Lateral ventricles

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Brain: Lateral ventricles
Gray734.png
Scheme showing relations of the ventricles to the surface of the brain; oriented facing left.
Gray736.png
Drawing of a cast of the ventricular cavities, viewed from the side; oriented facing right.
Latin ventriculus lateralis
Gray's p.829
NeuroNames hier-191
MeSH Lateral+Ventricles
NeuroLex ID birnlex_1263

The lateral ventricles are part of the ventricular system of the brain. Both of the brain's hemispheres contain a lateral ventricle. The lateral ventricles are the largest of the ventricles.

Each lateral ventricle resembles a C-shaped structure that begins at an inferior horn in the temporal lobe, travels through a body in the parietal lobe and frontal lobe, and ultimately terminates at the interventricular foramen of Monro where each lateral ventricle connects to the central third ventricle. Along the path, a posterior horn extends backward into the occipital lobe, and an anterior horn extends farther into the frontal lobe.

Structure[edit]

Each lateral ventricle has three horns:

The body of the lateral ventricle is the central portion, just posterior to the frontal horn. The trigone of the lateral ventricle is a triangular area defined by the temporal horn inferiorly, the occipital horn posteriorly, and the body of the lateral ventricle anteriorly. The cella media is the central part of the lateral ventricle. Ependyma cover the inside of the lateral ventricles and are epithelial cells.[1]

Development[edit]

The lateral ventricles, similarly to other parts of the ventricular system of the brain, develop from the central canal of the neural tube. Specifically, the lateral ventricles originate from the portion of the tube that is present in the developing prosencephalon, and subsequently in the developing telencephalon.[2] During the first trimester of pregnancy the central canal expands into lateral, third and fourth ventricles, connected by thinner channels.[3] In the lateral ventricles, specialized areas - choroid plexuses - appear, which produce cerebrospinal fluid. If its production is bigger than reabsorption or its circulation is blocked- the enlargement of the ventricles may appear and cause a hydrocephalus. Fetal lateral ventricles may be diagnosed using linear or planar measurements.[4]

Brain dissected after Pr. Nicolas method - first piece
Brain dissected after Pr. Nicolas method - second piece

Variation[edit]

Clinical significance[edit]

The volume of the lateral ventricles are known to increase with age. They are also enlarged in a number of neurological conditions and are on average larger in patients with schizophrenia,[5] bipolar disorder,[6] major depressive disorder [7] and Alzheimer's disease.[8]

History[edit]

Additional images[edit]

See also[edit]

This article uses anatomical terminology; for an overview, see anatomical terminology.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Crossman, A R (2005). Neuroanatomy. Elsevier. p. 32. ISBN 978-0-443-10036-9. 
  2. ^ Le, Tao; Bhushan, Vikas; Vasan, Neil (2010). First Aid for the USMLE Step 1: 2010 20th Anniversary Edition. USA: The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-07-163340-6. 
  3. ^ Carlson, Bruce M. (1999). Human Embryology & Developmental Biology. Mosby. pp. 237–238. ISBN 0-8151-1458-3. 
  4. ^ Glonek M, Kedzia A, Derkowski W. Planar measurements of foetal lateral ventricles. Folia morphologica 2003;62(3):263-5.PMID 14507062.
  5. ^ Wright IC, Rabe-Hesketh S, Woodruff PW, David AS, Murray RM, Bullmore ET (January 2000). "Meta-analysis of regional brain volumes in schizophrenia". Am J Psychiatry 157 (1): 16–25. PMID 10618008. 
  6. ^ Kempton, M.J., Geddes, J.R, Ettinger, U. et al. (2008). "Meta-analysis, Database, and Meta-regression of 98 Structural Imaging Studies in Bipolar Disorder," Archives of General Psychiatry, 65:1017–1032 see also MRI database at www.bipolardatabase.org.
  7. ^ Kempton MJ, Salvador Z, Munafò MR, Geddes JR, Simmons A, Frangou S, Williams SC. (2011). "Structural Neuroimaging Studies in Major Depressive Disorder: Meta-analysis and Comparison With Bipolar Disorder". Arch Gen Psychiatry 68 (7): 675–90. doi:10.1001/archgenpsychiatry.2011.60. PMID 21727252.  see also MRI database at www.depressiondatabase.org
  8. ^ S Nestor, R Rupsingh, M Borrie, M Smith, V Accomazzi, J Wells, J Fogarty, R Bartha. Ventricular Enlargement as a Surrogate Marker of Alzheimer Disease Progression Validated Using ADNI. Brain. 131(9): 2443-2454, September 2008. Epub July 11, 2008.