Latin kings of Alba Longa
|King of Alba Longa|
|Last monarch||Gaius Cluilius|
|Formation||ca. 1151 BC|
|Abolition||mid-seventh century BC|
The Latin kings of Alba Longa (Latin: rex Albae longae), also referred to as the Latin kings of Rome, or Alban kings of Rome, are a series of legendary kings of Latium ruling mainly from Alba Longa. In the mythic tradition of the founding of Rome, they fill the 400-year gap between the settlement of Aeneas in Italy and the establishing of the city walls of Rome by Romulus and Remus. It was this line of descent to which the Julii claimed kinship. After the defeat and destruction of Alba Longa and the incorporation of Latium into the Roman state, the Alban kingship is succeeded by the series of kings usually called "Etruscan," though only a few members of this line were brought in from neighboring Etruria to reign.
In Roman mythology, the Latin kingdom of Alba Longa was an ancient monarchy located in the present-day region of Latium in Italy. It was founded by king Ascanius as a colony to reduce crowding in Lavinium and later chosen to be the capital of his Latin kingdom. It incorporated the former capitals, Lavinium and Laurentum, with Lavinium as the second capital, and Laurentum the original. Archaeology has confirmed that Rome was founded as a colony of people from Alba Longa, although Rome was a kingdom in its own right.
According to legend, after the fall of Troy, the Trojan Prince Aeneas led a band of refugees in search of a new home, eventually arriving in Italy near Lanuvium. The traditional date of the war was established by Eratosthenes as 1183 BC, leaving a gap of some four centuries until the traditional founding of Rome in 753 BC. The genealogy of the Alban kings justified the close ties between Rome and its Latin communities, and enhanced the status of Latin families who could claim descent from a legendary ancestor. Such was the eagerness to claim a Trojan pedigree in the Late Republic that 15 different lists of the Alban kings from Aeneas to Romulus survive.
Ascanius, also known as Iulus,[note 1] was the legendary founder of Alba Longa. His successor was Silvius, his half-brother and the son of Aeneas and Lavinia, and the grandson of Latinus. They never ruled from Alba Longa but resided in Lavinium. Although the exact location of Alba Longa remains difficult to prove, there is archaeological evidence of Iron Age settlements in the area traditionally identified as the site.
King of the Aborigines
Latinus was the fourth king of the Aborigines at the time Aeneas and his Trojans landed on the shore of Latium. The third king of the Aborigines was Latinus' maternal grandfather, Faunus. The second king was Jupiter and the first is supposed to have been Saturnus, whose reign was a sort of golden age for the Aborigines. Other sources include any of Janus, Evander, Faunus, or Picus as kings of the Aborigines.[note 2]
After Aeneas arrived, he married Latinus' daughter, Lavinia, and joined Latinus in war against the Rutulians. Later in the war, Latinus dies, making Aeneas sole ruler of both the Trojans and the Aborigines. The two groups would assume the common name of Latini, or Latins. Aeneas soon dies in battle leaving his son, Ascanius, as king of the Latins. Ascanius founds the city of Alba Longa becoming the first Latin king of Alba Longa.
The Silvian dynasty begins with Ascanius, but it's his younger half-brother Silvius, who succeeds him and whose name is lent to the royal bloodline (Silvius comes from Latin, Silva, meaning woods). The descendants of Silvius held sovereignty in Alba Longa at least until the death of Numitor, grandfather of the mythological twins, Romulus and Remus. Ancient sources say that after the death of Numitor, Romulus refused to succeed him as king of Alba Longa, and instead handed sovereignty to the people of Alba Longa who would elect an annual magistrate to rule Alba Longa. While this is doubtful, Romulus, as a member of the royal family, would have had the power to appoint magistrates in Alba Longa. Those magistrates must of shared a role similar to that of a Roman dictator or praetor.
List of Latin kings
|Name||Reign began||Reign ended||Rule|
|Latinus||1217 BC||1180 BC||King of the "Aborigines", who gave his name to the new state of the Latins to be ruled from Laurentum by Aeneas and his own daughter Lavinia, given in marriage to Aeneas.|
|Aeneas||1180 BC||1177 BC||A noble Trojan leading a force fleeing from the collapse of Troy. Listed as the first Latin king by both Livy and Dionysius. He founded Lavinium in 1181 BC, who would rule the Latins until his death on the battlefield 5 years later.|
|Ascanius (in Dionysius) or Iulus||1177 BC||1139 BC||The son of Aeneas and his Trojan wife Creusa, also known as Iulus, from which the gens Iulia was said to derive. Founder of Alba Longa (1151 BC, 30 years after the founding of Lavinium). Reigned for 38 years.|
|Silvius||1139 BC||1110 BC||A son of Aeneas and Lavinia, younger half-brother of Ascanius. Reigned for 29 years.|
|Aeneas Silvius||1110 BC||1079 BC||A son of Silvius. Reigned for 31 years.|
|Latinus Silvius||1079 BC||1028 BC||Possibly a son of Aeneas Silvius. Reigned for 51 years.|
|Alba Silvius||1028 BC||989 BC||Possibly a son of Latinus Silvius. Reigned for 39 years.|
|Atys (in Livy) or Capetus (in Dionysius)||989 BC||963 BC||Possibly a son of Alba. Reigned for 26 years.|
|Capys||963 BC||935 BC||Possibly a son of Capetus. Reigned for 28 years.|
|Capetus Silvius or Calpetus||935 BC||922 BC||Possibly a son of Capys. Reigned for 13 years.|
|Tiberinus Silvius||922 BC||914 BC||Possibly a son of Capetus II. Reigned for 8 years. Reportedly slain in battle near the Albula river and his body was carried away by it. The river was renamed Tiber.|
|Agrippa||914 BC||873 BC||Possibly a son of Tiberinus. Reigned for 41 years.|
|Romulus Silvius (in Livy) or Alladius (in Dionysius)||873 BC||854 BC||Possibly a son of Agrippa. Reigned for 19 years. Reportedly a tyrant and contemptuous of the Gods. He frightened the people by throwing thunderbolts at them, until he himself was murdered by one and his house was submerged in the Alban Lake.|
|Aventinus||854 BC||817 BC||Possibly a son of Alladius. Reigned for 37 years. The Aventine Hill was reportedly named after him.|
|Procas or Proca||817 BC||794 BC||Possibly a son of Aventinus. Reigned for 23 years.|
|Amulius||794 BC||752 BC||A younger son of Procas who reportedly usurped the throne. Reigned for 42 years. Slain by his grand-nephews Romulus and Remus.|
|Numitor||752 BC||? BC||The older brother of Amulius. Reportedly succeeded him a year before the foundation of Rome.|
|Gaius Cluilius||? BC||? BC||Last king of Alba Longa who dies of natural causes while in camp during the siege of Rome under the kingship of Tullus Hostilius.|
|Mettius Fufetius||? BC||? BC||Elected dictator of Alba Longa by Cluilius' forces following his death. Mettius agreed to become vassal to the Romans for fear of the Fidenates and Veienates. Was executed by Tullus hostilius for committing perfidy. (mid seventh century BC)|
It was popular in the late Roman republic for the more distinguished families to claim divine origin, and it was believed that Iulus (Ascanius) was the mythical ancestor of the gens Julia. A notable member of the family, Julius Caesar, is said to have gone to Mount Alba to preside over the Feriae Latinae,(Latin rites originally celebrated by the kings of Alba Longa). In doing so he confused the Roman people who hailed him as king upon his return to Rome, a title he rejected. While it is doubtful that the gens Julia are descent from Julus, it is believed that they are of Alban origin.
Kings of Alba Longa would have claimed to be descendents of Jupiter as Virgil demonstrates in the Aeneid. He represents the Alban kings as being crowned with a civic oak-leaf crown. The Roman kings then adopted the crown, becoming personifications of Jupiter on earth. Latinus was thought to have become Jupiter Latiaris after "vanishing" during a battle with Mezentius, (king of Caere). So too, Aeneas disappeared from a battle with Mezentius or with Turnus, and became Jupiter Indiges. Romulus (not unlike his Alban predecessors) became Quirinus, the "Oak-god", when he was called up to heaven.
The ancient historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus is believed to have invented the Alban chronology to fill the gap of centuries between the fall of Troy and the founding of Rome. This could have been achieved by him taking the Roman history as it was, comparing it with the Greek, and inserting Greek Olympiads or Athenian archons. This method would have made the Greek histories seem contemporary with the people and events in the Roman history of his time.
The names of the kings are often based on places around Rome, such as Tiberinus, Aventinus, Alba, and Capetus. Others are rationalizations of of mythical figures, or pure inventions to provide notable ancestors for status-seeking families. Despite possibly being a later invention, the Silvian house or gens Silvia, likely did exist.
|Lineage of the Latin kings of Alba Longa|
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