Lavrentiya

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Lavrentiya (English)
Лаврентия (Russian)
Ӄышы (Yupik)
-  Rural locality[1]  -
Selo[1]
Map of Russia - Chukotka Autonomous Okrug (2008-03).svg
Location of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug in Russia
Lavrentiya is located in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Lavrentiya
Lavrentiya
Location of Lavrentiya in Chukotka Autonomous Okrug
Coordinates: 65°35′03″N 170°59′20″W / 65.58417°N 170.98889°W / 65.58417; -170.98889Coordinates: 65°35′03″N 170°59′20″W / 65.58417°N 170.98889°W / 65.58417; -170.98889
Administrative status (as of June 2012)
Country Russia
Federal subject Chukotka Autonomous Okrug[2]
Administrative district Chukotsky District[2]
Administrative center of Chukotsky District[1]
Municipal status (as of 2004)
Municipal district Chukotsky Municipal District[3]
Rural settlement Lavrentiya Rural Settlement[3]
Administrative center of Chukotsky Municipal District[4]
Statistics
Population (2010 Census) 1,459 inhabitants[5]
Population (January 2014 est.) 1,388 inhabitants[6]
Time zone PETT (UTC+12:00)[7]
Founded 1927[8]
Postal code(s)[9] 689300
Dialing code(s) +7 42736[10]

Lavrentiya (Russian: Лавре́нтия, Yupik: Ӄышы) is a rural locality (a selo) and the administrative center of Chukotsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, Russia, located on Lavrentiya Bay, close to the Bering Strait. Population: 1,459 (2010 Census);[5] 1,333 (2002 Census);[11] 3,012 (1989 Census).[12] Lavrentiya is the only district administrative center in the whole autonomous okrug that does not have urban status; it accounts for 30.2% of the district's total population.[5]

History[edit]

It is situated on Lavrentiya Bay, named by Captain James Cook who arrived in the bay on the feast day of Saint Lawrence[13] in 1778.[14] The village itself was founded in 1928[14] (although some sources suggest 1927[8]). By 1928 a Kultbaza (a semi-permanent cultural base established by the Soviet Union in rural areas to ensure the ideological education of local indigenous inhabitants) had been established in the area[14] and by 1930 the settlement was sufficient that it was appointed as the administrative centre of Chukotsky District.[14] this appointment was later transferred to Uelen but administrative responsibilities returned to Lavrentiya in 1942.[8],[14]

Lavrentiya was founded as a village in 1928, when a Chukchi Kultbaza, a communist run cultural and political base, was established, which was connected the various administrative and economic institutions of the region, to promote the consolidation of Soviet power and a steamer with timber for the construction of houses and other buildings and workers to perform the construction entered the Gulf of Lawrence in August 1927.[15][16] By the autumn of 1928 Kultbaza consisted of a series of buildings: a veterinary station, repair shop for motor vehicles and appliances, hospital, warehouse, homes, factories, boarding schools and three residential houses.[17] Following the formation of the village, in December 1930 the Kultbaza in Lavrentiya became the administrative centre for the Chukotka National District (not to be confused with the current Chukotsky District), though in April 1932, this was switched to Anadyr.[18] In December 1933, at a meeting of the District CPSU, the question was raised in Lavrentiya concerning the potential transfer of district institutions for what is now Chukotsky District to Lavrentiya from their current position in Uelen.[18] Transfer ultimately took place but was slow. A final decision was not made until late in 1940, the first institutions did not actually move until 1942 and, because of World War 2, were not completed until 1946.[18] With the shift in district administration to Lavrentiya, a new airfield was built and during World War 2 this was used for Lend-Lease flights.[17][19]

In 1955, a regular air route was established between Lavrentiya and Uelen,[18] and in 1958, a number of Yupik who lived at Naukan were relocated to the village following the closure of Naukan.[20]

Administrative and municipal status[edit]

Within the framework of municipal divisions, Lavrentiya is subordinated to Chukotsky Municipal District and incorporated as Lavrentiya Rural Settlement.[3]

Culture[edit]

There is an annual Whale and Skin Boat Regatta held in the village every year.[13]

The museum in the village, dedicated to indigenous history and culture, achieved national status in 1994 and contains exhibits from Uelen and Ekven,[8] including a number of "winged objects", butterfly-shaped instruments carved from walrus tusk, which initially provoked confusion over their original purpose. Initial opinion was divided, with some thinking they were part of a staff, others that they had religious significance and others still thinking that they were purely aesthetic. However, investigation into the aerodynamics of the objects found that their shape had much in common with modern aircraft wings and it was proposed that these objects were in fact to assist in the flight of harpoons, thinking confirmed by the discovery of a harpoon with a "winged object" still attached to it. It is not clear why such a useful tool fell out of use amongst the indigenous peoples.[8]

Historically, one of the most significant cultural exports from the village was the indigenous ensemble Yeti (Russian: Етти)[14] which was led in 1976 by the Yupik woman M. S. Glukhikh, who now leads the national ensemble White Sail (Russian: Белый парус).[14]

The village also contains the Church of the Archangel Michael.[14]

Economy[edit]

Lavrentiya, as the administrative centre of the district contains the majority of the key district facilities including a branch of the district court and public prosecutor, hospital, post office, school, telecomms, pharmacy and is the regional headquarters for the airline Chukotavia.[14]

Transportation[edit]

Lavrentiya is 650 km from Anadyr.[14]

Air[edit]

The village is served by Lavrentiya Airport.

Roadways[edit]

The village of Lorino is linked to Lavrentiya by a 40 kilometers (25 mi) unpaved road. Other than this short road, Lavrentiya, despite being the administrative centre of the district is not linked to any other part of the world by road. There is however, a small number of roads within the settlement including:[21]

Climate[edit]

Lavrentiya has a Tundra climate (ET)[22] because the warmest month has an average temperature between 0 and +10 °C (32 and 50 °F).

Climate data for Lavrentiya
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 4.7
(40.5)
5.5
(41.9)
3.9
(39)
6.4
(43.5)
10.5
(50.9)
18.4
(65.1)
22.7
(72.9)
22
(72)
16.3
(61.3)
12
(54)
8.7
(47.7)
10
(50)
22.7
(72.9)
Average high °C (°F) −17.9
(−0.2)
−16.7
(1.9)
−15.8
(3.6)
−9.1
(15.6)
−0.7
(30.7)
5.6
(42.1)
10
(50)
9.2
(48.6)
5.4
(41.7)
0.5
(32.9)
−4.7
(23.5)
−13.9
(7)
−3.2
(26.2)
Average low °C (°F) −23.9
(−11)
−22.8
(−9)
−22.3
(−8.1)
−15.2
(4.6)
−4.6
(23.7)
1
(34)
4.8
(40.6)
4.8
(40.6)
2.2
(36)
−3
(27)
−9.8
(14.4)
−19
(−2)
−9
(16)
Record low °C (°F) −44.1
(−47.4)
−41.5
(−42.7)
−41.4
(−42.5)
−31.1
(−24)
−24.5
(−12.1)
−5.6
(21.9)
−4.7
(23.5)
−2.7
(27.1)
−6.1
(21)
−19.9
(−3.8)
−33.6
(−28.5)
−41.2
(−42.2)
−44.1
(−47.4)
Rainfall mm (inches) 19
(0.75)
20
(0.79)
13.8
(0.543)
18.1
(0.713)
18.8
(0.74)
15.1
(0.594)
40.4
(1.591)
46.2
(1.819)
35.9
(1.413)
45.4
(1.787)
28.8
(1.134)
18.4
(0.724)
319.9
(12.594)
Avg. snowy days 14 12 11 15 13 3 0 0 4 17 20 15 124
Source: [23]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Law #33, Article 13.2
  2. ^ a b Law #33, Article 16.2
  3. ^ a b c Law #47-OZ, Article 7
  4. ^ Law #47-OZ, Article 1
  5. ^ a b c Russian Federal State Statistics Service (2011). "Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года. Том 1" [2010 All-Russian Population Census, vol. 1]. Всероссийская перепись населения 2010 года (2010 All-Russia Population Census) (in Russian). Federal State Statistics Service. Retrieved June 29, 2012. 
  6. ^ Chukotka Autonomous Okrug Territorial Branch of the Federal State Statistics Service. Численность постоянного населения Чукотского автономного округа по муниципальным образованиям на 1 января 2014 года (Russian)
  7. ^ Правительство Российской Федерации. Федеральный закон №107-ФЗ от 3 июня 2011 г. «Об исчислении времени», в ред. Федерального закона №248-ФЗ от 21 июля 2014 г. «О внесении изменений в Федеральный закон "Об исчислении времени"». Вступил в силу по истечении шестидесяти дней после дня официального опубликования (6 августа 2011 г.). Опубликован: "Российская газета", №120, 6 июня 2011 г. (Government of the Russian Federation. Federal Law #107-FZ of June 31, 2011 On Calculating Time, as amended by the Federal Law #248-FZ of July 21, 2014 On Amending Federal Law "On Calculating Time". Effective as of after sixty days following the day of the official publication.).
  8. ^ a b c d e Strogoff, p. 113f.
  9. ^ Почта России. Информационно-вычислительный центр ОАСУ РПО. (Russian Post). Поиск объектов почтовой связи (Postal Objects Search) (Russian)
  10. ^ Official website of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Chukotsky District
  11. ^ Russian Federal State Statistics Service (May 21, 2004). "Численность населения России, субъектов Российской Федерации в составе федеральных округов, районов, городских поселений, сельских населённых пунктов – районных центров и сельских населённых пунктов с населением 3 тысячи и более человек" [Population of Russia, Its Federal Districts, Federal Subjects, Districts, Urban Localities, Rural Localities—Administrative Centers, and Rural Localities with Population of Over 3,000] (XLS). Всероссийская перепись населения 2002 года [All-Russia Population Census of 2002] (in Russian). Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  12. ^ Demoscope Weekly (1989). "Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 г. Численность наличного населения союзных и автономных республик, автономных областей и округов, краёв, областей, районов, городских поселений и сёл-райцентров" [All Union Population Census of 1989: Present Population of Union and Autonomous Republics, Autonomous Oblasts and Okrugs, Krais, Oblasts, Districts, Urban Settlements, and Villages Serving as District Administrative Centers]. Всесоюзная перепись населения 1989 года[All-Union Population Census of 1989] (in Russian). Институт демографии Национального исследовательского университета: Высшая школа экономики [Institute of Demography at the National Research University: Higher School of Economics]. Retrieved August 9, 2014. 
  13. ^ a b Red Cross Chukotka - Providensky District (Archived)
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Муниципальное образование сельское поселение Лаврентия Municipal formation rural settlement of Lavrentiya - Official website of Chukotsky District
  15. ^ "Лаврентия (Lavretiya)". Избирательная комиссия Чукотского автономного округа (Election Commission of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug). Archived from the original on 2011-06-19. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  16. ^ "Историческая справка (Historical Backgrouns". МОУ "Центр образования с. Лаврентия" (Village of Lavrentiya Education Centre). Archived from the original on 2011-06-19. Retrieved 2011-06-19. 
  17. ^ a b V. Pisigin, Посолонь (письма с Чукотки): Часть III. Лаврентия. Письмо двадцать четвертое. 21 декабря. Лаврентия (Posolon (Letters from Chukotka): Part 3: Lavrentiya, Letter number 24, 21 December) (2001) Epicentre Publishing.
  18. ^ a b c d V. Nikiforov Уездная история (County History) (2011) Krayny Sever
  19. ^ Institute of Geography Лаврентия (Lavrentiya)
  20. ^ Unknown, Советская Чукотка (Soviet Chukotka) Chukotka Autnonmous Okrug Portal of State Bodies
  21. ^ Lavrentiya - Chukotsky District Pochtovik Mail Delivery Service (Russian)
  22. ^ McKnight and Hess, pp. 235-237
  23. ^ "Weather Averages for Lavrentiya from meoweather.com". meoweather.com. Retrieved October 10, 2012. 

Sources[edit]

  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №33-ОЗ от 30 июня 1998 г. «Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа», в ред. Закона №55-ОЗ от 9 июня 2012 г. «О внесении изменений в Закон Чукотского автономного округа "Об административно-территориальном устройстве Чукотского автономного округа"». Вступил в силу по истечении десяти дней со дня его официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №7 (28), 14 мая 1999 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #33-OZ of June 30, 1998 On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug, as amended by the Law #55-OZ of June 9, 2012 On Amending the Law of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug "On the Administrative-Territorial Structure of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug". Effective as of after ten days from the day of the official publication.). (Russian)
  • Дума Чукотского автономного округа. Закон №47-ОЗ от 29 ноября 2004 г. «О статусе, границах и административных центрах муниципальных образований на территории Чукотского района Чукотского автономного округа». Вступил в силу через десять дней со дня официального опубликования. Опубликован: "Ведомости", №31/1 (178/1), 10 декабря 2004 г. (Duma of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Law #47-OZ of November 29, 2004 On the Status, Borders, and Administrative Centers of the Municipal Formations on the Territory of Chukotsky District of Chukotka Autonomous Okrug. Effective as of the day which is ten days after the official publication date.). (Russian)
  • McKnight, Tom L; Hess, Darrel (2000). "Climate Zones and Types". Physical Geography: A Landscape Appreciation. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. ISBN 0-13-020263-0. 
  • M Strogoff, P-C Brochet, and D. Auzias Petit Futé: Chukotka (2006). "Avant-Garde" Publishing House.

External links[edit]