Latvians

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Latvians
latvieši
Karlis Ulmanis.jpg
Kārlis Goppers.jpg
EmilsDārzins.jpg
Staprans.jpeg
Janis Cakste.jpg
Jānis Balodis 1928.jpg
Kronvalds.jpg
Vaira Vīķe-Freiberga.jpg
Inguna Butane in Michael Kors FW 08 Collection.jpg
Juris Hartmanis(2002).jpg
Oskars Kalpaks.jpg
Jrainis.jpg
Total population
c. 1.65 million
Regions with significant populations
 Latvia 1,319,552 (2012)[1]
 United States 96,070–102,000 (2009)[2]
 United Kingdom 39,000 (2011)[3][4]
 Canada 27,870 (2006)[5]
 Brazil 25,000 (2002)[6]
 Ireland 20,593  (2011)[7]
 Russia 20,068 (2010)[8]
 New Zealand 20,000 (2004)[9]
 Australia 18,938 (2004)[10]
 Germany 9,775 (2006)[11]
 Norway 8,077 (2013)[12]
 Ukraine 5,079 (2001)[13]
 Sweden 4,116 (2009)[14]
 Denmark 3,799 (2012)[15]
 Spain 3,711 (2011)[16]
 Lithuania 2,300 (2012)[17]
 Italy 2,257 (2010)[18]
 Estonia 2,171 (2012)[19]
 France 1,702 (2007)[20]
 Uzbekistan 1,600 (2010)
 Belarus 1,549 (2009)[21]
 Netherlands 1,400 (2002)[22]
 Finland 1,164 (2013)[23]
 Kazakhstan 1,123 (2009)[24]
  Switzerland 736 (2006)[25]
 Belgium 679 (2008)[26]
 Turkmenistan 500 (2010)
 Venezuela 400[27]
 Moldova 400 (2010)
 Portugal 383 (2010)[28]
 Poland 293 (2011)[29]
 Georgia 200[27]
Religion

Predominantly Lutheranism, with Roman Catholic minority

A large non-religious population.

Dievturi minority.

Historically Baltic Paganism.
Related ethnic groups
Lithuanians, Kursenieki, Latgalians, Semigallians, Livonians

Latvians or Letts (Latvian: latvieši; Livonian: leţlizt) are a Baltic ethnic group, native to what is modern-day Latvia and the immediate geographical region. The Latvian people share a common Latvian language.

History[edit]

A Finnic-speaking tribe known as the Livs settled among the Latvians and modulated the name to "Latvis," meaning "forest-clearers," which is how medieval German, Teutonic settlers also referred to these peoples. The Germanic settlers referred to the natives as "Letts" and the nation to "Lettland", naming their colony Livonia or Livland.

The Latin form, Livonia, gradually referred to the whole territory of the modern-day Latvia as well as southern Estonia, which had fallen under minimal Germanic influence. Latvians and Lithuanians are the only surviving members of the Baltic branch of the Indo-European family.

Genetics[edit]

Paternal haplogroups N1c-Tat and R1a are the two most frequent, reaching 39.9% each among ethnic Latvians.[citation needed][30] N1c-Tat mutation probably originated in South Siberia eight to nine thousand years ago and had spread through the Urals into the Europe where it is currently most common among Finno-Ugric and Baltic people. Balts, however, differ from Finno-Ugrics by the predominance of the N1c-L550 branch of N1c-Tat.[31] Haplogroup R1a is associated with the spread of Indo-European languages, and with Baltic and Slavic people.

A recent autosomal study has shown that among other European populations, Latvians are genetically related to Lithuanians, followed distantly by Estonians.[32] It is important to remember that Estonians are of Finno-Ugric language and partial genetics. Thus, it must be emphasized that Latvians and Lithuanians (the Eastern Baltic peoples) and Estonians, form a genetic continuum.

Culture[edit]

Latvians share a common language and have unique culture with traditions, holidays, customs and arts. The culture and religious traditions have been somewhat influenced by Germanic, Scandinavian, and Russian traditions. Latvians have an ancient culture that has been archaeologically dated back to 3,000 B.C. Latvians maintained considerable connection and trade with their neighbors, and near ethnic cousins the Finno-Ugrians, otherwise known contemporarily as Estonians and eventually Finns as well. The first indications of human inhabitants on the lands of modern Latvia date archaeologically to ~9,000 B.C., suggesting that the first settlers were hunters that stayed almost immediately following the end of the last Ice Age. Colonizers from the South arrived quickly, driving many of the hunters northward and polar ice caps melted further, or East, into modern-day Russia, Belorussia, and Ukraine. The Roman author Tacitus remarked upon the "Aestii" peoples, thought to be inhabitants of the modern Baltic lands, suggesting that they were abound with formidable, yet peaceful and hospitable people. The Latvian peoples remained relatively undisturbed until Papal intervention via the Germanic, Teutonic Order colonized Kurzeme (Kurland in German), beginning in the first-half of the 13th century. Papal decrees ordered the Teutonic Order to spread the "Word of the Lord" and the Gospel of Christianity throughout "uncivilized", "Pagan lands." Though, these attempts to Christianize the population failed, and the Teutonic Order eventually redeployed Southward, to the region of what was once known as East Prussia.

South-Eastern Latvia (Latgale), due to having a relatively large ethnic Russian population, has maintained a large Russian influence.

Most of the religious Latvians belong to the Evangelical Lutheran Church, but in Eastern Latvia (Latgale) Roman Catholic Church is predominant, a small minority of Latvians belong to the Latvian Orthodox Church and other religious congregations.[33] In the late 18th century, a small but vibrant Herrnhutist movement played a significant part in the development of Latvian literary culture, before it was absorbed in to the mainstream Lutheran denomination.

The national language of the Latvian people is Latvian. Latvian is part of a unique linguistic branch of Indo-European languages: the Baltic languages.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1]
  2. ^ "Detailed Tables - American FactFinder". Factfinder.census.gov. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  3. ^ Population by country of birth and nationality, Annual Population Survey, Office of National Statistics, 2010[dead link]
  4. ^ BNS. "TVNET :: Ārvalstīs - Lielbritānijā pašlaik dzīvo 39 tūkstoši viesstrādnieku no Latvijas". Tvnet.lv. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  5. ^ [2]
  6. ^ "Revista Época Ediусo 214 24/06/2002". Epoca.globo.com. 2002-06-24. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  7. ^ "CSO Emigration". Census Office Ireland. Retrieved January 29, 2013. 
  8. ^ Russians#cite note-gks-1
  9. ^ http://www.latviansonline.com/pdf/040713diaspora_en.pdf#search='latvian%20diaspora%2020%2C000%20brazil'
  10. ^ http://www.ausstats.abs.gov.au/ausstats/free.nsf/Lookup/C41A78D7568811B9CA256E9D0077CA12/$File/20540_2001%20(corrigendum).pdf
  11. ^ "Federal Statistical Office - Foreign population by average-age and average duration of residence". Destatis.de. 2008-10-20. Retrieved 2012-01-23. 
  12. ^ [3]
  13. ^ State statistics committee of Ukraine - National composition of population, 2001 census (Ukrainian)
  14. ^ http://www.scb.se/statistik/_publikationer/BE0101_2009A01_BR_BE0110TAB.pdf
  15. ^ [4]
  16. ^ [5]
  17. ^ "Gyventojų skaičius metų pradžioje. Požymiai: tautybė - Rodiklių duomenų bazėje". Db1.stat.gov.lt. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  18. ^ "Statistiche demografiche ISTAT". Demo.istat.it. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  19. ^ "Statistics Estonia - Population by ethnic nationality, 1 January, years". Stat.ee. 2011-10-13. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  20. ^ [6][dead link]
  21. ^ ru:Латыши#cite note-5
  22. ^ http://www.cbs.nl/NR/rdonlyres/CCD504EA-9D41-40C2-AE28-BFB0A51C2045/0/2005k3b15p096art.pdf
  23. ^ "Taulukko: Kieli iän ja sukupuolen mukaan maakunnittain 1990 - 2010". Pxweb2.stat.fi. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  24. ^ Ethnic composition, religion and language skills in the Republic of Kazakhstan
  25. ^ http://www.bfs.admin.ch/bfs/portal/de/index/themen/01/22/publ.Document.88215.pdf
  26. ^ "Bevolking per nationaliteit, geslacht, leeftijdsgroepen op 1/1/2008" (in (Dutch)). Statbel.fgov.be. Retrieved 2011-12-03. 
  27. ^ a b lt:Latviai
  28. ^ [7]
  29. ^ (Polish) http://www.stat.gov.pl/cps/rde/xbcr/gus/LUD_ludnosc_stan_str_dem_spo_NSP2011.pdf
  30. ^ http://www.eva.mpg.de/genetics/pdf/Kasperavicuite.2004.pdf Kasperaviciute et al. 2004 (link broken)
  31. ^ http://dna2012.gerichtsmedizin.at/files/DNA_in_Forensics_2012.pdf Pamjav H, Nemeth E, Feher T, Volgyi A "Genetic journey of the N1c haplogroup"
  32. ^ http://www.plosone.org/article/info:doi/10.1371/journal.pone.0005472#pone-0005472-t002 Nelis et al. "Genetic Structure of Europeans: A View from the North–East"
  33. ^ "Tieslietu ministrijā iesniegtie reliģisko organizāciju pārskati par darbību 2011. gadā" (in Latvian). Retrieved 2012-07-25.