List of last known speakers of languages
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There are some 500 languages out of a total of 6,000 being classified as nearly extinct because "only a few elderly speakers are still living".
Last known speakers of languages
|Marchant, ChestenChesten Marchant||unknown||1676||Cornish (last monoglot speaker)||Indo-European – Celtic – Insular Celtic – Brittonic||[notes 1]|
|McMurray, MargaretMargaret McMurray||unknown||1760||Galwegian dialect, Scottish Gaelic||Indo-European – Celtic – Insular Celtic – Goidelic – Scottish Gaelic|
|Pentreath, DollyDolly Pentreath||unknown||1777||Cornish (traditionally known as the last
fluent native speaker; disputed)
|Indo-European – Celtic – Insular Celtic – Brittonic||[notes 2]|
|Sutherland, WalterWalter Sutherland||unknown||1850c.||Norn||Indo-European – Germanic – North Germanic – West Scandinavian|
|Juana Maria||unknown||1853||Nicoleño||Uto-Aztecan – Northern – Takic (unclassified beyond the Takic family)|
|Nikonha||1765c.||1871||Tutelo||Siouan – Western Siouan – Ohio Valley Siouan – Virginia Siouan||[notes 3]|
|Trugernanner||1812c.||1876||an unidentified Tasmanian language||unknown; there were multiple language families in Tasmania||[notes 4]|
|Davey, JohnJohn Davey||1812||1891||Cornish (some knowledge)||Indo-European – Celtic – Insular Celtic – Brittonic||[notes 5]|
|Udaina, TuoneTuone Udaina||1823||1898||Dalmatian||Indo-European – Italic – Romance – Italo-Dalmatian|
|Smith, Fanny CochraneFanny Cochrane Smith||1834||1905||an unidentified Tasmanian language||unknown; there were multiple language families in Tasmania||[notes 6]|
|Fielding, FideliaFidelia Fielding||1827||1908||Mohegan-Pequot||Algic – Algonquian – Eastern Algonquian|
|Toney, SantuSantu Toney||1835||1910c.||Beothuk (some knowledge)||unclassified||[notes 7]|
|Mann, JohnJohn Mann||1834||1914c.||Cornish (extent of proficiency unclear)||Indo-European – Celtic – Insular Celtic – Brittonic||[notes 8]|
|Ishi||1860c.||1916||Yana||language isolate||[notes 9]|
|Noble, SallySally Noble||unknown||1922||Chimariko||language isolate|
|Solorsano, AscencionAscencion Solorsano||unknown||1930||Mutsun||Yok-Utian – Utian – Ohlone/Costanoan – Southern|||
|Johnson, FrancesFrances Johnson||unknown||1934||Takelma||language isolate|
|Watt Sam and Nancy Raven||unknown||late 1930s||Natchez||language isolate|
|Meadows, IsabelIsabel Meadows||1846||1939||Rumsen||Yok-Utian – Utian – Ohlone/Costanoan – Southern|
|Decloux, DelphineDelphine Decloux||1871||1940||Chitimacha||language isolate|
|Youchigant, SesostrieSesostrie Youchigant||unknown||1940s||Tunica||language isolate|
|Nalig, JamesJames Nalig||1870sc.||1954||Utaha||Austronesian – Malayo-Polynesian – Southern Oceanic – Oceanic|||
|Yee, MaryMary Yee||1897||1965||Barbareño||Chumashan – Southern – Central||[notes 10]|
|Maddrell, NedNed Maddrell||1877||1974||Manx||Indo-European – Celtic – Insular Celtic – Goidelic||[notes 11]|
|Loij, ÁngelaÁngela Loij||1900c.||1974||Selk’nam[notes 12]||Chon|
|Lunel, ArmandArmand Lunel||1892||1977||Shuadit (Jewish dialect of Occitan)||Indo-European – Italic – Romance – Western – Ibero-Romance – Occitan|
|Palmer, AlfAlf Palmer||1891c.||1981||Warrungu||Pama-Nyungan – Maric|
|Butler, JackJack Butler||1901||1986||Jiwarli dialect, Mantharta||Pama-Nyungan – Kanyara–Mantharta – Mantharta|
|Nolasquez, RoscindaRoscinda Nolasquez||1892||1987||Cupeño||Uto-Aztecan – Northern – Takic – Cupan – Cahuilla-Cupeño|
|Plotnikova, KlavdiyaKlavdiya Plotnikova||1895c.||1989||Kamassian||Uralic – Samoyedic – Core Samoyedic – Kamas–Selkup|
|Munro, MorndiMorndi Munro||unknown||1990s||Unggumi dialect, Worrorra||Worrorran – Western – Worrorra|
|Bernat, FidelaFidela Bernat||1898||1991||Roncalese (Erronkarriko) dialect, Basque||Basque is a language isolate|
|Esenç, TevfikTevfik Esenç||1904||1992||Ubykh||Northwest Caucasian|
|Asai, TakeTake Asai||1901c.||1994||Sakhalin Ainu||Ainu|
|Paterson, AlgyAlgy Paterson||unknown||1995||Martuthunira||Pama-Nyungan – Ngayarta|
|Dailey, Truman WashingtonTruman Washington Dailey||1898||1996||Otoe-Missouria dialect, Chiwere||Siouan – Western Siouan – Mississippi Valley – Chiwere–Winnebago – Chiwere|
|Vyie||unknown||1997||Sirenik Eskimo||Eskimo-Aleut – Eskimo – Yupik?|
|Charles, CarmelCarmel Charles||1912||1999||Nyulnyul||Nyulnyulan – Western|
|Neidjie, Big BillBig Bill Neidjie||1920c.||2002||Gaagudju||Arnhem|
|Jones, Marie SmithMarie Smith Jones||1918||2008||Eyak||Na-Dené – Athabascan-Eyak|
|Ms. Boro||unknown||2009||Aka-Kora||Great Andamanese – Northern|
|Rozario, WilliamWilliam Rozario||unknown||2010||Cochin Indo-Portuguese creole||Portuguese Creole – Indo-Portuguese Creoles|
|Pan Jin-yu||1914||2010||Pazeh||Austronesian – Northwest Formosan|
|Boa Sr.||1925c.||2010||Aka-Bo||Great Andamanese – Northern|
|Hogg, BobbyBobby Hogg||1920||2012||Cromarty fisher dialect, Scots||Indo-European – Germanic – West Germanic – Anglo-Frisian – Anglic|
|Kristiņa, GrizeldaGrizelda Kristiņa||1910||2013||Livonian||Uralic – Finnic||[notes 13]|
|Sampson, HazelHazel Sampson||1911||2014||Klallam||North Straits Salishan Languages – Salishan Languages||[notes 14]|
|McLemore, DorisDoris McLemore||1927||living||Wichita||Caddoan – Northern|||
|Calderón, CristinaCristina Calderón||May 24, 1928||living||Yaghan||language isolate|
|Benson, EdwinEdwin Benson||1931||living||Mandan||Siouan – Western Siouan|
|Mungulda, CharlieCharlie Mungulda||unknown||living||Amurdag||Iwaidjan|||
|Steckley, JohnJohn Steckley||unknown||living||Wyandot||Iroquoian – Northern – Lake Iroquoian – Five Nations – Huronian||[notes 15]|
|Parker, VerdenaVerdena Parker||unknown||living||Hupa||Na-Dené – Athabaskan-Eyak – Athabaskan – Pacific Coast Athabaskan||[notes 16]|
|Sen, Gyani MaiyiGyani Maiyi Sen||1937c.||living||Kusunda||language isolate|| [notes 17]|
- Language death
- Extinct language
- Lists of endangered languages
- List of languages by time of extinction
- Believed to have been the last monoglot Cornish speaker, as opposed to other speakers such as Dolly Pentreath who could also speak English. See Last speaker of the Cornish language.
- Possibly the last fluent native speaker of the Cornish language, was monoglot until her twenties. See Last speaker of the Cornish language.
- Last full-blooded speaker, though partial knowledge of this language continued among mixed Cayuga-Tutelo descendants for some time.
- Considered to be the last full-blood speaker of a Tasmanian language; however, Fanny Cochrane Smith, who spoke one of the Tasmanian languages, outlived her.
- A Cornish farmer who was one of the last people with some traditional knowledge of the Cornish language. See Last speaker of the Cornish language.
- Considered to be the last fluent speaker of a Tasmanian language.
- Recorded a song in Beothuk in 1910.
- The last attested native Cornish language speaker, part of a group of children who conversed in Cornish, interviewed in 1914 at the age of 80. See Last speaker of the Cornish language.
- Last member of the Yahi, the last surviving group of the Yana people who spoke Yana
- Last attested speaker of a Chumashan language
- Last surviving native speaker; the language has since been revived.
- The last full-blooded Selknam Indian, but some have suggested certain people remained fluent in the languages until the 1980s.
- Last surviving native speaker; some children still learn it as a second language.
- Last surviving native speaker; it is being taught as a second language on the Olympic Peninsula of Washington State.
- Not a native speaker of the language
- Last fluent speaker; several non-fluent speakers remain
- Last fluent native speaker; several non-fluent speakers remain
- Endangered languages Ethnologue: Languages of the World. (Archived at WebCite)
- "Legend of Dolly Pentreath outlived her native tongue". This is Cornwall. 2011-08-04. Retrieved 2013-11-03.
- Field linguistics: a beginner's guide.
- De Bruxelles, Simon (21 May 2008). "After centuries, Cornish agree how to speak their language". The Times.
- [dead link]
- "What happened to Erromango's languages?" by Terry Crowley, The Journal of the Polynesian Society, 106:33-64, No. 1 (1997)
- "The Last Living Speaker of Wichita : NPR" (Audio interview).
- "Scientists Race Around World to Save Dying Languages". Fox News. Associated Press. 20 September 2007. Retrieved 9 June 2009.
- Evans, Nicholas (2010). Dying words: endangered languages and what they have to tell us. Chichester, U.K.: Wiley-Blackwell. ISBN 978-0-631-23305-3.
- Newberry, Daniel. "Rescuing Languages From Extinction: The Experience of the Hoopa Valley, Karuk, and Yurok Tribes". Jefferson Public Radio. Retrieved 29 November 2011.
- "Obscure language isolate will die with this woman". The Hot Word - Hot & Trending Words Daily Blog at Dictionary.com. 2012-06-03. Retrieved 2012-08-02.