital element calculation of relative velocity in proximity operations and stationkeeping of spacecraft. Lidar has also been used for atmospheric studies from space. Using short pulses of laser light beamed from a spacecraft, some of that "light reflects off of tiny particles in the atmosphere and back to a telescope aligned with the laser. By precisely timing the lidar 'echo,' and by measuring how much laser light is received by the telescope, scientists can accurately determine the location, distribution and nature of the particles. The result is a revolutionary new tool for studying constituents in the atmosphere, from cloud droplets to industrial pollutants, that are difficult to detect by other means."
Airborne lidar sensors are used by companies in the remote sensing field. It can be used to create DTM (Digital Terrain Models) and DEM (Digital Elevation Models) this is quite a common practice for larger areas as a plane can take in a 1 km wide swath in one flyover. Greater vertical accuracy of below 50 mm can be achieved with a lower flyover and a slimmer 200 m swath, even in forest, where it is able to give you the height of the canopy as well as the ground elevation. A reference point is needed to link the data in with the WGS (World Geodetic System) In fact, it works a lot like ordinary radar, except that these systems send out narrow pulses or beams of light rather than broad radio waves.
Lidar has been used in Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) systems for automobiles. Systems such as those by Siemens and Hella use a lidar device mounted on the front of the vehicle, such as the bumper, to monitor the distance between the vehicle and any vehicle in front of it. In the event the vehicle in front slows down or is too close, the ACC applies the brakes to slow the vehicle. When the road ahead is clear, the ACC allows the vehicle to accelerate to a speed preset by the driver. Refer to the Military section above for further examples.
Wind farm optimization
Lidar can be used to increase the energy output from wind farms by accurately measuring wind speeds and wind turbulence. An experimental lidar is mounted on a wind turbine rotor to measure oncoming horizontal winds, and proactively adjust blades to protect components and increase power.
Solar photovoltaic deployment optimization
The video for the song "House of Cards" by Radiohead was believed to be the first use of real-time 3D laser scanning to record a music video. The range data in the video is not completely from a lidar, as structured light scanning is also used.
Recent development of Structure From Motion (SFM) technologies allows delivering 3D images and maps based on data extracted from visual and IR photography. The elevation or 3D data is extracted using multiple parallel passes over mapped area, yielding both visual light image and 3D structure from the same sensor, which is often a specially chosen and calibrated digital camera.
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|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Lidar|
- The USGS Center for LIDAR Information Coordination and Knowledge (CLICK) - A website intended to "facilitate data access, user coordination and education of lidar remote sensing for scientific needs."
- How Lidar Works
- LiDAR Research Group (LRG), University of Heidelberg
- Forecast 3D Lidar Scanner manufactured by Autonomous Solutions, Inc : 3D Point Cloud and Obstacle Detection
- Free online lidar data viewer