Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

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Capital Taiyuan (936)
Luoyang (937)
Kaifeng (937-947)
Languages Chinese
Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
 -  936–942 Emperor Gaozu
 -  942–947 Emperor Chudi
Historical era Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period
 -  Established 936 936
 -  Ended by Liao 947 947
Currency Chinese cash, Chinese coin, copper coins etc.
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Avar Khaganate 564–804
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Old Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Volga Bulgaria
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Pecheneg Khanates
Kimek Khanate
Kipchak Khanates
Oghuz Yabgu State
Shatuo dynasties 923–979
  Later Tang dynasty
  Later Jin dynasty
  Later Han dynasty (Northern Han)
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1186
Seljuq Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Seljuq Sultanate of Rum 1092–1307
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khilji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Cairo Sultanate 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty

The Later Jìn (simplified Chinese: 后晋; traditional Chinese: 後晉; pinyin: Hòu Jìn) (936–947) was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, posthumously known as Gaozu of Later Jin.

Founding of the Later Jin[edit]

The first of the Shatuo Turk dynasties was founded in 923 by Li Cunxu, the son of the great Shatuo Turk chieftain Li Keyong. Called the Later Tang, it extended Shatuo Turk domains from their base in Shanxi to most of northern China, and into Sichuan. After Li Cunxu’s death, his adopted son, Li Siyuan became emperor. However, the relationship with the Khitan, which was vital to the rise of the Shatuo Turks to power, had soured.

Shi Jingtang, son-in-law of Li Cunxu, rebelled against him, and with the help of the Khitan, declared himself emperor the Later Jin in 936.

Territorial extent[edit]

The Later Jin held essentially the same territories as the Later Tang, except for Sichuan in the southwest, which was lost by Later Tang in its waning years (as the region became independent as Later Shu).

The other major exception was a region known as the Sixteen Prefectures. By this time in history, the Khitan had formed the Liao Empire out of their steppe base. They had also become a major power broker in northern China. They forced the Later Jin to cede the strategic “Sixteen Prefectures” to the Liao. Consisting of a region about 70 to 100 miles wide and including modern-day Beijing and points westward, it was considered a highly strategic region, and gave the Liao even more influence in northern China.

Relations with the Khitan[edit]

The Later Jin had often been criticized for being a puppet of the emerging Liao empire. The help of their powerful northern neighbors was vital in the formation of the Later Jin, and the cession of the Sixteen Prefectures led to their derision as being the servants of the Khitan.

However, after the death of the founder of the dynasty, Shi Jingtang, his adopted son (and nephew) and successor Shi Chonggui defied the Khitan, resulting in the latter invading the territory of the Later Jin in 946 and 947, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin.

List of emperors[edit]

Sovereigns in Period of Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms 907–960
Temple Names Posthumous Names Personal Names Period of Reigns Era Names and dates
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936–947
高祖 Gāozǔ Too tedious thus not used when referring to this sovereign 石敬瑭 Shí Jìngtáng 936–942 Tiānfú (天福) 936–942
Did not exist 出帝 Chūdì 石重貴 Shí Chóngguì 942–947 Tiānfú (天福) 942–944

Kāiyùn (開運) 944–947