Stoning, or lapidation, is a form of capital punishment whereby a group throws stones at a person until death ensues. No individual among the group can be identified as the one who kills the subject, yet everyone involved plainly bears some degree of moral culpability. This is in contrast to the case of a judicial executioner. Slower than other forms of execution, stoning is a form of execution by torture.
Practices and methods of implementation 
The methods for carrying out stoning may vary across different histories and cultures.
For example, the Penal Code of Iran details how stoning punishments are to be carried out for adultery, and even hints in some contexts that the punishment may allow for its victims to avoid death:
Article 102 – An adulterous man shall be buried in a ditch up to near his waist and an adulterous woman up to near her chest and then stoned to death.
Article 103 – In case the person sentenced to stoning escapes the ditch in which they are buried, then if the adultery is proven by testimony then they will be returned for the punishment but if it is proven by their own confession then they will not be returned.
Article 104 – The size of the stone used in stoning shall not be too large to kill the convict by one or two throws and at the same time shall not be too small to be called a stone.
Depending upon the details of the case, the stoning may be initiated by the judge overseeing the matter or by one of the original witnesses to the adultery. Certain religious procedures may also need to be followed both before and after the implementation of a stoning execution.
In history 
Stoning is an ancient form of capital punishment. There are historical reports of stoning from Ancient Greece — Herodotus reports the case of Lycidas in his Histories, Book IX. Stoning is also mentioned in Ancient Greek mythology — Oedipus asks to be stoned to death when he learns that he killed his father.
In Judaism 
The Israelite Torah, which is the first five books of the Hebrew Bible (Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy) contained within the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament) and as such serves as a common religious reference for Judaism. The Torah sentences death by stoning for the following:
- Touching Mount Sinai while God was giving Moses the Ten Commandments (Exodus 19:13)
- An ox that gores someone to death should be stoned (Exodus 21:28)
- Breaking Sabbath (Numbers 15:32-36)
- A girl who has been raped should be stoned if she did not cry out (Deuteronomy 22:24)
- Giving one's "seed" (presumably one's offspring) "to Molech" (Leviticus 20:2-5)
- Having a "familiar spirit" (or being a necromancer) or being a "wizard" (Lev. 20:27)
- Cursing God (Lev. 24:10-16)
- Engaging in idolatry (Deuteronomy 17:2-7) or seducing others to do so (Deut. 13:7-12)
- "Rebellion" against parents (Deut. 21,18-21)
- Getting married as though a virgin, when not a virgin (Deut. 22:13-21)
- Sexual intercourse between a man and a woman engaged to another man (both should be stoned, Deut. 22:23-24)
"To the following sinners stoning applies – אלו הן הנסקלין
- one who has had relations with his mother – הבא על האם
- with his father's wife – ועל אשת האב
- with his daughter-in-law – ועל הכלה
- a human male with a human male – ועל הזכור
- or with cattle – ועל הבהמה
- and the same is the case with a woman who uncovers herself before cattle – והאשה המביאה את הבהמה
- with a blasphemer – והמגדף
- an idolater – והעובד עבודת כוכבים
- he who sacrifices one of his children to Molech – והנותן מזרעו למולך
- one that occupies himself with familiar spirits – ובעל אוב
- a wizard – וידעוני
- one who violates Sabbath – והמחלל את השבת
- one who curses his father or mother – והמקלל אביו ואמו
- one who has assaulted a betrothed damsel – והבא על נערה המאורסה
- a seducer who has seduced men to worship idols – והמסית
- and the one who misleads a whole town – והמדיח
- a witch (male or female) – והמכשף
- a stubborn and rebellious son – ובן סורר ומורה"
In practice 
There are only scarce mentions of such a punishment being actually legally inflicted. There are three cases in the Bible (see list below) in which a person was stoned to death as a punishment. But there are also five or six cases where someone was stoned by a mob, or not in a legal fashion. A detailed recorded case of stoning occurs in the Book of Joshua (7, 24) when a man named Achan (עכן) was found to have kept loot from Jericho, a conquered Canaanite city, in his tent.
Prior to early Christianity, particularly in the Mishnah, doubts were growing in Jewish society about the effectiveness of capital punishment in general (and stoning in particular) in acting as a useful deterrent. Subsequently its use was dissuaded by the central legislators. The Mishnah states:
A Sanhedrin that puts a man to death once in seven years is called destructive. Rabbi Eliezer ben Azariah says that this extends to a Sanhedrin that puts a man to death even once in seventy years. Rabbi Akiba and Rabbi Tarfon say: Had we been in the Sanhedrin none would ever have been put to death. Rabban Simeon ben Gamaliel says: they would have multiplied shedders of blood in Israel.
In the following centuries the leading Jewish sages imposed so many restrictions on the implementation of capital punishment as to make it de facto illegal. The restrictions were to prevent execution of the innocent, and included many conditions for a testimony to be admissible that were difficult to fulfill.
Philosopher Moses Maimonides wrote, "It is better and more satisfactory to acquit a thousand guilty persons than to put a single innocent one to death." He was concerned that the law guard its public perception, to preserve its majesty and retain the people's respect. He saw errors of commission as much more threatening to the integrity of law than errors of omission.
Mode of Judgment 
In rabbinic law, capital punishment may only be inflicted by the verdict of a regularly constituted court of three-and-twenty qualified members. There must be the most trustworthy and convincing testimony of at least two qualified eye-witnesses to the crime, who must also depose that the culprit had been forewarned of the criminality and the consequences of his project. The culprit must be a person of legal age and of sound mind, and the crime must be proved to have been committed of the culprit's free will and without the aid of others.
On the day the verdict is pronounced, the convict is led forth to execution. The Torah law (Leviticus 19:18) prescribes, "Thou shalt love thy neighbor as thyself"; and the Rabbis maintain that this love must be extended beyond the limits of social intercourse in life, and applied even to the convicted criminal who, "though a sinner, is still thy brother" (Mak. 3:15; Sanh. 44a): "The spirit of love must be manifested by according him a decent death" (Sanh. 45a, 52a). Torah law provides (Deut. 24:16), "The parents shall not be put to death for the children, neither shall the children be put to death for the parents; every man shall be put to death for his own sins", and rabbinic jurisprudence follows this principle both to the letter and in spirit. A sentence is not attended by confiscation of the convict's goods; the person's possessions descend to their legal heirs.
The Talmud limits the use of the death penalty to Jewish criminals who:
- (A) while about to do the crime were warned not to commit the crime while in the presence of two witnesses (and only individuals who meet a strict list of standards are considered acceptable witnesses); and
- (B) having been warned, committed the crime in front of the same two witnesses.
In theory, the Talmudic method of how stoning is to be carried out differs from mob stoning. According to the Jewish Oral Law, after the Jewish criminal has been determined as guilty before the Great Sanhedrin, the two valid witnesses and the sentenced criminal go to the edge of a two story building. From there the two witnesses are to push the criminal off the roof of a two story building. The two-story height is chosen as this height is estimated by the Talmud to effect a quick and painless demise but is not so high that the body will become dismembered. After the criminal has fallen, the two witnesses are to drop a large boulder onto the criminal – requiring both of the witnesses to lift the boulder together. If the criminal did not die from the fall or from the crushing of the large boulder, then any people in the surrounding area are to quickly cause him to die by stoning with whatever rocks they can find.
In Islam 
Islamic Sharia Law is based on the Quran, the hadith, and the biography of the prophet Muhammad. Shia and Sunni hadith collections differ because scholars from the two traditions differ as to the reliability of the narrators and transmitters and the Imamah. Shi'a sayings related to stoning can be found in Kitab al-Kafi, and Sunni sayings related to stoning can be found in the Sahih Bukhari and Sahih Muslim.
Based on these hadiths, in some Muslim countries, such as Afghanistan, Iran, Nigeria and Saudi Arabia, married adulterers will get capital punishment, while not-married adulterers will be flogged 100 times.
The Qur'an forbids all sexual intercourse outside the marital bond as sinful, but makes no distinction between them. The punishment is flogging 100 times for those found guilty. Stoning (rajm) as a punishment for adultery is not mentioned in the Quran (though it is mentioned in Hadith), so a few modernist Muslim scholars, like Quran alone Muslim Scholars, take the view that stoning to death is not an Islamic law.
According to the Hanbali jurist Ibn Qudamah, "Muslim jurists are unanimous on the fact that stoning to death is a specified punishment for the married adulterer and adulteress. The punishment is recorded in number of traditions and the practice of Muhammad stands as an authentic source supporting it. This is the view held by all Companions, Successors and other Muslim scholars with the exception of Kharijites."
Because the word used in the Quran, 'zina', is exactly parallel to the Hebrew 'zanah', which strictly refers to fornication and not adultery (which is 'na'aph'), the Quran may not even be speaking of adultery at all. In that case, the point could be made that the command of the Torah on the punishment of adultery, namely, stoning to death, still stands. However, scholars support stoning for adultery according to hadith, not to Bible as Muslims do not hold the Bible to be reliable.
In hadith (sayings)
Sahih Muslim, Book 17, Chapter 6: Stoning to Death of Jews and Other Dhimmis In Cases of Adultery, Number 4216: Jabir b.'Abdullah reported that Allah's Apostle stoned (to death) a person from Banu Aslam, and a Jew and his wife.
- Sahih Bukhari 6.79, Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar
- The Jews brought to the Prophet a man and a woman from among them who had committed illegal sexual intercourse. The Prophet said to them, "How do you usually punish the one amongst you who has committed illegal sexual intercourse?" They replied, "We blacken their faces with coal and beat them." He said, "Don't you find the order of Ar-Rajm (i.e. stoning to death) in the Torah?" They replied, "We do not find anything in it." 'Abdullah bin Salam (after hearing this conversation) said to them, "You have told a lie! Bring here the Torah and recite it if you are truthful." (So the Jews brought the Torah). And the religious teacher who was teaching it to them, put his hand over the Verse of Ar-Rajm and started reading what was written above and below the place hidden with his hand, but he did not read the Verse of Ar-Rajm. 'Abdullah bin Salam removed his (i.e. the teacher's) hand from the Verse of Ar-Rajm and said, "What is this?" So when the Jews saw that Verse, they said, "This is the Verse of Ar-Rajm." So the Prophet ordered the two adulterers to be stoned to death, and they were stoned to death near the place where biers used to be placed near the Mosque. I saw her companion (i.e. the adulterer) bowing over her so as to protect her from the stones.
Sahih Bukhari, Volume 3, Book 50: Conditions, Number 885: Narrated Abu Huraira and Zaid bin Khalid Al-Juhani: A bedouin came to Allah's Apostle and said, "O Allah's apostle! I ask you by Allah to judge My case according to Allah's Laws." His opponent, who was more learned than he, said, "Yes, judge between us according to Allah's Laws, and allow me to speak." Allah's Apostle said, "Speak." He (i .e. the bedouin or the other man) said, "My son was working as a laborer for this (man) and he committed illegal sexual intercourse with his wife. The people told me that it was obligatory that my son should be stoned to death, so in lieu of that I ransomed my son by paying one hundred sheep and a slave girl. Then I asked the religious scholars about it, and they informed me that my son must be lashed one hundred lashes, and be exiled for one year, and the wife of this (man) must be stoned to death." Allah's Apostle said, "By Him in Whose Hands my soul is, I will judge between you according to Allah's Laws. The slave-girl and the sheep are to be returned to you, your son is to receive a hundred lashes and be exiled for one year. You, Unais, go to the wife of this (man) and if she confesses her guilt, stone her to death." Unais went to that woman next morning and she confessed. Allah's Apostle ordered that she be stoned to death.
Usage today 
As of September 2010, stoning is a punishment that is included in the laws in seven countries including Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, Sudan, Iran, Yemen, the United Arab Emirates, and some states in Nigeria as punishment for zina al-mohsena ("adultery of married persons").
Many Muslim clerics, religious scholars, and political leaders -- including those in the countries were stoning is practiced -- have condemned stoning as “un-Islamic” .
Before the Taliban government, most areas of Afghanistan, aside from the capital, Kabul, were controlled locally by warlords or tribal leaders and the Afghan legal system depended highly on an individual community's local culture and the political and/or religious ideology of its leaders. Stoning also occurred in lawless areas, where vigilantes committed the act for political purposes. Once the Taliban took over, stoning became the official punishment for many crimes. The U.S.-led occupation ended stoning as an official court ruling, but it still occurs unofficially. A Taliban-ordered public stoning of a couple accused of adultery took place in Kunduz on August 15, 2010.
On 14th September 2009, the outgoing Aceh Legislative Council passed a bylaw that called for the stoning of married adulterers. However, then governor Irwandi Yusuf refused to sign the bylaw, thereby keeping it a law without legal force and, in some views, therefore still a law draft, rather than actual law. In March 2013, the Aceh government removed the stoning provision from its own draft of a new criminal code.
The Iranian judiciary officially placed a moratorium on stoning in 2002. In 2005, judiciary spokesman Jamal Karimirad stated, "in the Islamic republic, we do not see such punishments being carried out", further adding that if stoning sentences were passed by lower courts, they were overruled by higher courts and "no such verdicts have been carried out." However, in July 2007, the judiciary announced that convicted adulterer Jafar Kian had been stoned to death in Qazvin province.
In 2008, the judiciary decided to fully scrap the punishment from the books in legislation submitted to parliament for approval.
In July, 2012, a couple who had sex outside marriage was stoned to death by Islamists in the town of Aguelhok in northern Mali.
Since the Sharia legal system was introduced in the predominantly Muslim north of Nigeria in 2000, more than a dozen Nigerian Muslims have been sentenced to death by stoning for sexual offences ranging from adultery to homosexuality. However, none of these sentences has actually been carried out. They have either been thrown out on appeal or commuted to prison terms as a result of pressure from human rights groups.
Stonings in Pakistan, while rare, are relatively not that uncommon especially in the Federally Administered Tribal Areas (FATA). In March, 2013, a Pakistani soldier named Anwar Din was publicly stoned to death for allegedly having a romantic affair with a girl from the village of Dera Ismail Khan in the country's northwestern Kurram region.
Saudi Arabia, Sudan 
In May 2012, a Sudanese court convicted Intisar Sharif Abdallah of adultery and sentenced her to death; the charges were appealed and dropped two months later. In July 2012, a criminal court in Khartoum, Sudan, sentenced 23-year-old Layla Ibrahim Issa Jumul to death by stoning for adultery. Amnesty International reported that she was denied legal counsel during the trial and was convicted only on the basis of her confession. The organization designated her a prisoner of conscience, "held in detention solely for consensual sexual relations", and lobbied for her release.
In October, 2008, a girl, Aisho Ibrahim Dhuhulow, was buried up to her neck at a Somalian football stadium, then stoned to death in front of more than 1,000 people. The stoning occurred after she had allegedly pleaded guilty to adultery in a sharia court in Kismayo, a city controlled by Islamist insurgents. According to the insurgents she had stated that she wanted sharia law to apply. However, other sources state that the victim had been crying, that she begged for mercy and had to be forced into the hole before being buried up to her neck in the ground. Amnesty International later learned that the girl was in fact 13 years old and had been arrested by al-Shabab militia after she had reported being gang-raped by three men.
Support for stoning 
A survey carried out by the Indonesia Survey Institute found that 43% of Indonesians support Rajam or stoning for adulterers.
A survey conducted by the Pew Research Center found relatively widespread popular support for stoning as a punishment for adultery in Egypt (82% of respondents in favor of the punishment), Jordan (70% in favor), Indonesia (42% in favor), Pakistan (82% favor) and Nigeria (56% in favor).
Groups against stoning 
Stoning has been condemned by several human rights organizations. Some groups, such as Amnesty International and Human Rights Watch, oppose all capital punishment, including stoning. Other groups, such as RAWA (Revolutionary Association of the Women of Afghanistan), or the International Committee against Stoning (ICAS), oppose stoning per se as an especially cruel practice.
Specific sentences of stoning, such as the Amina Lawal case, have often generated international protest. Groups such as Human Rights Watch, while in sympathy with these protests, have raised a concern that the Western focus on stoning as an especially "exotic" or "barbaric" act distracts from what they view as the larger problems of capital punishment. They argue that the "more fundamental human rights issue in Nigeria is the dysfunctional justice system."
In Iran, the Stop Stoning Forever Campaign was formed by various women's rights activists after a man and a woman were stoned to death in Mashhad in May 2006. The campaign's main goal is to legally abolish stoning as a form of punishment for adultery in Iran.
Cases of stoning or attempts at stoning 
People stoned in religious texts 
- The son of an Israelite woman and an Egyptian man, for cursing God (Leviticus 24:10–23)
- A man who gathered wood on Sabbath (Numbers 15:32–36)
- Achan (Joshua 7)
- Adoniram, King Rehoboam's tax man (1 Kings 12:18)
- Naboth, (1 Kings 21)
- Zechariah ben Jehoiada, who denounced the people's disobedience to the commandments (2 Chronicles 24:20–21, perhaps also Matthew 23:35)
In the New Testament:
In the Talmud
People who were almost stoned in religious texts 
In the New Testament:
- The Gospel of John chapter 8 gives the story of Jesus and the woman taken in adultery, in which people wanted to stone the woman.
- Jesus (John 10:31)
- The captain of the Temple and his officers (Acts 5:26)
- Paul of Tarsus, stoned at Lystra at the instigation of Jews. He was left for dead, but then revived. (Acts 14:19)
Historical cases not mentioned above 
- Palamedes (mythology), stoned to death as a traitor.
- Lucius Appuleius Saturninus, d. 100 BC, grandfather of later triumvir Marcus Aemilius Lepidus
- Pancras of Taormina, about AD 40
- James the Just, in AD 62, after being condemned by the Sanhedrin
- Saint Timothy, after AD 67
- Constantine-Silvanus, founder of the Paulicians, stoned in 684 in Armenia
- Saint Eskil, Anglo-Saxon monk stoned to death by Swedish Vikings, about 1080
- Moctezuma II, 1520, last Aztec Emperor (although the Aztecs claim he was executed by the Spanish)
- Soraya Manutchehri, 1986, stoned to death in Iran after unconfirmed accusations of adultery
- Mahboubeh M. And Abbas H,at Behest-e Zahra cemetery, southern Teheran, Iran, 2006.The public was not invited to the stoning, and the incident was not reported to the media, however it was spread by word to mouth to a journalist and womans rights activist. The activist gathered information and further exposed the happening to the world. In response to this, several women's rights activists, lawyers and members of the Networks of Volunteers went on to form the Stop Stoning Forever campaign to stop stoning in Iran.
- Du’a Khalil Aswad, 2007, a 17-year-old stoned to death in Iraq
- Jafar Kiani, in Agche - kand, a small village near Takestan, Iran, 2007.
- Sara Jaffar Nimat, aged 11, in the town of Khanaqin, Iraqi Kurdistan, 2007. She had been hit by bricks and stones, and burnt.
- Aisha Ibrahim Duhulow, aged 13 in Kismayo, Somalia, 2008.
- Kurdistan Aziz, aged 16, Iraqi Kurdistan, 2008. She had been stoned in an act of "Honour" - killing.
- Shano and Daulat Khan Malikdeenkhe, in Khwezai - Baezai area, Pakistan, 2008
- Solange Medina, 2009, a 20 year old stoned to death in Juárez, Mexico
- Vali Azad, 30, in Gilan province, Iran, 2009.
- Gustavo Santoro, 2010, a small town mayor in Mexico believed to have been murdered by stoning
- Murray Seidman, 2011, a 70 year old senior in Philadelphia, stoned to death by 28 year old John Thomas after allegedly making sexual advances towards the younger man. Thomas' defence is that he did it because The Bible says to kill homosexuals.
People who were almost stoned 
- Amina Lawal, sentenced to death by stoning in Nigeria in 2002, but freed on appeal
- Sakineh Mohammadi Ashtiani sentenced to death by stoning in Iran in 2007, but sentence is under review
- Safiya Husseini, sentenced to death by stoning in Nigeria but freed on appeal.
- Shaheen Abdel Rahman and Unnamed woman, in Fujeirah, United Arab Emirates, 2006
In literature 
- Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery" depicts a lottery in which one member of a small, isolated American community is stoned to death ritually each year as a sacrifice. It explores themes of scapegoating, man's inherent evil and the destructive nature of observing ancient, outdated rituals. The music video for "Man That You Fear" by Marilyn Manson is based on these events.
- Robert A. Heinlein's Stranger in a Strange Land reaches its climax with a stoning execution.
- Freidoune Sahebjam's The Stoning of Soraya M. is a true story of a woman who was stoned to death in Iran in 1986.
- Simon Perry's All Who Came Before climaxes with a stoning as Barabbas enters Jerusalem.
- Princess: A true story of life behind the veil in Saudi Arabia by Jean Sasson describes a girl sentenced to death by stoning.
- The Kite Runner A couple is stoned to death at a soccer stadium in Afghanistan.
In film and television 
- Seven Sleepers, 2005 – A series running on Iranian TV, in which medieval (300–400 AD) Jews stone Christians.
- A Stoning in Fulham County, 1988 – A made-for-TV movie surrounding the vigilante stoning in an American Amish community.
- Monty Python's Life of Brian presents a Jesus of Nazareth-era stoning in a humorous context, ending with a massive boulder being dropped on the Jewish official, not the victim. The film mentions that women are not allowed at stonings, yet almost all of the stone-throwers turn out to be women disguised as men.
- Shirley Jackson's "The Lottery" was made into a short (20 minute) film by Larry Yust in 1969 as part of an educational release for Encyclopædia Britannica's "Short Story Showcase".
- The film The Kite Runner depicts the stoning of an adulteress by the Taliban in a public stadium during a football match.
- The film Mission Istanbul depicts the stoning of an adulteress in Kabul, by the fictional terrorist group Abu Nazir until it is interrupted by the protagonist Vikas Sagar.
- The Stoning of Soraya M. 2009
- Zorba The Greek, a 1946 Novel by Nikos Kazantzakis and 1964 movie with Anthony Quinn, has a grim stoning scene where the woman is rescued only to be stabbed at the scene
- The stoning (2006), a film by Harald Holzenleiter
- Osama (2003) by director Siddiq Barmak depicts a women being buried in preparation for stoning
- In one CSI: Miami 2011 episode a female college bully is murdered by lapidation
Although Islamic law prescribes stoning for married adulterers, the television series Sleeper Cell, about an underground radical Islamist group, depicts a scene where a member is stoned for treason.
See also 
- Sanhedrin Chapter 7, p. 53a , in Hebrew: 
- "Capital Punishment". JewishEncyclopedia.com. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Jerusalem Talmud (Sanhedrin 41 a)
- makkot 1:10 March 11, 2008
- Moses Maimonides, Sefer Hamitzvot, Negative Commandment no. 290.
- Moses Maimonides, The Commandments, Neg. Comm. 290, at 269–71 (Charles B. Chavel trans., 1967).
- "Ask the Orthodox Rabbi – Adultery in Judaism – Capital Punishment – Death Penalty". Judaism.about.com. 2009-06-11. Retrieved 2010-09-12.
- Quran (24:2)
- Hadith Muslim 17:4192. Also, see the following: Bukhari 6:60:79, Bukhari 83:37, Muslim 17:4196, Muslim 17:4206, Muslim 17:4209, Ibn Ishaq 970.
- IslamOnline.net. "Stoning: Does It Have Any Basis in Shari`ah?". Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. "Sahih Bukhari, Book 17: Book of Punishments, Chapter 6: Stoning To Death Of Jews And Other Dhimmis In Case of Adultery". Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- Hadith - Sahih Bukhari 6.79, Narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar - http://muttaqun.com/adultery.html
- Center for Muslim-Jewish Engagement. "Sahih Bukhari, Book 50: Conditions". Retrieved 2010-07-25.
- Handley, Paul (11 Sep 2010). "Islamic countries under pressure over stoning". AFP. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- "Frequently Asked Questions about Stoning". violence is not our culture. Retrieved 14 May 2013.
- Sommerville, Quentin (26 Jan 2011). "Afghan police pledge justice for Taliban stoning". BBC. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- Nebehay, Stephanie (10 Jul 2009). "Pillay accuses Somali rebels of possible war crimes". Times of India. Retrieved 22 April 2011.
- "Afghan Police Probe Woman Stoning Over Adultery". SpiritHit News via IslamOnline.net. April 25, 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- The Hindu, "Taliban stones couple to death in northern Afghanistan", Dubai, August 16, 2010, thehindu.com
- "Taliban Stone Couple for Adultery in Afghanistan". Fox News. Associated Press. August 16, 2010. Retrieved August 16, 2010.
- Katie Hamann Aceh's Sharia Law Still Controversial in Indonesia Voice of America 29 December 2009, and: In Enforcing Shariah Law, Religious Police in Aceh on Hemline Frontline Jakarta Globe, December 28 2009
- Aceh Stoning Law Hits a New Wall The Jakarta Globe, 12th October 2009
- Aceh Government Removes Stoning Sentence From Draft Bylaw, Jakarta Globe 12 March 2013
- "Iraq: Amnesty International appalled by stoning to death of Yezidi girl and subsequent killings". Amnesty International. April 27, 2007. Archived June 6, 2008 at the Wayback Machine
- "Iran 'adulterer' stoned to death". BBC News. 10 July 2007. Archived from the original on 3 December 2012. Retrieved 3 December 2012.
- "Iran denies execution by stoning". BBC News. 11 January 2005. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "Iran to scrap death by stoning". AFP. August 6, 2008. Retrieved September 23, 2010.
- "Mali unwed couple stoned to death by Islamists". BBC. 2012-07-30.
- Jacinto, Leela (18 Mar 2011). "Nigerian Woman Fights Stoning Death". ABC News International. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Gay Nigerians face Sharia death". BBC News. 10 Aug 2007. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- Coleman, Sarah (Dec 2003). "Nigeria: Stoning Suspended". World Press. Retrieved 8 June 2011.
- "Pak soldier publicly stoned to death for love affair". MSNBC. 2013-03-13.
- "Abolish Stoning and Barbaric Punishment Worldwide!". International Society for Human Rights. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- "Sudan –End stoning, reform the criminal law". Sudan Tribune. 30 July 2012. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Sudan: Amnesty International e Italians for Darfur mobilitati contro lapidazione di Layla" (in Italian). LiberoReporter. Archived from the original on 18 August 2012. Retrieved 18 August 2012.
- "Somali woman executed by stoning". BBC News. 2008-10-27. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
- "Stoning victim 'begged for mercy'". BBC News. 2008-11-04. Retrieved 2010-05-24.
- "Somalia: Girl stoned was a child of 13". Amnesty International. 2008-10-31. Retrieved 2008-10-31.
- "Pictured: Islamic militants stone man to death for adultery in Somalia as villagers are forced to watch". London: Daily Mail. 2009-12-14. Retrieved 2009-12-14.
- Trend Dukungan Nilai Islamis versus Nilai Sekular di Indonesia Lembaga Survei Indonesia 05/10/2007
- Muslim Publics Divided on Hamas and Hezbollah Retrieved 2011-06-02
- "Amina Lawal: Sentenced to death for adultery". Amnesty International. 2003.
- "Nigeria: Debunking Misconceptions on Stoning Case". Human Rights Watch. 2003.
- Rochelle Terman (November 2007). "The Stop Stoning Forever Campaign: A Report" (pdf). Retrieved 2010-09-23.
- Bruce Chilton, Craig A. Evans Studying the historical Jesus 1998 Page 447 "There are three among these that merit some attention: (1) "And it is tradition: On the eve of Passover ... And the herald went forth before him for forty days, 'Yeshu ha-Nosri is to be stoned, because he has practiced magic and enticed and led Israel astray. Any one who knows anything in his favor, let him come and speak concerning him."
- Marisela Ortega (29 September 2010). "Man, sons convicted of stoning El Paso woman to death in Juárez". El Paso Times. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- Cyntia Barrera (27 September 2007). "Small-town mayor stoned to death in western Mexico". Reuters AlertNet. Retrieved 2010-10-13.
- David Badash (18 March 2011). "70 Year-Old Stoned to Death Because the Bible Says to Stone Gays". The New Civil Rights Movement. Retrieved 2011-03-23.
- "Sharia court frees Nigerian woman", 25 March 2002, BBC News
- Perry, Simon (2011). All Who Came Before. Eugene, OR: Wipf and Stock. pp. 143–145. ISBN 978-1-60899-659-9.
- "Iran TV: 'Evil' Jews stoning Christians". January 5, 2005.
- "A Stoning in Fulham County". release date 1988.
- "The Lottery". Internet Movie Database. Retrieved 2010-09-23.
|Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to: Stoning|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Stonings|
- Realite-eu.org, Amnesty International Report condemns Iran’s practice of death by stoning]
- Frequently Asked Questions About Stoning
- Stoning and Human Rights
- Stoning and Islam
- Stoning Cases
- Extract of the Kitab Al-Hudud (The book pertaining to punishments prescribed by Islam)
- Khaleej Times (United Arab Emirates: Fujairah Shariah court orders man to be stoned to death for adultery – 11 June 2006)
- Muslims against stoning
- QuranicPath – Qur'an against stoning
- 1991 Video of Stoning of Death in Iran: WMV format | RealPlayer
- Graphic: Anatomy of a stoning (National Post, November 20, 2010)