Lasker Award

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The Lasker Awards have been awarded annually since 1946 to living persons who have made major contributions to medical science or who have performed public service on behalf of medicine. They are administered by the Lasker Foundation, founded by Albert Lasker and his wife Mary Woodard Lasker (later a medical research activist). The awards are sometimes referred to as "America's Nobels". Eighty-six Lasker laureates have received the Nobel Prize, including 32 in the last two decades.[1][2] Claire Pomeroy is the current President of the Foundation.

The four main awards are:[1]

Alcoholics Anonymous received a Group Citation from the Lasker Foundation in 1951.[3]

A collection of papers from the Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation were donated to the National Library of Medicine by Mrs. Albert D. Lasker in April of 1985. [4]

Recent awards[edit]

Recent winners include the following:

Year Award Laureate(s) Reason
2013 Basic Richard H. Scheller For discoveries concerning the molecular machinery and regulatory mechanism that underlie the rapid release of neurotransmitters.[5]
Thomas C. Südhof
Clinical Graeme M. Clark For the development of the modern cochlear implant — a device that bestows hearing to individuals with profound deafness.[6]
Ingeborg Hochmair
Blake S. Wilson
Public Service Bill Gates For leading a historic transformation in the way we view the globe's most pressing health concerns and improving the lives of millions of the world's most vulnerable.[7]
Melinda Gates
2012 Basic Michael Sheetz for discoveries concerning cytoskeletal motor proteins, machines that move cargoes within cells, contract muscles, and enable cell movements.[8]
James Spudich
Ronald Vale
Clinical Roy Calne for the development of liver transplantation, which has restored normal life to thousands of patients with end-stage liver disease.[9]
Thomas Starzl
Special Achievement Donald D. Brown for exceptional leadership and citizenship in biomedical science — exemplified by fundamental discoveries concerning the nature of genes; by selfless commitment to young scientists; and by disseminating revolutionary technologies to the scientific community.[10]
Tom Maniatis
2011 Basic Franz-Ulrich Hartl for discoveries concerning the cell's protein-folding machinery, exemplified by cage-like structures that convert newly made proteins into their biologically active forms.[11]
Arthur L. Horwich
Clinical Tu Youyou for the discovery of artemisinin, a drug therapy for malaria that has saved millions of lives across the globe, especially in the developing world.[12]
Public Service National Institutes of Health Clinical Center for serving since its inception as a model research hospital—providing innovative therapy and high-quality patient care, treating rare and severe diseases, and producing outstanding physician-scientists whose collective work has set a standard of excellence in biomedical research.[13]
2010 Basic Douglas L. Coleman discovery of leptin, a hormone that regulates appetite and body weight—a breakthrough that opened obesity research to molecular exploration.[14]
Jeffrey M. Friedman
Clinical Napoleone Ferrara discovery of VEGF as a major mediator of angiogenesis and the development of an effective anti-VEGF therapy for wet macular degeneration, a leading cause of blindness in the elderly.[15]
Special Achievement David Weatherall for 50 years of international statesmanship in biomedical science—exemplified by discoveries concerning genetic diseases of the blood and for leadership in improving clinical care for thousands of children with thalassemia throughout the developing world.[16]
2009 Basic John Gurdon discoveries concerning nuclear reprogramming, the process that instructs specialized adult cells to form early stem cells—creating the potential to become any type of mature cell for experimental or therapeutic purposes.[17]
Shinya Yamanaka
Clinical Brian Druker the development of molecularly-targeted treatments for chronic myeloid leukemia, converting a fatal cancer into a manageable chronic condition.[18]
Nicholas Lydon
Charles Sawyers
Public Service Michael Bloomberg employing sound science in political decision making; setting a world standard for the public's health as an impetus for government action; leading the way to reduce the scourge of tobacco use; and advancing public health through enlightened philanthropy.[19]
2008 Basic Victor Ambros discoveries that revealed an unanticipated world of tiny RNAs that regulate gene function in plants and animals.[20]
David Baulcombe
Gary Ruvkun
Clinical Akira Endo the discovery of the statins—drugs with remarkable LDL-cholesterol-lowering properties that have revolutionized the prevention and treatment of coronary heart disease.[21]
Special Achievement Stanley Falkow a 51-year career as one of the great microbe hunters of all time—he discovered the molecular nature of antibiotic resistance, revolutionized the way we think about how pathogens cause disease, and mentored more than 100 students, many of whom are now distinguished leaders in the fields of microbiology and infectious diseases.[2]
2007 Basic Ralph Steinman the discovery of dendritic cells—the preeminent component of the immune system that initiates and regulates the body's response to foreign antigens.[22]
Clinical Alain Carpentier the development of prosthetic mitral and aortic valves, which have prolonged and enhanced the lives of millions of people with heart disease.[23]
Albert Starr
Public Service Anthony Fauci his role as the principal architect of two major U.S. governmental programs, one aimed at AIDS and the other at biodefense.[24]
2006 Basic Elizabeth Blackburn the prediction and discovery of telomerase, a remarkable RNA-containing enzyme that synthesizes the ends of chromosomes, protecting them and maintaining the integrity of the genome[25]
Carol Greider
Jack Szostak
Clinical Aaron Beck the development of cognitive therapy, which has transformed the understanding and treatment of many psychiatric conditions, including depression, suicidal behavior, generalized anxiety, panic attacks, and eating disorders.[26]
Special Achievement Joseph Gall a distinguished 57-year career—as a founder of modern cell biology and the field of chromosome structure and function; bold experimentalist; inventor of in situ hybridization; and early champion of women in science.[27]
2005 Basic Ernest McCulloch ingenious experiments that first identified a stem cell—the blood-forming stem cell—which set the stage for all current research on adult and embryonic stem cells.[28]
James Till
Clinical Alec John Jeffreys development of two powerful technologies—Southern hybridization and DNA fingerprinting—that together revolutionized human genetics and forensic diagnostics.[29]
Edwin Mellor Southern
Public Service Nancy Brinker creating one of the world's great foundations devoted to curing breast cancer and for dramatically increasing public awareness about this devastating disease.[30]
2004 Basic Pierre Chambon the discovery of the superfamily of nuclear hormone receptors and elucidation of a unifying mechanism that regulates embryonic development and diverse metabolic pathways.[31]
Ronald M. Evans
Elwood V. Jensen
Clinical Charles Kelman revolutionizing the surgical removal of cataracts, turning a 10-day hospital stay into an outpatient procedure, and dramatically reducing complications.[32]
Special Achievement Matthew Meselson a lifetime career that combines penetrating discovery in molecular biology with creative leadership in the public policy of chemical and biological weapons.[33]
2003 Basic Robert G. Roeder pioneering studies on eukaryotic RNA polymerases and the general transcriptional machinery, which opened gene expression in animal cells to biochemical analysis.[34]
Clinical Marc Feldmann discovery of anti-TNF therapy as an effective treatment for rheumatoid arthritis and other autoimmune diseases.[35]
Ravinder N. Maini
Public Service Christopher Reeve perceptive, sustained, and heroic advocacy for medical research in general, and victims of disability in particular.[36]
2002 Basic James E. Rothman discoveries revealing the universal molecular machinery that orchestrates the budding and fusion of membrane vesicles—a process essential to organelle formation, nutrient uptake, and secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters.[37]
Randy W. Schekman
Clinical Willem J. Kolff development of renal hemodialysis, which changed kidney failure from a fatal to a treatable disease, prolonging the useful lives of millions of patients.[38]
Belding H. Scribner
Special Achievement James E. Darnell, Jr. for an exceptional career in biomedical science during which he opened two fields in biology—RNA processing and cytokine signaling—and fostered the development of many creative scientists.[39]
2001 Basic Mario R. Capecchi development of a powerful technology for manipulating the mouse genome with exquisite precision, which allows the creation of animal models of human disease.[40]
Martin J. Evans
Oliver Smithies
Clinical Robert G. Edwards development of in vitro fertilization, a technological advance that has revolutionized the treatment of human infertility.[41]
Public Service William H. Foege for courageous leadership in improving worldwide public health, and his prominent role in the eradication of smallpox.[42]
2000 Basic Aaron Ciechanover for the discovery and recognition of the broad significance of the ubiquitin system of regulated protein degradation, a fundamental process that influences vital cellular events, including the cell cycle, malignant transformation, and responses to inflammation and immunity.[43]
Avram Hershko
Alexander Varshavsky
Clinical Harvey J. Alter discovery of the virus that causes hepatitis C and the development of screening methods that reduced the risk of blood transfusion-associated hepatitis in the U.S. from 30% in 1970 to virtually zero in 2000. [44]
Michael Houghton
Special Achievement Sydney Brenner for 50 years of brilliant creativity in biomedical science—exemplified by his legendary work on the genetic code; his daring introduction of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a system for tracing the birth and death of every cell in a living animal; his rational voice in the debate on recombinant DNA; and his trenchant wit. [45]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "The Lasker Awards Overview". Retrieved 2013-11-26. 
  2. ^ a b The Lasker Foundation - 2008 Special Achievement Award
  3. ^ "Prior Awards". Retrieved 2012-12-27. 
  4. ^ "Albert and Mary Lasker Foundation - Albert Lasker Awards Archives (1944-)". National Library of Medicine. 
  5. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2013 Basic Medical Research Award
  6. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2013 Clinical Medical Research Award
  7. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2013 Public Service
  8. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2012 Basic Medical Research Award
  9. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2012 Clinical Medical Research Award
  10. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2012 Special Achievement
  11. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2011 Basic Medical Research Award
  12. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2011 Clinical Medical Research Award
  13. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2011 Public Service Award
  14. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2010 Basic Medical Research Award
  15. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2010 Clinical Medical Research Award
  16. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2010 Special Achievement Award
  17. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2009 Basic Medical Research Award
  18. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2009 Clinical Medical Research Award
  19. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2009 Public Service Award
  20. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2008 Basic Medical Research Award
  21. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2008 Clinical Medical Research Award
  22. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2007 Basic Medical Research Award
  23. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2007 Clinical Medical Research Award
  24. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2007 Public Service Award
  25. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2006 Basic Medical Research Award
  26. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2006 Clinical Medical Research Award
  27. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2006 Special Achievement Award
  28. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2005 Basic Medical Research Award
  29. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2005 Clinical Medical Research Award
  30. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2005 Public Service Award
  31. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2004 Basic Medical Research Award
  32. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2004 Clinical Medical Research Award
  33. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2004 Special Achievement Award
  34. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2003 Basic Medical Research Award
  35. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2003 Clinical Medical Research Award
  36. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2003 Public Service Award
  37. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2002 Basic Medical Research Award
  38. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2002 Clinical Medical Research Award
  39. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2002 Special Achievement Award
  40. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2001 Basic Medical Research Award
  41. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2001 Clinical Medical Research Award
  42. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2001 Public Service Award
  43. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2000 Basic Medical Research Award
  44. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2000 Clinical Medical Research Award
  45. ^ The Lasker Foundation - 2000 Special Achievement Award

External links[edit]