Lavender (color)

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This article is about the color. For other uses, see Lavender (disambiguation).

Lavender (floral) (#B57EDC)

Lavender (web) (#E6E6FA)

Lavender (web color)How to read this color infobox
Single lavendar flower02.jpg
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E6E6FA
sRGBB  (rgb) (230, 230, 250)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (8, 8, 0, 2)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 8%, 98[1]%)
Source X11[2]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Lavender is a pale tint of violet. It applies particularly to the color of the flower of the same name. The web color called lavender is displayed at right—it matches the color of the very palest part of the lavender flower; however, the more saturated color shown below as floral lavender more closely matches the average color of the lavender flower as shown in the picture and is the tone of lavender historically and traditionally considered lavender by the average person as opposed to those who are web site designers.[3] The color lavender might be described as a medium violet or a light pinkish violet. The term lavender may also be used in general to apply to a wide range of pale, light, medium, or grayish violet colors, as well as some pale or light pinkish, magenta, or purple colors as well as some pale or light blueish-indigo colors. In paints, the color lavender is made by mixing violet and white paint.

The first recorded use of the word lavender as a color term in English was in 1705.[4]

Historical development of the concept of the color[edit]

Originally, the name lavender only applied to flowers. By 1930, the book A Dictionary of Color[5] identified three major shades of lavender—[floral] lavender, lavender gray, and lavender blue, and in addition a fourth shade of lavender called old lavender (a dark lavender gray) (all four of these shades of lavender are shown below). By 1955, the publication of the ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (a color dictionary used by stamp collectors to identify the colors of stamps), now on the Internet,[6] listed dozens of different shades of lavender. Today, although the color floral lavender (the color of the flower of the lavender plant) remains the standard for lavender, just as there are many shades of pink (light red, light rose, and light magenta colors), there are many shades of lavender (some light magenta, some light purple, [mostly] light violet [as well as some grayish violet], and some light indigo colors).

Variations[edit]

Lavender blush[edit]

Lavender blushHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FFF0F5
sRGBB  (rgb) (255, 240, 245)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 6, 4, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (340°, 6%, 100[7]%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the web color lavender blush. It is a pale pinkish tone of lavender.

Lavender mist (web color Lavender)[edit]

Lavender mistHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #E6E6FA
sRGBB  (rgb) (230, 230, 250)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 8%, 98[8]%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)

The color designated as the web color lavender is a very pale tint of lavender that in other (artistic) contexts may be described as lavender mist.

Languid lavender[edit]

Languid lavenderHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #D6CADD
sRGBB  (rgb) (214, 202, 221)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 17, 0, 22)
HSV       (h, s, v) (270°, 17%, 82%)
Source Plochere
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color languid lavender. The source of this color is the Plochere Color System, a color system formulated in 1948 that is widely used by interior designers.[9]

Lavender gray[edit]

Lavender grayHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C4C3D0
sRGBB  (rgb) (196, 195, 208)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (6, 6, 0, 18)
HSV       (h, s, v) (245°, 6%, 82[10]%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The historical name for this color is lavender gray. It is listed in A Dictionary of Color as one of the three major variations of lavender in 1930 along with lavender blue (shown below) and [floral] lavender (also shown below).[11] (This book also designates a fourth shade of lavender, called old lavender, also shown below). This color is similar to Prismacolor colored pencil PC 1026, Greyed Lavender.

Sample of lavender gray: ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)—Color sample of lavender gray (color sample #213):

Soap[edit]

SoapHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #CEC8EF
sRGBB  (rgb) (206, 200, 239)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (14, 16, 0, 6)
HSV       (h, s, v) (249°, 16%, 94[12]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color soap is displayed at right. Soap is a color formulated by Crayola in 1994 as one of the colors in its Magic Scent specialty box of colors.

This color is a representation of soap scented with lavender, one of the most popular scents for soap.


Pale lavender[edit]

Lavender (ISCC-NBS)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DCD0FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (220, 208, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (17, 21, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (264°, 14%, 100%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the pale tint of lavender shown as lavender in sample 209 in the ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names.[13]

Lavender blue[edit]

Main article: Periwinkle (color)
A periwinkle flower
PeriwinkleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #CCCCFF
sRGBB  (rgb) (204, 204, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0.20, 0.20, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (240°, 20%, 100%)
Source Maerz and Paul[14]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Lavender blue was listed in A Dictionary of Color as one of the three major variations of lavender in 1930 along with lavender gray (shown above) and [floral] lavender (shown below). It is identified as being the same color as periwinkle. The first use of the term lavender blue as a color term was in 1926.[15]

Light lavender (wisteria)[edit]

WisteriaHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #C9A0DC
sRGBB  (rgb) (201, 160, 220)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (16, 40, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (281°, 27%, 86%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Chinese wisteria

The color wisteria is displayed at right. Wisteria, a light medium violet color is equivalent to light lavender.

The Prismacolor colored pencil PC 956, which used to be called light violet and is now called lilac (the actual color of the colored pencil is equivalent to wisteria rather than lilac) is this color.

Wisteria in this exact shade is one of the Crayola crayon colors on the list of Crayola crayon colors. It was formulated as a Crayola color in 1993. The first recorded use of wisteria as a color name in English was in 1892.[16]

Pink lavender[edit]

Pink lavenderHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #D8B2D1
sRGBB  (rgb) (219, 178, 209)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 18, 3, 15)
HSV       (h, s, v) (311°, 18%, 85[17]%)
Source Pantone TPX[18]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color pink lavender is displayed at right.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #14-3207 TPX—Pink Lavender.[19]

Lavender pink[edit]

Lavender (Crayola)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #FBAED2
sRGBB  (rgb) (252, 180, 213)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 31, 16, 2)
HSV       (h, s, v) (332°, 31%, 98[20]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

After the introduction of the Munsell color system, in which purple, described as equivalent to red-violet is described as one of the five psychological primary colors along with red, yellow, green, and blue, some people began to think of lavender as being somewhat more pinkish color.[citation needed] This color can be described as lavender pink or pale pinkish-purple when purple is defined as equivalent to red-violet as artists do.[citation needed]

This tone of lavender, displayed at right, is the color designated as lavender (color #74) in the list of Crayola crayon colors.

Before 1958, the color shown below as medium lavender gray and now called purple mountain majesty by Crayola was called lavender in Crayola crayons.

Medium lavender magenta (web color plum)[edit]

Plum (web color)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DDA0DD
sRGBB  (rgb) (221, 160, 221)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 28, 0, 13)
HSV       (h, s, v) (300°, 28%, 87[21]%)
Source HTML/CSS[2]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Main article: Plum (color)

At right is displayed the color medium lavender magenta which is equivalent to the web color version of plum (pale plum).

This color may be regarded both as a tone of lavender since it is a light color between rose and blue and as a light medium tone of magenta because its red and blue values are equal (the color signature of a tone of magenta for computer display).

Heliotrope[edit]

Main article: Heliotrope (color)
HeliotropeHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #DF73FF
sRGBB  (rgb) (223, 115, 255)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (13, 55, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (286°, 55%, 100%)
Source Maerz and Paul[22]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color heliotrope is shown at right. Another name for this color is psychedelic lavender because this color was a popular color often used in the hippie psychedelic poster art of the late 1960s for the Fillmore Auditorium and the Avalon Ballroom in San Francisco that were and are sold in the head shops of the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood. These posters were drawn and produced by such artists as Wes Wilson, Stanley Mouse, Rick Griffin, and Victor Moscoso. Images of psychedelic posters:[23]

Lavender (floral)[edit]

A lavender flower
Lavender (floral)How to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B57EDC
sRGBB  (rgb) (181, 126, 220)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (18, 43, 0, 14)
HSV       (h, s, v) (275°, 43%, 86[24]%)
Source Maerz and Paul[25]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

At right is displayed the color Lavender (floral). This color matches the color shown as "lavender" (viewed under a full-spectrum fluorescent lamp) in the 1930 book A Dictionary of Color (reference below), the world standard for color names before the introduction of computers. This color may also be called floral lavender. It is a medium violet.

This tone of lavender would be the approximate color you would get if you mix 50% violet paint and 50% white paint.

This tone of lavender may be regarded as actual lavender and the other tones displayed in this article can be regarded as all variations on this shade.[26]

This lavender also closely matches the color given as lavender in a basic purple color chart.

Amethyst[edit]

Amethyst gem stone
AmethystHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9966CC
sRGBB  (rgb) (153, 102, 204)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (25, 50, 0, 20)
HSV       (h, s, v) (270°, 50%, 80[27]%)
Source Maerz and Paul[28]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color amethyst is a moderate, transparent violet. Its name is derived from the stone amethyst, a form of quartz.

The first recorded use of amethyst as a color name in English was in 1572.[29]

Though the color of natural amethyst varies from purple to yellow, the amethyst color referred to here is the moderate purple color most commonly associated with amethyst stones. There is disagreement as to the cause of the purple color of the amethyst stone. Some believe that the color is due to the presence of manganese, while others have suggested that the amethyst color could be from ferric thiocyanate or sulfur found in amethyst stones.


Deep lavender (web color medium purple)[edit]

Medium purpleHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9370DB
sRGBB  (rgb) (147, 112, 219)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (56, 58, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (270°, 68%, 72%)
Source X11
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)
Main article: Purple

Displayed at right is the web color medium purple which is equivalent to deep medium violet or deep lavender.

Lavender purple (purple mountain majesty)[edit]

Purple mountain majestyHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #9678B6
sRGBB  (rgb) (150, 120, 182)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (18, 34, 0, 29)
HSV       (h, s, v) (260°, 34%, 71[30]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color purple mountain majesty, a Crayola color since 1993. This color may be regarded as a medium lavender gray.

This color was the color called lavender in Crayola crayons before 1958, when Crayola switched to calling the color shown above as lavender pink as being lavender. See the website "Lost Crayola Crayon Colors".[31] Because of that, another name for this color is lavender purple.

This color is a representation of the way mountains look when they are far away.

English lavender[edit]

English lavenderHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #B48395
sRGBB  (rgb) (180, 131, 149)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (0, 27, 17, 29)
HSV       (h, s, v) (338°, 27%, 71[32]%)
Source Pantone TPX[33]
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

Displayed at right is the color English lavender.

English lavender is a medium light tone of grayish pinkish lavender.

The source of this color is the "Pantone Textile Paper eXtended (TPX)" color list, color #17-3617 TPX—English Lavender.[34]


Twilight lavender[edit]

Twilight lavenderHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #8A496B
sRGBB  (rgb) (138, 73, 107)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (14, 33, 0, 0)
HSV       (h, s, v) (297°, 48%, 96[35]%)
Source Crayola
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The color twilight lavender is displayed at right. Twilight lavender is a color formulated by Crayola in 1990 as one of the colors in its Silver Swirls specialty box of metallic colors.

Although this is supposed to be a metallic color, there is no mechanism for displaying metallic colors on a computer.

Old lavender[edit]

Old lavenderHow to read this color infobox
About these coordinates     Color coordinates
Hex triplet #796878
sRGBB  (rgb) (121, 104, 120)
CMYKH   (c, m, y, k) (38, 44, 0, 27)
HSV       (h, s, v) (270°, 3%, 22%)
Source ISCC-NBS
B: Normalized to [0–255] (byte)
H: Normalized to [0–100] (hundred)

The dark lavender gray color displayed at right is called old lavender. It is a dark grayish violet.

The first recorded use of old lavender as a color name in English was in the year 1924.[36]

The source of this color is color sample #228 at the following website:[37] —The ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Colo(u)r Names (1955), a website for stamp collectors to evaluate the colors of their stamps.

In human culture[edit]

Culture[edit]

  • The color described above as [true] lavender or floral lavender or the color described above as lavender magenta may both be used to symbolize decadence, in the sense of a lifestyle devoted to aesthetic sensual enjoyment of sex, drugs, and rock and roll music (according to taste, some may prefer opera or classical music), sumptuous art with rich colors and complex Byzantine-like designs, rich gourmet food, and fine wine. The 1980 book Decadence: The Strange Life of an Epithet by Richard Gilman has a book jacket colored floral lavender and the interior paper of the inside front and back covers of the book is colored floral lavender. The tops of the pages are tipped in the color floral lavender.[38] The 1972 book Dreamers of Decadence by Philippe Jullian (about the Symbolist movement in art in the late 1800s in Europe) has the spine of the book jacket colored the color described above as lavender magenta.[39] [4]

Film[edit]

Food[edit]

Fraternities and sororities[edit]

Literature[edit]

Medicine[edit]

Music[edit]

Politics[edit]

Religion[edit]

Romantic love[edit]

  • Lavender roses are sometimes given by LGBTs to each other on Valentine's Day or may be given to those entering into a same-sex marriage . Images of lavender roses: [5]
  • Lavender roses are symbolic of "love at first sight".
  • A Lavender marriage is a marriage between a man and a woman in which one, or both, parties are, or are assumed to be, homosexual. Usually, but not always, both parties are assumed to be complicit in a public deception to hide their homosexuality (although in some lavender marriages, the marriage partners may be bisexual).

Sexuality[edit]

  • Just as in the 1890s mauve symbolized homosexuality, the tone of lavender described above as [true] lavender or floral lavender became the symbol of homosexuality in the 1950s and 1960s. The first usage was in the 1920s to indicate an effeminate style. Seán O'Casey wrote in 1928, "I am very sorry...that I have hurt the refined sentimentalities of C. W. Allen by neglecting to use the lavender...language of the 18th and 19th centuries." Cole Porter's 1929 song "I'm a Gigolo," went: "I'm a famous gigolo, And of lavender, my nature's got just a dash in it." A 1935 dictionary of slang reported "streak of lavender," meant an effeminate man or a sissy, a term used in 1926 by Carl Sandburg to describe young Abraham Lincoln.[48] In the 1960s, homophiles were sometimes referred to as the lavender boys (this term is still used by some people [both gay and non-gay] to refer to gays). A lavender convention is a convention of homosexuals. A heterosexual who has some homosexual tendencies is described as someone with a dash of lavender.[49] In the 1970s pink became more often associated with homosexuality because of the use of the pink triangle as a symbol of gay liberation. However, gays of the baby boom generation still think of lavender as the gayest color. According to some sources, the reason lavender symbolizes homosexuality is because it is the color that is obtained when you mix pink (the color symbolizing girls) with baby blue (the color symbolizing boys).[50] [6]
  • Lavender is the name of a LGBT magazine in Minnesota.
  • The Lavender Dragon Society was a club for gay Asian Americans in the San Francisco Bay Area in the late 1990s and early 2000s.[51]
  • There was a gay bookstore called the Lavender Dragon in Menlo Park, California in the late 1990s and early 2000s.
  • In the bandana code of the gay leather subculture, wearing a lavender bandana symbolizes that you have a fetish for dressing in drag.[52][53][54]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #E6E6FA (Lavender (web color)):
  2. ^ a b 4.3. SVG color keywords--X11 colors including gray/grey variants:. (May 2003). Retrieved on 2008-01-05.
  3. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill See discussion of color lavender, Page 163; See color Sample of Lavender—Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample C5 (Note that the color sample of lavender shown in the book A Dictionary of Color (the world standard for color matching before the introduction of computers) matches the shade of lavender displayed above under the heading "Lavender (floral)" )
  4. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York: 1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197
  5. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill
  6. ^ ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Color Names (1955)—Color dictionary used by stamp collectors to identify the colors of stamps—See various shades of the color Lavender displayed on indicated page: [1]
  7. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #FFF0F5 (Lavender Blush):
  8. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #E6E6FA (Lavender Mist):
  9. ^ Plochere Color System:
  10. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #C4C3D0 (Lavender Gray):
  11. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 197
  12. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #CEC8EF (Soap):
  13. ^ "Retsof online version of ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Colo(u)r Names - La through Lz". Tx4.us. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  14. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called periwinkle in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color periwinkle is displayed on page 109, Plate 43, Color Sample B8.
  15. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 196—Lavender blue shown as one of the three major variations of lavender under heading lavender; Page 190—Lavender blue is listed as blue-lavender, first use of the color term is identified as 1926, and the color is identified with periwinkle.
  16. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 207; Color Sample of Wisteria: Page 105 Plate 41 Color Sample E8
  17. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #D8B2D1 (Pink Lavender):
  18. ^ Type the words "Pink Lavender" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  19. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the words "Pink Lavender" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear:
  20. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #FBAED2 (Lavender Pink):
  21. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #DDA0DD (Medium Lavender Magenta):
  22. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called heliotrope in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color heliotrope is displayed on page 131, Plate 54, Color Sample C10.
  23. ^ ""Psychedelic Posters" - Google Images". Images.google.com. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  24. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #B57EDC (Lavender (Floral):
  25. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called lavender in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color lavender is displayed on page 109, Plate 43, Color Sample C5.
  26. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Color Sample of Lavender—Page 109 Plate 43 Color Sample C5 (The color sample of lavender shown in A Dictionary of Color matches the tone of lavender displayed above under the heading "Lavender (floral)")
  27. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #9966CC (Amethyst):
  28. ^ The color displayed in the color box above matches the color called amethyst in the 1930 book by Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill; the color amethyst is displayed on page 113, Plate 44, Color Sample J8.
  29. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 189; Color Sample of Amethyst: Page 113 Plate 45 Color Sample J8
  30. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #9678B6 (Lavender Purple (Purple Mountain Majesty)):
  31. ^ "lost color lists - (bring back gold ochre!) - Art - http://maxpages.com/lostcrayolas/lost_color_lists". Maxpages.com. 2004-06-24. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  32. ^ web.forret.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code of color #B48395 (English Lavender):
  33. ^ Type the words "English Lavender" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear.
  34. ^ Pantone TPX Pantone Color Finder--Type the words "English Lavender" into the indicated window on the Pantone Color Finder and the color will appear:
  35. ^ web.forrett.com Color Conversion Tool set to hex code #8A496B (Twilight Lavender):
  36. ^ Maerz and Paul A Dictionary of Color New York:1930 McGraw-Hill Page 200
  37. ^ "Retsof online version of ISCC-NBS Dictionary of Colo(u)r Names - Oa through Oz". Tx4.us. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  38. ^ Gilman, Richard Decadence: The Strange Life of an Epithet New York:1980—Farrar, Straus, and Griroux
  39. ^ Jullian, Philippe Dreamers of Decadence: Symbolist Painters of the 1890s 1972
  40. ^ "Ditty's Saturday Market: Nakashima Farms". Saturdaymarket.com. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  41. ^ ""Purple yam" - Google Images". Images.google.com. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  42. ^ ""Ube" - Google Images". Images.google.com. Retrieved 2009-12-07. 
  43. ^ Sigma Kappa Sorority
  44. ^ Complete text of Lavender and Old Lace:
  45. ^ Barron (ed), Fantasy Literature
  46. ^ Exhibition at San Francisco GLBT Historical Society lasting June 2007 to January 2008 about gays in the military since 1941:
  47. ^ October 8, 1973 issue of Time magazine about the Lavender Panthers : [2]
  48. ^ Oxford English Dictionary
  49. ^ Rodgers, Bruce Gay Talk: The Queen's Vernacular—A Dictionary of Gay Slang New York:1972—Paragon Books, G.P. Putnam's Sons, Page 124—Lavender
  50. ^ Jay, Karla and Young, Allen Lavender Culture: The Perceptive Voices of Outspoken Lesbians and Gay Men (1978)
  51. ^ [3]
  52. ^ Andrews, Vincent (2010), The Leatherboy Handbook, The Nazca Plains Corp., ISBN 978-1-61098-046-3 
  53. ^ Hankycode on gaycitiusa.com access date 2012-03-30
  54. ^ Hankycode on leathernjonline.com access date 2010-03-30