Laying on of hands

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A 1946 laying on of hands at the Pentecostal Church of God in Lejunior, Kentucky.

The laying on of hands is a religious ritual that accompanies certain religious practices, which are found throughout the world in varying forms.[further explanation needed]

In Christian churches, this practice is used as both a symbolic and formal method of invoking the Holy Spirit primarily during baptisms and confirmations, healing services, blessings, and ordination of priests, ministers, elders, deacons, and other church officers, along with a variety of other church sacraments and holy ceremonies.

Jewish tradition[edit]

The laying on of hands was an action referred to on numerous occasions in the Tanakh to accompany the conferring of a blessing or authority. For example, Isaac blessed his son Jacob by laying on of hands (Genesis 27:27).

Moses ordained Joshua through semikhah - i.e. by the laying on of hands: Num 27:15-23, Deut 34:9. The Bible adds that Joshua was thereby "filled with the spirit of wisdom". Moses also ordained the 70 elders (Num 11:16-25). The elders later ordained their successors in this way. Their successors in turn ordained others. This chain of hands-on semikhah continued through the time of the Second Temple, to an undetermined time. The exact date that the original semikhah succession ended is not certain. Many medieval authorities believed that this occurred during the reign of Hillel II, around the year 360 CE.[1] However, it seems to have continued at least until 425 A.D. when Theodosius II executed Gamaliel VI and suppressed the Patriarchate and Sanhedrin.

Aaron and the High Priests who succeeded him symbolically transferred the sins of the Children of Israel to a sacrificial goat by the laying on of hands: Leviticus16:21.

Christian traditions[edit]

In the New Testament the laying on of hands was associated with the receiving of the Holy Spirit (See Acts 8:14-19). Initially the Apostles laid hands on new believers as well as believers. (See Acts 6:5-6). In the early church, the practice continued and is still used in a wide variety of church ceremonies, such as during confirmation.

State use[edit]

Main article: royal touch

The laying on of hands, known as the royal touch, was performed by kings in England and France, and was believed to cure scrofula (also called "King's Evil" at the time), a name given to a number of skin diseases. The rite of the king's touch began in France with Robert II the Pious, but legend later attributed the practice to Clovis as Merovingian founder of the Holy Roman kingdom, and Edward the Confessor in England. The belief continued to be common throughout the Middle Ages but began to die out with the Enlightenment. Queen Anne was the last British monarch to claim to possess this divine ability, though the Jacobite pretenders also claimed to do so. The French monarchy maintained the practice up until the 19th century. The act was usually performed at large ceremonies, often at Easter or other holy days.

Criticism[edit]

There have been heavy criticisms from the scientific and non-religious communities towards the practice (as is the case of virtually every form of faith healing), such as that it has been touted as a cure for life-threatening conditions like brain damage, venereal diseases, diabetes and cancer, among others, which can and many times has led to a casualty that might have been avoided or delayed with scientifically proven methods. Also that the sort of the "energy field" created by the "vital energy" sent by the practitioners (i.e. the Japanese ki, the Chinese chi, the Indian prana, or a form of animal magnetism) cannot be detected by any scientific instruments, remaining thus in the realm of speculation and fantasy. Upon failure of the treatment, practitioners tend to use excuses such as that the patient was a non-believer, didn’t have enough belief or faith in the practice or practitioner, including other excuses that shield the practitioner at the cost of the patient.[2] Claimed cures with the imposition of hands are usually dismissed by the scientific community either as a placebo effect or as a spontaneous remission.

For a broader view on the criticisms that apply to the practice, see also:

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Nachmanides, Sefer Hazekhut, Gittin ch 4; Rabbenu Nissim, ibid; Sefer Haterumot, Gate 45; R Levi ibn Haviv, Kuntras Hasemikhah.
  2. ^ The Skeptic's Dictionary (2011). "Reiki entry on the Skeptic's Dictionary". Reiki entry on the Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 2012-03-02. 

References[edit]

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