Latin verbs have four main patterns of conjugation. As in a number of other languages, most Latin verbs have an active voice and a passive voice. There also exist deponent and semi-deponent Latin verbs (verbs with a passive form but active meaning), as well as defective verbs (verbs with a perfect form but present meaning). Sometimes the verbs of the third conjugation with a present stem on -ǐ (short i) are regarded as a separate pattern of conjugation, and are called the fifth conjugation.
In a dictionary, Latin verbs are always listed with four "principal parts" (or fewer for deponent and defective verbs) which allow the reader to deduce the other conjugated forms of the verbs. These are:
- the first person singular of the present indicative active
- the present infinitive active
- the first person singular of the perfect indicative active
- the supine or, in some texts, the perfect passive participle, which are nearly always identical. Texts that commonly list the perfect passive participle use the future active participle for intransitive verbs. Some verbs lack this principal part altogether.
- 1 Properties
- 2 Conjugations
- 3 Personal endings
- 4 Tenses of the imperfective aspect
- 5 Perfective aspect tenses
- 6 Non-finite forms
- 7 Periphrastic conjugations
- 8 Peculiarities
- 9 Summary of forms
- 10 Notes
- 11 See also
- 12 References
- 13 External links
The Latin verbs have the following properties:
- three persons: first, second, and third;
- two numbers: singular and plural;
- three times: present, past, and future, and two aspects: perfective (finished) and imperfective (unfinished), which combine to form six tenses: present, perfect, imperfect, pluperfect, future, and future perfect;
- three finite moods: indicative, subjunctive, and imperative, of which only the indicative is conjugated fully in all tenses and persons;
- four non-finite forms: infinitive, gerund, participle, and supine; and
- two voices: active and passive.
There are four conjugations in Latin which define patterns of verb inflection. However the grouping in conjugations is based solely on the behaviour of the verb in the present system, and the stems for other forms cannot be inferred from the present stem, so several forms of the verb are necessary to be able to produce the full range of Latin verbal forms. Most Latin verbs belong to one of the four verb conjugations, though some, like esse (to be), do not.
The first conjugation is characterized by the vowel ā and can be recognized by the -āre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:
- perfect has the suffix –āvī. The vast majority of first-conjugation verbs adhere to this pattern, which is considered to be "regular", for example:
- portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum, "to carry, to bring";
- amō, amāre, amāvī, amātum, "to love, to be fond of";
- perfect has the suffix –uī, for example:
- secō, secāre, secuī, sectum, "to cut, to divide";
- fricō, fricāre, fricuī, frictum, "to rub";
- vetō, vetāre, vetuī, vetitum, "to forbid, to prohibit";
- perfect has the suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem, for example:
- lavō, lavāre, lāvī, lautum, "to wash, to bathe";
- iuvō, iuvāre, iūvī, iūtum, "to help, to assist";
- perfect is reduplicated, for example:
- stō, stāre, stetī, statum, "to stand";
- dō, dare, dedī, datum, "to give, to bestow"; this verb is irregular.
The second conjugation is characterized by the vowel ē, and can be recognized by the -eō ending of the first person present indicative and the -ēre ending of the present active infinitive form. The principal parts usually adhere to one of the following patterns:
- perfect has the suffix –uī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
- terreō, terrēre, terruī, territus (to frighten, to deter)
- doceō, docēre, docuī, doctus (to teach, to instruct)
- teneō, tenēre, tenuī, tentus (to hold, to keep)
- perfect has the suffix –ēvī. Examples:
- dēleō, dēlēre, dēlēvī, dēlētus (to destroy, to efface)
- cieō, ciēre, cīvī, citus (to arouse, to stir)
- perfect has the suffix –sī (which combines with a preceding c or g to –xī). Examples:
- augeō, augēre, auxī, auctus (to increase, to enlarge)
- iubeō, iubēre, iussī, iussus (to order, to bid)
- perfect is reduplicated with –ī. Examples:
- mordeō, mordēre, momordī, morsus (to bite, to nip)
- spondeō, spondēre, spopondī, spōnsus (to vow, to promise)
- perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
- videō, vidēre, vīdī, vīsus (to see, to notice)
- foveō, fovēre, fōvī, fōtus (to caress, to cherish)
- perfect has suffix –ī and no perfect passive participle. Examples:
- strīdeō, strīdere, strīdī (to hiss, to creak)
- ferveō, fervēre, fervī (sometimes fervuī) (to boil, to seethe)
The third conjugation is characterized by a short thematic vowel, which alternates between e, i, and u in different environments. Verbs of this conjugation end in an –ere in the present active infinitive. There is no regular rule for constructing the perfect stem of third-conjugation verbs, but the following patterns are used:
- perfect has suffix –sī (–xī when c or h comes at the end of the root). Examples:
- carpō, carpere, carpsī, carptus (to pluck, to select)
- trahō, trahere, trāxī, trāctus (to drag, to draw)
- gerō, gerere, gessī, gestus (to wear, to bear)
- flectō, flectere, flexī, flexus (to bend, to twist)
- perfect is reduplicated with suffix –ī. Examples:
- currō, currere, cucurrī, cursus (to run, to race)
- caedō, caedere, cecīdī, caesus (to kill, to slay)
- tangō, tangere, tetigī, tāctus (to touch, to hit)
- pellō, pellere, pepulī, pulsus (to beat, to drive away)
- perfect has suffix -vī. Examples:
- petō, petere, petīvī, petītus (to seek, to attack)
- linō, linere, līvī, lītus (to smear, to befoul)
- serō, serere, sēvī, satus (to sow, to plant)
- terō, terere, trīvī, trītus (to rub, to wear out)
- sternō, sternere, strāvī, strātus (to spread, to stretch out)
- perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
- agō, agere, ēgī, āctus (to do, to drive)
- legō, legere, lēgī, lēctus (to collect, to read)
- emō, emere, ēmī, ēmptus (to buy, to purchase)
- vincō, vincere, vīcī, victus (to conquer, to master)
- fundō, fundere, fūdī, fūsus (to pour, to utter)
- perfect has suffix –ī only. Examples:
- īcō, īcere, īcī, īctus (to strike, to smite)
- vertō, vertere, vertī, versus (to turn, to alter)
- vīsō, vīsere, vīsī, vīsus (to visit)
- perfect has suffix –uī. Examples:
- metō, metere, messuī, messus (to reap, to harvest)
- vomō, vomere, vomuī, vomitus (to vomit)
- colō, colere, coluī, cultus (to cultivate, to till)
- texō, texere, texuī, textus (to weave, to plait)
- gignō, gignere, genuī, genitus (to beget, to cause)
- present tense stem has suffix –u. Examples:
- minuō, minuere, minuī, minūtus (to lessen, to diminish)
- ruō, ruere, ruī, rutus (to collapse, to hurl down)
- struō, struere, strūxī, strūctus (to build, to erect)
- Present tense indicative first person singular form has suffix with –scō. Examples:
- nōscō, nōscere, nōvī, nōtus (to investigate, to learn)
- adolēscō, adolēscere, adolēvī (to grow up, to mature)
- flōrēscō, flōrēscere, flōruī (to begin to flourish, to blossom)
- haerēscō, haerēscere, haesī, haesus (to adhere, to stick)
- pāscō, pāscere, pāvī, pāstus (to feed, to nourish)
Intermediate between the third and fourth conjugation are the third-conjugation verbs with suffix –iō. .
The fourth conjugation is characterized by the vowel ī and can be recognized by the –īre ending of the present active infinitive. Principal parts of verbs in the fourth conjugation generally adhere to the following patterns:
- perfect has suffix –vī. Verbs which adhere to this pattern are considered to be "regular". Examples:
- audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus (to hear, listen (to))
- mūniō, mūnīre, mūnīvī, mūnītus (to fortify, to build)
- perfect has suffix –uī. Examples:
- aperiō, aperīre, aperuī, apertus (to open, to uncover)
- perfect has suffix –sī (-xī when c comes at the end of the root). Examples:
- saepiō, saepīre, saepsī, saeptus (to surround, to enclose)
- sanciō, sancīre, sānxī, sānctus (to confirm, to ratify)
- sentiō, sentīre, sēnsī, sēnsus (to feel, to perceive)
- perfect has suffix –ī and vowel lengthening in the stem. Examples:
- veniō, venīre, vēnī, ventūrus (to come, to arrive)
Personal endings are used in all tenses. The present, imperfect, future, pluperfect and future perfect use the same personal endings in the active voice. However, the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect do not have personal endings in the passive voice as these are formed by a participle and part of esse. The perfect uses its own personal endings in the active voice.
|Active voice||Passive voice|
|Present tense, etc.||First person||–ō, –m||–mus||–or, –r||–mur|
|Third person||–it||–ērunt / -ēre|
Tenses of the imperfective aspect
The tenses of the imperfective aspect are present, imperfect, and future tense. Verb forms in the imperfective aspect express an action that has (or had) not been completed. Consider for concreteness the following verbs:
- the first conjugation verb portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum (to carry, to bring)
- the second conjugation verb terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum (to frighten, to deter)
- the third conjugation verb petō, petere, petīvī, petītum (to seek, to attack)
- the fourth conjugation verb audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum (to hear, to listen (to))
In all the conjugations except for the third conjugation, the –re is removed from the second principal part (for example, portāre without the suffix –re becomes portā–) to form the present stem, which is used for all of the tenses in the imperfective aspect. In the third conjugation, the –ō ending of the present indicative is dropped in order to form the present stem (for example, the present indicative form of regere is regō, and without the -ō it is the present stem, reg–). Occasionally, the terminating vowel of the stem is lengthened and/or shortened, and sometimes completely changed. This is often true both in the third conjugation and in the subjunctive mood of all conjugations.
The present tense (Latin tempus praesēns) is used to show an uncompleted action that happens in the current time. The present tense does not have a tense sign. Instead, the personal endings are added to the bare present stem. However, in this tense the thematic vowel, most notably the ě in the third conjugation, changes the most frequently.
The present indicative expresses general truths, facts, demands and desires. Most commonly, a verb like portō can be translated as "I carry," "I do carry," or "I am carrying". In all but the third conjugation, only the thematical vowel of the stem is used. In the third conjugation, the e is only used in the second person singular in the passive for a less difficult pronunciation. Otherwise, it becomes either an i or u. The first person singular of the indicative active present is the first principal part. All end in –ō.
|Present active indicative|
Add the passive endings to form the passive voice. The passive portor can be translated as "I am carried," or "I am being carried".
|Present passive indicative|
Notice that in the second person singular of petere, the thematic vowel is e (peteris, not petiris).
The present subjunctive may be used to assert many things. In general, in independent sentences, it is translated hortatorily (only in the third person plural), jussively and optatively. Portem can be translated as "Let me carry." or "May I carry." Portēmus can be "Let us carry".
Some alterations have occurred in the vowels from the indicative and subjunctive.
- The first conjugation now uses an e and an ē.
- The second conjugation uses ea and eā.
- The third conjugation uses a or ā.
- The fourth conjugation uses ia or iā.
"Let's beat that giant", "Defeat all liars", or "She wears a diamond/tiara" are helpful mnemonics for remembering this. First conjugation verbs have an "e" in their stem (we), second conjugation verbs have an "-ea" (eat), third conjugation verbs have an "a" (caviar), and fourths have an "ia" (caviar). Other acceptable mnemonics include she reads a diary, he beats a liar, everybody eats apple iambics, let’s steal a fiat, he cheats a friar, or Clem eats clams in Siam.
|Present active subjunctive|
Like the indicative, active personal endings may be replaced by passive personal endings. Porter can be translated as "Let me be carried" or "May I be carried." Hortatorily, Portēmur can be "Let us be carried".
|Present passive subjunctive|
The present imperative conveys commands, pleas and recommendations. Portā can be translated as "(You) Carry" or simply, "Carry". The imperative present occurs only in the second person.
- The second person singular in the active voice uses only the bare stem, and does not add an imperative ending.
|Present active imperative|
The imperative present of the passive voice is rarely used, except in the case of deponent verbs, whose passive forms carry active meaning. Portāminī can be translated as "(You) Be carried". The deponent sequīminī, on the other hand, means "(You) Follow!".
- The singular uses the alternate form of the present passive indicative (which looks like the present active infinitive) and the plural uses the present passive indicative form of the second person plural.
|Present passive imperative|
The imperfect (Latin tempus imperfectum) indicates a perpetual, but incomplete action in the past. It is recognized by the tense signs bă and bā in the indicative, and re and rē in the subjunctive.
The imperfect indicative simply expresses an action in the past that was not completed. Portābam can be translated to mean, "I was carrying," "I carried," or "I used to carry".
- In the indicative, the imperfect employs its tense signs ba and bā before personal endings are added.
|Imperfect active indicative|
As with the present tense, active personal endings are taken off, and passive personal endings are put in their place. Portābar can be translated as "I was being carried," "I kept being carried," or "I used to be carried".
|Imperfect passive indicative|
In the subjunctive, the imperfect is quite important, especially in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is largely translated conditionally. Portārem can mean, "I should carry," or "I would carry".
- Unlike the indicative, the subjunctive does not modify the thematic vowel. The third conjugation's thematical remains short as an e, and the fourth conjugation does not use an iē before the imperfect signs. It keeps its ī.
- In the subjunctive, the imperfect employs its tense signs re and rē before personal endings.
- The verb esse (to be) has two imperfect subjunctives: one using the present infinitive (essem, esses, esset, essemus, essetis, essent) and one using the future infinitive (forem, fores, foret, foremus, foretis, forent).
|Imperfect active subjunctive|
As with the indicative subjunctive, active endings are removed, and passive endings are added. Portārer may be translated as "I should be carried," or "I would be carried."
|Imperfect passive subjunctive|
The future tense (Latin tempus futūrum simplex) expresses an uncompleted action in the future. It is recognized by its tense signs bō, bi, bu, a and ē in the indicative and the vowel ō in the imperative mood.
The future tense always refers to an incomplete action. In addition, the future tense is stricter in usage temporally in Latin than it is in English. Standing alone, portābō can mean, "I shall carry," or "I will carry."
- The first and second conjugations use bō, bi and bu as signs for the future indicative.
- The third and fourth conjugations replace their thematic vowels with a, ě and ē. The fourth conjugation inserts an ǐ before the a, e and ē.
|Future active indicative|
As with all imperfective system tenses, active personal endings are removed, and passive personal endings are put on. Portābor translates as, "I shall be carried."
|Future passive indicative|
Notice that the penultimate vowel in the second person singular of portāre and terrēre is e, not i (portāberis and terrēberis, instead of the expected portābiris and terrēbiris).
The future imperative was a formal form of the imperative; by the classical period, it was chiefly used in legal documents, though it retained some currency in distinct reference to future time. A few irregular or defective verbs (meminisse 'remember') used this form as their only imperative.
Portātō can be translated as "You shall carry".
- As mentioned previously, the vowel ō is used as a sign of the future imperative.
|Future active imperative|
The ending -r marks the passive voice in the future imperative. The second person plural is absent here. Portātor translates as "You shall be carried."
|Future passive imperative|
Perfective aspect tenses
The tenses of the perfective aspect, which are the perfect, pluperfect and future perfect tenses, are used to express actions that have been, had been, or will have been completed. The verbs used for explanation are:
- 1st Conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum – to carry, bring
- 2nd Conjugation: terreō, terrēre, terruī, territum – to frighten, deter
- 3rd Conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum – to seek, attack
- 4th Conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)
To find the stem for the third principal part in all of the conjugations, the –ī is removed from it. For example, from portāvī, portāv is formed. This is the perfect stem, and it is used for all of the tenses in the perfective aspect. The perfective aspect verbs also use the perfect passive participle in the passive voice. See below to see how it is formed. Along with these participles, the verb esse, which means, "to be", is used.
Unlike the imperfective aspect, inflection does not deviate from conjugation to conjugation.
The perfect (Latin tempus perfectum) refers to an action completed in the past. Tense signs are only used in this tense with the indicative. The tense signs of the subjunctive are eri and erī.
The indicative perfect expresses a finished action in the past. If the action were not finished, but still lies in the past, one would use the imperfect. Portāvī is translated as "I carried," "I did carry," or "I have carried."
- As aforementioned, the indicative perfect in the active voice has its special personal endings.
|Perfect active indicative|
In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with the auxiliary verb esse. It uses the present indicative form of esse. Portātus sum translates as "I was carried," or "I have been carried."
|Perfect passive indicative|
|First Person||portātus sum||portātī sumus||territus sum||territī sumus||petītus sum||petītī sumus||audītus sum||audītī sumus|
|Second Person||portātus es||portātī estis||territus es||territī estis||petītus es||petītī estis||audītus es||audītī estis|
|Third Person||portātus est||portātī sunt||territus est||territī sunt||petītus est||petītī sunt||audītus est||audītī sunt|
Like the imperfect subjunctive, the perfect subjunctive is largely used in subordinate clauses. Independently, it is usually translated as the potential subjunctive. By itself, portāverim translates as "I may have carried."
- The tense signs eri and erī are used before the personal endings are added.
|Perfect active subjunctive|
The passive voice uses the perfect passive participle with the subjunctive present forms of esse. Portātus sim means, "I may have been carried."
|Perfect passive subjunctive|
|First Person||portātus sim||portātī sīmus||territus sim||territī sīmus||petītus sim||petītī sīmus||audītus sim||audītī sīmus|
|Second Person||portātus sīs||portātī sītis||territus sīs||territī sītis||petītus sīs||petītī sītis||audītus sīs||audītī sītis|
|Third Person||portātus sit||portātī sint||territus sit||territī sint||petītus sit||petītī sint||audītus sit||audītī sint|
The pluperfect (Latin tempus plūs quam perfectum) expresses an action which was completed before another completed action. It is recognized by the tense signs era and erā in the indicative and isse and issē in the subjunctive.
As with English, in Latin, the pluperfect indicative is used to assert an action that was completed before another (perfect). Portāveram translates as "I had carried."
- The tense sign erā is employed before adding the personal endings, with the long ā following the usual rules for shortening before final -m, -t, and -nt.
|Pluperfect active indicative|
In the passive voice, the perfect passive participle is used with esse in the imperfect indicative. Portātus eram is translated as "I had been carried."
|Pluperfect passive indicative|
|First Person||portātus eram||portātī erāmus||territus eram||territī erāmus||petītus eram||petītī erāmus||audītus eram||audītī erāmus|
|Second Person||portātus erās||portātī erātis||territus erās||territī erātis||petītus erās||petītī erātis||audītus erās||audītī erātis|
|Third Person||portātus erat||portātī erant||territus erat||territī erant||petītus erat||petītī erant||audītus erat||audītī erant|
The pluperfect subjunctive is to the perfect subjunctive as the imperfect subjunctive is to the present subjunctive. Simply put, it is used with the perfect subjunctive in subordinate clauses. Like the imperfect subjunctive, it is translated conditionally independently. Portāvissem is translated as "I should have carried," or "I would have carried."
- The tense signs isse and issē are used before the personal endings.
|Pluperfect active subjunctive|
As always, the passive voice uses the perfect passive participle. The imperfect subjunctive of esse is used here. Portātus essem may mean "I should have been carried," or "I could have been carried," in the conditional sense.
|Pluperfect passive subjunctive|
|First Person||portātus essem||portātī essēmus||territus essem||territī essēmus||petītus essem||petītī essēmus||audītus essem||audītī essēmus|
|Second Person||portātus essēs||portātī essētis||territus essēs||territī essētis||petītus essēs||petītī essētis||audītus essēs||audītī essētis|
|Third Person||portātus esset||portātī essent||territus esset||territī essent||petītus esset||petītī essent||audītus esset||audītī essent|
The least used of all the tenses, the future perfect (Latin tempus futūrum exāctum) conveys an action that will have been completed before another action. It is signified by the tense signs erō and eri. The future perfect is the only tense that occurs in a single mood.
Future perfect indicative
As said, the future perfect is used to mention an action that will have been completed in futurity before another action. It is often used with the future tense. In simple translation, portāverō means, "I will have carried," or "I shall have carried."
- The tense signs erō and eri are used before the personal endings.
|Future perfect active indicative|
As with all perfective aspect tenses, the perfect passive participle is used in the passive voice. However, the future perfect uses the future indicative of esse as the auxiliary verb. Portātus erō is "I will have been carried," or "I shall have been carried."
|Future perfect passive indicative|
|First Person||portātus erō||portātī erimus||territus erō||territī erimus||petītus erō||petītī erimus||audītus erō||audītī erimus|
|Second Person||portātus eris||portātī eritis||territus eris||territī eritis||petītus eris||petītī eritis||audītus eris||audītī eritis|
|Third Person||portātus erit||portātī erunt||territus erit||territī erunt||petītus erit||petītī erunt||audītus erit||audītī erunt|
The non-finite forms of verbs are participles, infinitives, supines, gerunds and gerundives. The verbs used are:
- 1st Conjugation: portō, portāre, portāvī, portātum – to carry, bring
- 2nd Conjugation: terreō, terrēre. terruī, territum – to frighten, deter
- 3rd Conjugation: petō, petere, petīvī, petītum – to seek, attack
- 4th Conjugation: audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītum – to hear, listen (to)
There are four participles: present active, perfect passive, future passive, and future active.
- The present active participle is declined like a third declension adjective with one ending.
- In the first and second conjugations, the present active is formed by taking the present stem and adding an –ns. The genitive singular form adds an –ntis, and the thematicals ā and ē are shortened.
- In the third conjugation, the e of the present stem is lengthened. In the genitive, the ē is short again.
- In the fourth conjugation, the ī is shortened, and an ē is placed. Of course, this ē is short in the genitive.
- Puer portāns translates into "carrying boy."
- The perfect passive participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
- In all conjugations, the perfect participle is formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –us (masculine nominative singular).
- Puer portātus translates into "carried boy."
- The future active participle is declined like a first and second declension adjective.
- In all conjugations the –um is removed from the supine, and an –ūrus (masculine nominative singular) is added.
- Puer portātūrus translates into "boy going to carry," or "boy who is going to carry."
- The future passive participle is formed by taking the present stem, adding "-nd-", and then the adjective ending "-us, -a, -um". Thus "laudare" forms "laudandus".
- The literal translation is "about to be praised", but this often extends a sense of obligation, thus "must be praised". Thus the "future passive participle" is often cross-listed as the "gerundive" (see below).
|Present Active||portāns, –antis||terrēns, –entis||petēns, –entis||audiēns, –entis|
|Perfect Passive||portātus, –a, –um||territus, –a, –um||petītus, –a, –um||audītus, –a, –um|
|Future Active||portātūrus, –a, –um||territūrus, –a, –um||petītūrus, –a, –um||audītūrus, –a, –um|
|Future Passive||portandus, –a, –um||terrendus, –a, –um||petendus, –a, –um||audindus, –a, –um|
There are six infinitives. They are in the present active, present passive, perfect active, perfect passive, future active and future passive.
- The present active infinitive is the second principal part (in regular verbs). It plays an important role in the syntactic construction of Accusativus cum infinitivo, for instance.
- Portāre means, "to carry."
- The present passive infinitive is formed by adding a –rī to the present stem. This is only so for the first, second and fourth conjugations. In the third conjugation, the thematical vowel, e, is taken from the present stem, and an –ī is added.
- Portārī translates into "to be carried."
- The perfect active infinitive is formed by adding an –isse onto the perfect stem.
- Portāvisse translates into "to have carried."
- The perfect passive infinitive uses the perfect passive participle along with the auxiliary verb esse. The perfect passive infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
- Portātus esse means, "to have been carried."
- The future active infinitive uses the future active participle with the auxiliary verb esse.
- Portātūrus esse means, "to be going to carry." The future active infinitive must agree with what it is describing in number and gender.
- Esse has two future infinitives: futurus esse and fore (fore is mostly used in a substitute expression for the Future Passive Infinitive)
- The future passive infinitive uses the supine with the auxiliary verb īrī.
- Portātum īrī is translated as "to be going to be carried." This is normally used in indirect speech. For example: Omnēs senātōres dīxērunt templum conditum īrī. "All of the senators said that a temple would be built."
|Perfect Passive||portātus esse||territus esse||petītus esse||audītus esse|
|Future Active||portātūrus esse||territūrus esse||petītūrus esse||audītūrus esse|
|Future Passive||portātum īrī||territum īrī||petītum īrī||audītum īrī|
The Future Passive Infinitive was actually not very commonly used (Wheelock's Latin mentions it exists but makes it a point to avoid using it in any practice examples). In practice, the Romans themselves often used an alternate expression, "fore ut" followed by a subjunctive clause.
The supine is the fourth principal part. It resembles a masculine noun of the fourth declension. Supines only occur in the accusative and ablative cases.
- The accusative form ends in a –um, and is used with a verb of motion in order to show the purpose. Thus, it is only used with verbs like cedere, venīre, etc. The accusative form of a supine can also take an object if needed.
- Pater vēnit portātum līberōs suōs. – The father came to carry his children.
- The ablative, which ends in a –ū, is used with the Ablative of Specification.
- Arma haec facillima portātū erant. – These arms were the easiest to carry.
The gerund is formed similarly to the present active participle. However, the –ns becomes an –ndus, and the preceding ā or ē is shortened. Gerunds are neuter nouns of the second declension, but the nominative case is not present. The gerund is a noun, meaning "the act of doing (the verb)", and forms a suppletive paradigm to the infinitive, which cannot be declined. For example, the genitive form portandī can mean "of carrying", the dative form portandō can mean "to carrying", the accusative form portandum can mean "carrying", and the ablative form portandō can mean "by carrying", "in respect to carrying", etc.
One common use of the gerund is with the preposition ad to indicate purpose. For example paratus ad oppugnandum could be translated as "ready to attack". However the gerund was avoided when an object was introduced, and a passive construction with the gerundive was preferred. For example for "ready to attack the enemy" the construction paratus ad hostes oppugnandos is preferred over paratus ad hostes oppugnandum.
The gerundive has a form similar to that of the gerund, but it is a first and second declension adjective, and functions as a future passive participle (see Participles above). It means "(which is) to be ...ed". Often, the gerundive is used with an implicit esse, to show obligation.
- Puer portandus "The boy to be carried"
- Oratio laudanda est means "The speech is to be praised". In such constructions a substantive in dative may be used to identify the agent of the obligation (dativus auctoris), as in Oratio nobis laudanda est meaning "The speech is to be praised by us" or "We must praise the speech".
|portandus, –a, –um||terrendus, –a, –um||petendus, –a, –um||audiendus, –a, –um|
For some examples of uses of Latin gerundives, see the Gerundive article.
There are two periphrastic conjugations. One is active, and the other is passive.
The first periphrastic conjugation uses the future participle. It is combined with the forms of esse. It is translated as "I am going to carry," "I was going to carry", etc.
|Pres. Ind.||portātūrus sum||I am going to carry|
|Imp. Ind.||portātūrus eram||I was going to carry|
|Fut. Ind.||portātūrus erō||I shall be going to carry|
|Perf. Ind.||portātūrus fuī||I have been going to carry|
|Plup. Ind.||portātūrus fueram||I had been going to carry|
|Fut. Perf. Ind.||portātūrus fuerō||I shall have been going to carry|
|Pres. Subj.||portātūrus sim||I may be going to carry|
|Imp. Subj.||portātūrus essem||I should be going to carry|
|Perf. Subj.||portātūrus fuerim||I may have been going to carry|
|Plup. Subj.||portātūrus fuissem||I should have been going to carry|
The second periphrastic conjugation uses the gerundive. It is combined with the forms of esse and expresses necessity. It is translated as "I am to be carried," "I was to be carried", etc., or as "I have to (must) be carried," "I had to be carried," etc.
|Pres. Ind.||portandus sum||I am to be carried|
|Imp. Ind.||portandus eram||I was to be carried|
|Fut. Ind.||portandus erō||I will deserve to be carried|
|Perf. Ind.||portandus fuī||I was to be carried|
|Plup. Ind.||portandus fueram||I had deserved to be carried|
|Fut. Perf. Ind.||portandus fuerō||I will have deserved to be carried|
|Pres. Subj.||portandus sim||I may deserve to be carried|
|Imp. Subj.||portandus essem||I should deserve to be carried|
|Perf. Subj.||portandus fuerim||I may have deserved to be carried|
|Plup. Subj.||portandus fuissem||I should have deserved to be carried|
|Pres. Inf.||portandus esse||To deserve to be carried|
|Perf. Inf.||portandus fuisse||To have deserved to be carried|
There are a few irregular verbs in Latin that are not grouped into a particular conjugation (such as esse and posse), or deviate slightly from a conjugation (such as ferre, īre, and dare). It consists of the following list and their compounds (such as conferre). Many irregular verbs lack a fourth principal part.
- sum, esse, fuī, futūrum – to be, exist
- possum, posse, potuī – to be able, can
- eō, īre, īvī / īī, ītum – to go
- volō, velle, voluī – to wish, want
- nōlō, nōlle, nōluī – to not want, refuse
- mālō, mālle, māluī – to prefer
- ferō, ferre, tulī, lātum – to bear, endure, carry, bring
- fīō, fierī, factus sum – to become, happen, be made
- edō, ēsse, ēdī, ēsum – to eat, waste
- dō, dare, dedī, datum – to give, bestow
Deponent and semi-deponent verbs
Deponent verbs are verbs that are passive in form (that is, conjugated as though in the passive voice) but active in meaning. These verbs have only three principal parts, since the perfect of ordinary passives is formed periphrastically with the perfect participle, which is formed on the same stem as the supine. Some examples coming from all conjugations are:
- 1st Conjugation: mīror, mīrārī, mīrātus sum – to admire, wonder
- 2nd Conjugation: polliceor, pollicērī, pollicitus sum – to promise, offer
- 3rd Conjugation: loquor, loquī, locūtus sum – to speak, say
- 4th Conjugation: orior, orīrī, ortus sum – to rise, spring up
Deponent verbs use active conjugations for tenses that do not exist in the passive: the gerund, the supine, the present and future participles and the future infinitive. They cannot be used in the passive themselves, and their analogues with "active" form do not in fact exist: one cannot directly translate "The word is said" with any form of loquī, and there are no forms like loquō, loquis, loquit, etc.
Semi-deponent verbs form their imperfective aspect tenses in the manner of ordinary active verbs; but their perfect are built periphrastically like deponents and ordinary passives; thus semideponent verbs have a perfect active participle instead of a perfect passive participle. An example:
- audeō, audēre, ausus sum – to dare, venture
Note: In the Romance languages, which lack deponent or passive verb forms, the Classical Latin deponent verbs either disappeared (being replaced with non-deponent verbs of a similar meaning) or changed to a non-deponent form. For example, in Spanish and Italian, mīrārī changed to mirar(e) by changing all the verb forms to the previously nonexistent "active form", and audeō changed to osar(e) by taking the participle ausus and making an -ar(e) verb out of it (note that au went to o).
Third conjugation –iō verbs
There is a rather prolific subset of important verbs within the third conjugation. They have an –iō present in the first principal part (–ior for deponents), and resemble the fourth conjugation in some forms. Otherwise, they are still conjugated as normal, third conjugation verbs. Thus, these verbs are called third conjugation –iō verbs or third conjugation i-stems. Some examples are:
- capiō, capere, cēpī, captum – to take, seize, understand
- cupiō, cupere, cupīvī, cupītum – to desire, long for
- faciō, facere, fēcī, factum - to do, make
- morior, morī, mortuus sum (dep.) – to die, decay
- patior, patī, passus sum (dep.) – to suffer, undergo, endure
- rapiō, rapere, rapuī, raptum - to plunder, take up, seize, snatch, carry away
They resemble the fourth conjugation in the following instances.
- Present indicative (first person singular, third person plural) – capiō, capiunt, etc.
- Indicative imperfect – capiēbam, capiēbāmus, etc.
- Indicative future – capiam, capiēmus, etc.
- Subjunctive present – capiam, capiāmus, etc.
- Imperative future (third person plural) – capiuntō, etc.
- Present Active Participle – capiēns, –entis
- Gerund – capiendī, capiendum, etc.
- Gerundive – capiendus, –a, –um
Defective verbs are verbs that are conjugated in only some instances.
- Some verbs are conjugated only in the perfective aspect's tenses, yet have the imperfective aspect's tenses' meanings. As such, the perfect becomes the present, the pluperfect becomes the imperfect, and the future perfect becomes the future. Therefore, the defective verb ōdī means, "I hate." These defective verbs' principal parts are given in vocabulary with the indicative perfect in the first person and the perfect active infinitive. Some examples are:
- ōdī, ōdisse – to hate
- meminī, meminisse – to remember
- coepī, coepisse – to have begun
- A few verbs, the meanings of which usually have to do with speech, appear only in certain occurrences.
- Cedo (plur. cette), which means "Hand it over" or "Out with it" is only in the imperative mood, and only is used in the second person.
The following are conjugated irregularly:
Conjugation of aiō Indicative
Singular Plural Singular Plural Singular Plural First Person aiō —— aiēbam aiēbāmus —— —— Second Person ais —— aiēbās aiēbātis aiās* —— Third Person ait aiunt aiēbat aiēbant aiat aiant*
- Present Active Participle: – aiēns, –entis
|Conjugation of inquam|
|Conjugation of fārī|
|First Person||for||——||fābor||——||fātus sum||——||fātus eram||——||——||——|
- Present Active Participle – fāns, fantis
- Present Active Infinitive – fārī (variant: fārier)
- Supine – (acc.) fātum, (abl.) fātū
- Gerund – (gen.) fandī, (dat. and abl.) fandō, no accusative
- Gerundive – fandus, –a, –um
The Romance languages lost many of these verbs, but others (such as ōdī) survived but became regular fully conjugated verbs (in Italian, odiare).
Impersonal verbs are those lacking a person. In English impersonal verbs are usually used with the neuter pronoun "it" (as in "It seems," or "It storms"). Latin uses the third person singular. These verbs lack a fourth principal part. A few examples are:
- pluit, pluere, pluvit – to rain (it rains)
- ningit, ningere, ninxit – to snow (it snows)
- oportet, oportēre, oportuit – to be proper (it is proper, one should/ought to)
- licet, licēre, licuit – to be permitted [to] (it is allowed [to])
The third person forms of esse may also be seen as impersonal when seen from the perspective of English:
- Nox aestīva calida fuit. – It was a hot, summer night.
- Est eī quī terram colunt. – It is they who till the land.
Irregular future active participles
As stated, the future active participle is normally formed by removing the –um from the supine, and adding a –ūrus. However, some deviations occur.
Alternative verb forms
Several verb forms may occur in alternative forms (in some authors these forms are fairly common, if not more common than the canonical ones):
- The ending –ris in the passive voice may be –re as in:
- portābāris → portābāre
- The ending –ērunt in the perfect may be –ēre (primarily in poetry) as in:
- portāvērunt → portāvēre
Syncopated verb forms
Like most Romance languages, syncopated forms and contractions are present in Latin. They may occur in the following instances:
- Perfect stems that end in a –v may be contracted when inflected.
- portāvisse → portāsse
- portāvistī → portāstī
- portāverant → portārant
- portāvisset → portāsset
- The compounds of noscere (to learn) and movēre (to move, dislodge) can also be contracted.
- novistī → nostī
- novistis → nostis
- commoveram → commoram
- commoverās → commorās
Summary of forms
The four conjugations in the present tense of the indicative mood
|The Four Conjugations, Indicative Mood|
|laudō, laudāre, laudāvī, laudātus||terreō, terrēre, terruī, territus||agō, agere, ēgī, actus||capiō, capere, cēpī, captus||audiō, audīre, audīvī, audītus|
|2nd Person||laudās||laudāris||terrēs||terrēris||agis||ageris||capis||caperis||audīs||audīris (audīre)|
^ Futūrus esse is sometimes contracted as fore as seen in Caesar's De Bello Gallico.
^ The archaic uncontracted form potesse occurs frequently in Lucretius.
^ Form moriri, Ovid, Metamorphoses (poem) 14.215
^ Used by Cicero frequently.
^ Used personally by Lucretius (2.627): ningunt
- Jenney, Charles; Roger Scudder and Eric C. Baade (1979). First Year Latin. Allyn and Bacon. p. 123. ISBN 0-205-07859-1.
- Allen, Joseph and James Greenough. Allen and Greenough's Latin Grammar. New York: Ginn & Co., 1888. 282.
- Eitrem, S. (2006). Latinsk grammatikk (3 ed.). Oslo: Aschehoug. p. 111.
- Horace. "1.3.66". Sermonum liber primus (in Latin).
- Catullus. "10.27". Poems of Catullus (in Latin).
- Cicero. "2.259". De Oratore (in Latin).
- "P. OVIDI NASONIS METAMORPHOSEN LIBER QVARTVS DECIMVS". The Latin Library. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- "TITI LVCRETI CARI DE RERVM NATVRA LIBER SECVNDVS". The Latin Library. Retrieved September 1, 2010.
- J.B. Greenough, G.L. Kittredge, A.A. Howard, and Benj. L. D'Ooge, ed. (1903). Allen and Greenough's New Latin Grammar for Schools and College. Ginn and Company.
- Bennett, Charles Edwin; (at Project Gutenberg). New Latin Grammar.
|Look up Appendix:Latin fourth conjugation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Look up Appendix:Latin third conjugation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Look up Appendix:Latin second conjugation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|Look up Appendix:Latin first conjugation in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
|For a list of words relating to Latin verbs, see the Latin verbs category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|