Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

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Jin

936–947
 

Capital Taiyuan (936)
Luoyang (937)
Kaifeng (937-947)
Languages Chinese
Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 -  936–942 Shi Jingtang (Gaozu)
 -  942–947 Shi Chonggui (Chudi)
Historical era Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
 -  Established 936 936
 -  Ended by Liao 947 947
Currency ancient Chinese coinage
History of the Turkic peoples
History of the Turkic peoples
Pre-14th century
  Chuban 160–490
  Wei (Dingling) 388–392
Turkic Khaganate 552–744
  Western Turkic
  Eastern Turkic
Avar Khaganate 564–804
Khazar Khaganate 618–1048
Xueyantuo 628–646
Great Bulgaria 632–668
  Danube Bulgaria
  Volga Bulgaria
Kangar union 659–750
Turgesh Khaganate 699–766
Tatar confederation 8th century–1202
Uyghur Khaganate 744–840
Karluk Yabgu State 756–940
Kara-Khanid Khanate 840–1212
  Western Kara-Khanid
  Eastern Kara-Khanid
Gansu Uyghur Kingdom 848–1036
Kingdom of Qocho 856–1335
Pecheneg Khanates
860–1091
Kimek Khanate
743–1035
Cumania
1067–1239
Oghuz Yabgu State
750–1055
Shatuo dynasties 923–979
  Later Tang
  Later Jin
  Later Han (Northern Han)
Khereid Khanate 10th century–1203
Ghaznavids 963–1186
Seljuk Empire 1037–1194
Khwarazmian Empire 1077–1231
Sultanate of Rum 1092–1307
Delhi Sultanate 1206–1526
  Mamluk dynasty
  Khilji dynasty
  Tughlaq dynasty
Mamluk Sultanate (Cairo) 1250–1517
  Bahri dynasty
Sufids 1361–1379

The Later Jìn (simplified Chinese: 后晋; traditional Chinese: 後晉; pinyin: Hòu Jìn, 936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, who was posthumously titled "Gaozu".

Founding of the Later Jin[edit]

The first Shatuo Turkic dynasty][1][2][3] was founded in 923 by Li Cunxu, son of the great Shatuo chieftain Li Keyong. Called the Later Tang, it extended Shatuo domains from their base in Shanxi to most of North China, and into Sichuan.

After Li Cunxu’s death, his adopted son, Li Siyuan became emperor. However, the Shatuo relationship with the Khitans, which was vital to their rise to power, had soured. Shi Jingtang, the son-in-law of Li Cunxu, rebelled against him, and with the help of the Khitan, declared himself emperor of the Later Jin in 936.

Territorial extent[edit]

The Later Jin held essentially the same territories as the Later Tang, except for Sichuan, which had been lost by the Later Tang in its waning years and had become independent as Later Shu.

The other major exception was a region known as the Sixteen Prefectures. By this time in history, the Khitan had formed the Liao dynasty out of their steppe base. They had also become a major power broker in North China. They forced the Later Jin to cede the strategic Sixteen Prefectures to the Liao. Consisting of a region about 70 to 100 miles wide and including modern-day Beijing and points westward, it was considered a highly strategic region, and gave the Liao even more influence in North China.

Relations with the Khitan[edit]

The Later Jin had often been criticized for being a puppet of the emerging Liao dynasty. The help of their powerful northern neighbors was vital in the formation of the Later Jin and the cession of the Sixteen Prefectures led to their derision as being the servants of the Khitan.

After the death of the founder of the dynasty, Shi Jingtang, his nephew, adopted son and successor Shi Chonggui defied the Liao, resulting in the latter invading in 946 and 947, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin.

List of emperors[edit]

Sovereigns of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, 907–960
Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Period of reign Chinese era name and dates
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936–947
高祖 Gāozǔ Too tedious, thus not used when referring to this sovereign 石敬瑭 Shí Jìngtáng 936–942 Tiānfú (天福) 936–942
Did not exist 出帝 Chūdì 石重貴 Shí Chóngguì 942–947 Tiānfú (天福) 942–944

Kāiyùn (開運) 944–947

References[edit]

  1. ^ Lorge, Peter Allan (2012). Chinese Martial Arts: From Antiquity to the Twenty-First Century. CAMBRIDGE UNIVERSITY PRESS. p. 115. 
  2. ^ Gumilev, Lev Nikolaevich. Searches for an Imaginary Kingdom: The Legend of the Kingdom of Prester John. Cambridge University Press 1987. p. 78. 
  3. ^ Mote, Frederick W (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. pp. 12–13.