Last mile (transport)
Usage in distribution networks
The term "last mile" was originally used in the telecommunications field but has since been applied to supply chain management. Transporting goods via freight rail networks and container ships is often the most efficient and cost-effective manner of shipping. However, when goods arrive at a high-capacity freight station or port, they must then be transported to their final destination. This last leg of the supply chain is often less efficient, comprising up to 28% of the total cost to move goods. This has become known as the "last mile problem." The last mile problem can also include the challenge of making deliveries in urban areas where retail stores, restaurants, and other merchants in a central business district often contribute to congestion and safety problems.
A related last mile problem is the transport of goods to areas in need of humanitarian relief. Aid supplies are sometimes able to reach a central transport hub in an affected area but cannot be distributed due to damage caused by a natural disaster or a lack of infrastructure.
Usage in transport networks
"Last mile" has also been used to describe the difficulty in getting people from a transport hub, especially railway stations, bus depots, and ferry slips, to their final destination. When users have difficulty getting from their starting location to a transport network, the scenario may alternatively be known as the "first mile problem." These issues are especially acute in the United States where land-use patterns have moved more jobs and people to lower-density suburbs that are often not within walking distance to existing public transportation options. Therefore transit use in these areas is often less practical. Critics claim this promotes a reliance on cars, which results in more traffic congestion, pollution, and urban sprawl.
Traditional solutions to the first mile problem in public transit have included the use of feeder buses, bicycling infrastructure, and urban planning reform. Other methods of alleviating the last mile problem such as bicycle sharing systems, car sharing programs, pod cars (personal rapid transit), and motorized shoes have been proposed with varying degrees of adoption. Bicycle sharing programmes, however, have been widely successful in Europe and Asia, and are beginning to be implemented on a large scale in North America. 
- Transit-oriented development – a method for solving the last mile problem by building high-density development within walking distance of a transit station
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- Rodrigue, Jean-Paul; Claude Comtois; Brian Slack (2009). "The "Last Mile" in Freight Distribution". The Geography of Transport Systems (2nd ed.). Routledge. p. 212. ISBN 978-0-415-48323-0.
- Allen, Brigitte (2012) Improving freight efficiency within the ‘last mile’: A case study of Wellington’s Central Business District (Thesis, Master of Planning). University of Otago.
- Balcik, Burcu; Benita M. Beamon; Karen Smilowitz (2009). "Last Mile Distribution in Humanitarian Relief". Journal of Intelligent Transportation Systems (Taylor & Francis Group, LLC) 12 (2): 51–63. ISSN 1547-2442. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Danny King (2012-12-21). "Hiriko 'folding' EV will be produced for German car-sharing project next year". Autoblog Green. Retrieved 2012-12-21.
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- "In Focus: The Last Mile and Transit Ridership". Institute for Local Government. January 2011.
- "First steps toward livable communities". Fast Lane. U.S. Department of Transportation. 22 March 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- "FHWA grant funds East Coast's largest bike center; DC transport hub may crack the "last mile" problem". Fast Lane. U.S. Department of Transportation. 5 October 2009. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Kuang, Cliff (16 April 2009). "Convenience Is King". GOOD Magazine. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Zax, David (17 August 2011). "Can Driverless Pod Cars Solve the 'Last-Mile Problem'?". Technology Review. Massachusetts Institute of Technology. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- Yvkoff, Liane (15 July 2010). "Are motorized shoes the last-mile transport answer?". CNet. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
- DeMaio, Paul (2009). "Bike-sharing: History, Impacts, Models of Provision, and Future". Journal of Public Transportation 12 (4): 41–56. Retrieved 24 October 2011.
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- Shaheen, Susan; Stacey Guzman (2011). "Worldwide Bikesharing". Access: the Magazine of UCTC.