Later Jin (Five Dynasties)

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Jin

936–947
 

Capital Taiyuan (936)
Luoyang (937)
Kaifeng (937-947)
Languages Chinese
Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion
Government Monarchy
Emperor
 -  936–942 Shi Jingtang (Gaozu)
 -  942–947 Shi Chonggui (Chudi)
Historical era Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period
 -  Established 936 936
 -  Ended by Liao 947 947
Currency ancient Chinese coinage

The Later Jìn (simplified Chinese: 后晋; traditional Chinese: 後晉; pinyin: Hòu Jìn, 936–947), also called Shi Jin (石晉), was one of the Five Dynasties during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period in China. It was founded by Shi Jingtang, who was posthumously titled "Gaozu".

Founding of the Later Jin[edit]

The first sinicized Shatuo ethnicity state,[1] Later Tang, was founded in 923 by Li Cunxu, son of the great Shatuo chieftain Li Keyong. It extended Shatuo domains from their base in Shanxi to most of North China, and into Sichuan.

After Li Cunxu’s death, his adopted son, Li Siyuan became emperor. However, the Shatuo relationship with the Khitans, which was vital to their rise to power, had soured. Shi Jingtang, the son-in-law of Li Cunxu, rebelled against him, and with the help of the Khitan, declared himself emperor of the Later Jin in 936.

The Later Jin founder Shi Jingtang claimed patrilineal Han Chinese ancestry.[2]

Territorial extent[edit]

The Later Jin held essentially the same territories as the Later Tang, except for Sichuan, which had been lost by the Later Tang in its waning years and had become independent as Later Shu.

The other major exception was a region known as the Sixteen Prefectures. By this time in history, the Khitan had formed the Liao dynasty out of their steppe base. They had also become a major power broker in North China. They forced the Later Jin to cede the strategic Sixteen Prefectures to the Liao. Consisting of a region about 70 to 100 miles wide and including modern-day Beijing and points westward, it was considered a highly strategic region, and gave the Liao even more influence in North China.

Relations with the Khitan[edit]

The Later Jin had often been described as a puppet of the emerging Liao dynasty. The help of their powerful northern neighbors was vital in the formation of the Later Jin and the cession of the Sixteen Prefectures led to their derision as being the servants of the Khitan.

After the death of the founder of the dynasty, Shi Jingtang, his nephew, adopted son and successor Shi Chonggui defied the Liao, resulting in the latter invading in 946 and 947, resulting in the destruction of the Later Jin.

List of emperors[edit]

Sovereigns of the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period, 907–960
Temple name Posthumous name Personal name Period of reign Chinese era name and dates
the Five Dynasties
Convention: name of dynasty + temple name or posthumous name
Hou (Later) Jin Dynasty 936–947
高祖 Gāozǔ Too tedious, thus not used when referring to this sovereign 石敬瑭 Shí Jìngtáng 936–942 Tiānfú (天福) 936–942
Did not exist 出帝 Chūdì 石重貴 Shí Chóngguì 942–947 Tiānfú (天福) 942–944

Kāiyùn (開運) 944–947

Later Jin and Later Tang rulers family tree[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mote, Frederick W (2003). Imperial China 900-1800. pp. 12–13. 
  2. ^ Wudai Shi, ch. 75. Considering the father was originally called Nieliji without a surname, the fact that his patrilineal ancestors all had Chinese names here indicates that these names were probably all created posthumously after Shi Jingtang became a "Chinese" emperor. Shi Jingtang actually claimed to be a descendant of Chinese historical figures Shi Que and Shi Fen, and insisted that his ancestors went westwards towards non-Han Chinese area during the political chaos at the end of the Han Dynasty in early 3rd century.