Latin kings of Alba Longa

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For other uses, see Latin kings (disambiguation).
Ferdinand Bol's 17th-century mythological painting shows Aeneas, in armor, awarding laurels to the winner of a race; he rules jointly on the same dais with Latinus

The Latin kings of Alba Longa, also referred to as the Latin kings of Rome or Alban kings of Rome, are a series of legendary kings of Latium ruling mainly from Alba Longa. In the mythic tradition of the founding of Rome, they fill the 400-year gap between the settlement of Aeneas in Italy and the establishing of the city walls of Rome by Romulus and Remus. It was this line of descent to which the Julii claimed kinship.

After the defeat and destruction of Alba Longa and the incorporation of Latium into the Roman state, the Alban kingship is succeeded by the series of kings usually called "Etruscan," though only a few members of this line were brought in from neighboring Etruria to reign.

Background[edit]

For more details on this topic, see Alba Longa.

In Roman mythology, the Kingdom of Alba Longa was an ancient monarchy located in the present-day region of Latium in Italy.[1] Its capital was Alba Longa but it included other cities such as Lavinium and Latium.[2][3] Although archaeology has confirmed that Rome was founded by a colony of people from Alba Longa, there are no historical records for the period.[4]

According to legend, after the fall of Troy, the Trojan prince Aeneas led a band of refugees driven by destiny to found a new city, eventually arriving in Italy. The traditional date of the war was established by Eratosthenes as 1184 BC, leaving a gap of some four centuries until the traditional founding of Rome in 753 BC. The genealogy of the Alban kings justified the close ties between Rome and its Latin communities, and enhanced the status of Latin families who could claim descent from a legendary ancestor. Such was the eagerness to claim a Trojan pedigree in the Late Republic that 15 different lists of the Alban kings from Aeneas to Romulus survive.[5]

The son of Aeneas was Ascanius, also known as Iulus, from which the gens name Iulius, as in Gaius Julius Caesar, was supposed to derive. Ascanius is the legendary founder of Alba Longa. His successor was Silvius, his half-brother and the son of Aeneas and Lavinia, and the grandson of Latinus. They never ruled from Alba Longa but resided in Lavinium. Although the exact location of Alba Longa remains difficult to prove, there is archaeological evidence of Iron Age settlements in the area traditionally identified as the site.

The names on the list are formed variously. Some are based on place names around Rome, such as Tiberinus, Aventinus, Alba, and Capetus. Others are rationalizations of mythical figures, or pure inventions to provide notable ancestors for status-seeking Roman families.[6]

List of Latin kings[edit]

The following list is based on Livy[7] and Dionysius of Halicarnassus,[8] who is the source for the length of each reign.

Name Reign began Reign ended Rule
Latinus 1217 BC 1180 BC King of the "Aborigines", who gave his name to the new state of the Latins to be ruled from Laurentum by Aeneas and his own daughter Lavinia, given in marriage to Aeneas.
Aeneas 1180 BC 1177 BC A noble Trojan leading a force fleeing from the collapse of Troy. Listed as the first Latin king by both Livy and Dionysius. He founded Lavinium in 1182 BC, who would rule the Latins until his death on the battlefield 5 years later.
Ascanius 1177 BC 1139 BC A prior son of Aeneas and his Trojan wife Creusa. Founder of Alba Longa (1152 BC, 30 years after the founding of Lavinium). Reigned for 38 years.
Silvius 1139 BC 1110 BC A son of Aeneas and Lavinia, younger half-brother of Ascanius. Reigned for 29 years.
Aeneas Silvius 1110 BC 1079 BC A son of Silvius. Reigned for 31 years.
Latinus Silvius 1079 BC 1028 BC Possibly a son of Aeneas Silvius. Reigned for 51 years.
Alba Silvius 1028 BC 989 BC Possibly a son of Latinus Silvius. Reigned for 39 years.
Atys (in Livy) or Capetus (in Dionysius) 989 BC 963 BC Possibly a son of Alba. Reigned for 26 years.
Capys 963 BC 935 BC Possibly a son of Capetus. Reigned for 28 years.
Capetus Silvius or Calpetus 935 BC 922 BC Possibly a son of Capys. Reigned for 13 years.
Tiberinus Silvius 922 BC 914 BC Possibly a son of Capetus II. Reigned for 8 years. Reportedly slain in battle near the Albula river and his body was carried away by it. The river was renamed Tiber.
Agrippa 914 BC 873 BC Possibly a son of Tiberinus. Reigned for 41 years.
Romulus Silvius (in Livy) or Alladius (in Dionysius) 873 BC 854 BC Possibly a son of Agrippa. Reigned for 19 years. Reportedly a tyrant and contemptuous of the Gods. He frightened the people by throwing thunderbolts at them, until he himself was murdered by one and his house was submerged in the Alban Lake.
Aventinus 854 BC 817 BC Possibly a son of Alladius. Reigned for 37 years. The Aventine Hill was reportedly named after him.
Procas or Proca 817 BC 794 BC Possibly a son of Aventinus. Reigned for 23 years.
Amulius 794 BC 752 BC A younger son of Procas who reportedly usurped the throne. Reigned for 42 years. Slain by his grand-nephews Romulus and Remus.
Numitor 752 BC ? BC The older brother of Amulius. Reportedly succeeded him a year before the foundation of Rome. His successor is not named, but there must have been one, for Gaius Cluilius, last king of Alba Longa was said to be descended of Aeneas.
Gaius Cluilius ? BC ? BC Last king of Alba Longa who dies of natural causes while in camp during the siege of Rome under the kingship of Tullus Hostilius.
Mettius Fufetius ? BC ? BC Elected dictator of Alba Longa by Cluilius' forces following his death. Mettius agreed to become vassal to the Romans for fear of the Fidenates and Veienates. Was executed by Tullus hostilius for committing perfidy. (mid seventh century BC)

Family Tree[edit]

 
 
 
Anchises
 
Venus
 
Latinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Creusa
 
Aeneas
 
 
Lavinia
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Ascanius or Iulus
 
Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Silvius
 
 
Aeneas Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Brutus of Britain
 
 
Latinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Alba
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Atys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capys
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Capetus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Tiberinus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Agrippa
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Romulus Silvius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Aventinus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Procas
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Numitor
 
Amulius
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Rhea Silvia
 
Mars
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Hersilia
 
Romulus
 
Remus
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Kings of Rome

See Also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Donna Rosenberg. World Mythology. NTC Pub. Group, 1994. Pp. 111.
  2. ^ Livy, Valerie M Warrior (ed). The History of Rome, Books 1-5. Indianapolis, Indiana, USA: Hackett Publishing Company, Inc., 2006. Pp. 8.
  3. ^ Andrea Carandini, Stephen Sartarelli. Rome: Day One. English edition. Princeton, New Jersey, USA: Princeton University Press, 2011. Pp. 33.
  4. ^ Jane F. Gardner. Roman myths. British Museum Press, 1993. Pp. 31.
  5. ^ Gary D. Farney, Ethnic Identity and Aristocratic Competition in Republican Rome (Cambridge University Press, 2007), pp. 55–56.
  6. ^ Farney, Ethnic Identity and Aristocratic Competition, p. 56.
  7. ^ Titus Livius. "Book I". History of Rome. 
  8. ^ Dionysius of Halicarnassus. "I.66 ff". Roman Antiquities. 

External links[edit]

  • Dionysius of Halicarnassus; Ernest Cary (Translator); William Thayer (Editor) (1937-1950, 2007). Roman Antiquities. Loeb Classical Library. Cambridge, Chicago: Harvard University, University of Chicago. Retrieved 13 July 2009.  Check date values in: |date= (help)
  • Livius, Titus; D. Spillan (Translator) (1853, 2006). "The History of Rome, Books 1 to 8". Project Gutenberg. Retrieved 13 July 2009.  Check date values in: |date= (help)