Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3

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LaGG-3
LaGG-3 Moscow.jpg
Role Fighter
Manufacturer 21 (Gorky), 31 (Taganrog/Tbilisi), 23/153 (Leningrad/Novosibirsk)
Designer V. P. Gorbunov
First flight 30 March 1940
Introduction early 1941
Primary user Soviet Union
Produced 1941-1944
Number built 6,528
Variants Lavochkin La-5
Lavochkin La-7

The Lavochkin-Gorbunov-Gudkov LaGG-3 (Лавочкин-Горбунов-Гудков ЛаГГ-3) was a Soviet fighter aircraft of World War II. It was a refinement of the earlier LaGG-1, and was one of the most modern aircraft available to the Soviet Air Force at the time of Germany's invasion in 1941.

Overweight despite its wooden construction, at one stage 12 LaGG-3s were being completed daily and 6,528 had been built when factory 31 in Tbilisi switched to Yak-3 production in 1944.[1]

Design and development[edit]

The prototype of the LaGG-3, I-301, was designed by Semyon A. Lavochkin, Vladimir P. Gorbunov and Mikhail I. Gudkov. It was designated LaGG-3 in serial production. Its airframe was almost completely made of timber, with crucial parts processed with Bakelite lacquer. This novel wood-laminate construction was more durable than regular timber, was incombustible, and didn’t rot. The full wooden wing (with plywood surfaces) was analogous to that of the Yak-1. The only difference was that the LaGG’s wings were built in two sections. The fuselage was the same as the MiG-3's.[2] But the LaGG-3’s armament was considered formidable. It consisted of a large-calibre (12.7 mm) UBK machine gun, which was installed between the "V" of the cylinders of the engine and two synchronized ShKAS machine guns. Consequently the weight of fire was 2.65 kg/s, making the LaGG superior to all serial Soviet fighters, as well as the 1941 version of the Messerschmitt Bf 109.[3] The MiG-3, which shared exactly the same weapons fit was (and is) considered extremely under-gunned[citation needed] compared with the Yak-1, which had a 20 mm cannon and two 7.62 mm machine guns, and even the later versions of the Polikarpov I-16, which had two cannon and two machine guns.

Operational history[edit]

The LaGG-3 rapidly replaced the LaGG-1 although the new fighter was too heavy for its engine. In fact, Lavochkin, Gorbunov and Gudkov had originally designed their prototype for the powerful Klimov M-106 engine. But it proved to be unreliable. So they were obliged to install the relatively weak Klimov M-105P. As a result, the LaGG was slow; its top speed was just 575 km/h, while its rate of climb at ground level was as slow as 8.5 meters/second. The LaGG-3 proved to be somewhat hard to control as it reacted sluggishly to stick forces. In particular, it was difficult to pull out of a dive, and if the stick was pulled too hard, it tended to fall into a spin. As a consequence, sharp turns were difficult to perform.[3] A more powerful engine was installed, but the improvement was small, so the only solution was to lighten the airframe. The LaGG team re-examined the design and pared down the structure as much as possible. Fixed slats were added to the wings to improve climb and manoeuvrability and further weight was saved by installing lighter armament. But the improvement was slight and without an alternative powerplant thus, when the LaGG-3 was first committed to combat in July 1941, it was completely outclassed by the Messerschmitt Bf 109.[3]

Later in 1941, the LaGG-3 appeared with new armament options, an internally balanced rudder, retractable ski landing gear for the winter, retractable tailwheel and wing pipes for drop tanks.[4] The result was still not good enough. Even with the lighter airframe and supercharged engine, the LaGG-3 was underpowered.

The LaGG-3 proved immensely unpopular with pilots. Some aircraft supplied to the front line were up to 40 km/h (25 mph) slower than they should have been and some were not airworthy. In combat, the LaGG-3's main advantage was its strong airframe. Although the laminated wood did not burn it shattered when hit by high explosive rounds.

The LaGG-3 was improved during production, resulting in 66 minor variants in the 6,528 that were built. Experiments with fitting a Shvetsov M-82 radial engine to the LaGG-3 airframe finally solved the power problem, and led to the Lavochkin La-5[5] The major LaGG-3 construction plant in Gorky switched over to the La-5 in 1942 after having completed 3,583 LaGG-3. All further LaGG-3 development and production was done by factory 31 in Taganrog as the sole LaGG-3 manufacturer.

Soviet pilots generally disliked this aircraft. Pilot Viktor M. Sinaisky recalled: "It was an unpleasant client! Preparing the LaGG-3 for flight demanded more time in comparison with other planes. All cylinders were supposed to be synchronized: God forbid you from shifting the gas distribution! We were strictly forbidden to touch the engine! But there were constant problems with water-cooled engines in winter: especially as there was no antifreeze liquid. You couldn't keep the engine running all night long, so you had to pour hot water into the cooling system in the morning. Furthermore, pilots didn't like flying the LaGG-3 - a heavy beast with a weak M-105 engine - but they got used to it. Even so, we had higher losses on LaGG-3 than on I-16s."[6]


Contrary to popular belief nickname lakirovannie garantirovanny grob ("(the) varnished guaranteed coffin" - varnished guaranteed coffin) was not used during the war.[citation needed]

Even with its limitations, some Soviet pilots managed to reach the status of ace flying the LaGG-3. G.I. Grigor'yev, from 178.IAP, was credited of at least 11 air victories plus two shared. But pictures of his LaGG-3 "Yellow 6", in November-December 1941, show 15 "stars", so his score was probably higher.[7]

Variants[edit]

  • Gudkov 82
  • Gudkov 37 (K-37)
  • Gorbunov 105 - A lightened LaGG-3 with improved performance and improved rear vision with cut down rear decking, overtaken by newer aircraft such as the La-5.
  • LaGG-3IT - LaGG-3 66 series with a NS-37 Cannon

Operators[edit]

 Finland
Finnish Air Force LaGG-3
 Germany
  • Luftwaffe operated captured examples for tests. One captured example was used for a propaganda movie in 1943.[9]
 Japan
 Soviet Union

Specifications LaGG-3 (data for LaGG-3 series 66)[edit]

LaGG-3

Data from Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II[11]

General characteristics

  • Crew: One
  • Length: 8.81 m (28 ft 11 in)
  • Wingspan: 9.80 m (32 ft 1.75 in)
  • Height: 2.54 m (8 ft 4 in)
  • Wing area: 17.4 m² (188 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 2,205 kg (4,851 lb)
  • Loaded weight: 2,620 kg (5,764 lb)
  • Max. takeoff weight: 3,190 kg (7,018 lb)
  • Powerplant: 1 × Klimov M-105PF liquid-cooled V-12, 924 kW (1,260 hp)

Performance

Armament

See also[edit]

Related development
Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
Related lists

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Wheeler 1992, p. 73.
  2. ^ Drabkin 2007, pp. 146–147.
  3. ^ a b c Drabkin 2007, p. 147.
  4. ^ Gunston 1980, p. 132.
  5. ^ Gordon 2003, p. 37.
  6. ^ Drabkin 2007, p. 73.
  7. ^ Morgan 1999, p. 28.
  8. ^ Keskinen et al. 1977, pp. 74-87, 126.
  9. ^ Stapfer 1996, p. 16.
  10. ^ Green and Swanborough 1977, p. 13.
  11. ^ Bridgeman 1946, pp. 194–195.

Bibliography[edit]

  • Abanshin, Michael E. and Nina Gut. Fighting Lavochkin, Eagles of the East No.1. Lynnwood, WA: Aviation International, 1993. ISBN unknown.
  • Bridgeman, Leonard, ed. "The LaGG-3". Jane’s Fighting Aircraft of World War II. London: Studio, 1946. ISBN 1-85170-493-0.
  • Drabkin, Artem. The Red Air Force at War: Barbarossa & The Retreat to Moscow – Recollections of Fighter Pilots on the Eastern Front. Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK: Pen & Sword Military, 2007. ISBN 1-84415-563-3.
  • Gordon, Yefim. Lavochkin's Piston-Engined Fighters (Red Star Volume 10). Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing Ltd., 2003. ISBN 1-85780-151-2.
  • Gordon, Yefim and Dmitri Khazanov. Soviet Combat Aircraft of the Second World War, Volume One: Single-Engined Fighters. Earl Shilton, Leicester, UK: Midland Publishing Ltd., 1998. ISBN 1-85780-083-4.
  • Gunston, Bill. Aircraft of World War two. London, Octopus Books Limited, 1980. ISBN 0-7064-1287-7.
  • Gunston, Bill. The Osprey Encyclopaedia of Russian Aircraft 1875–1995. London: Osprey, 1995. ISBN 1-85532-405-9.
  • Green, William. Warplanes of the Second World War, Volume Three: Fighters. London: Macdonald & Co. (Publishers) Ltd., 1961 (seventh impression 1973). ISBN 0-356-01447-9.
  • Green, William and Gordon Swanborough. WW2 Aircraft Fact Files: Soviet Air Force Fighters, Part 1. London: Macdonald and Jane's Publishers Ltd., 1977. ISBN 0-354-01026-3.
  • Keskinen, Kalevi, Kari Stenman and Klaus Niska. Venäläiset Hävittäjät (Suomen Ilmavoimien Historia 7) (in Finnish with English Summary). Espoo, Finland: Tietoteos, 1977. ISBN 951-9035-25-7.
  • Kotelnikov, Vladimir, Mikhail Orlov and Nikolay Yakubovich. LaGG-3 (Wydawnictwo Militaria 249) (in Polish). Warszawa, Poland: Wydawnictwo Militaria, 2006. ISBN 83-7219-249-9.
  • Morgan, Hugh. Gli assi Sovietici della Seconda guerra mondiale(in Italian). Edizioni del Prado/Osprey Aviation, 1999. ISBN 84-8372-203-8.
  • Stapfer, Hans-Heiri. LaGG Fighters in Action (Aircraft in Action Number 163). Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications, Inc., 1996. ISBN 0-89747-364-7.
  • Wheeler, Barry C. The Hamlyn Guide to Military Aircraft Markings. London: Chancellor Press, 1992. ISBN 1-85152-582-3.