Lazarus of Bethany
|St. Lazarus of Bethany|
Christ Raising of Lazarus, Athens, 12-13th Century
|Four-days dead, Friend of Christ|
|Eastern Orthodox Church
Oriental Orthodox Church
Roman Catholic Church
Eastern Catholic Churches
|Attributes||Sometimes vested as an apostle, sometimes as a bishop. In the scene of his resurrection, he is portrayed tightly bound in mummified clothes, which resemble swaddling bands|
Lazarus of Bethany, also known as Saint Lazarus or Lazarus of the Four Days, is the subject of a prominent miracle attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of John, in which Jesus restores him to life four days after his death. The Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic traditions offer varying accounts of the later events of his life.
In the context of the Gospel of John, the narrative of the Raising of Lazarus forms "the climactic sign... Each of Jesus' seven signs illustrates some particular aspect of his divine authority, but this one exemplifies his power over the last and most irresistible enemy of humanity—death. For this reason it is given a prominent place in the gospel."
The name Lazarus (Latinised from the Hebrew: אלעזר, Elʿāzār, Eleazar—"God is my help") is also given to a second figure in the Bible: in the narrative of Lazarus and Dives, attributed to Jesus in the Gospel of Luke. Also called Dives and Lazarus, or The Rich Man and the Beggar Lazarus, the narrative tells of the relationship (in life and in death) between an unnamed rich man and a poor beggar named Lazarus. While the two characters named Lazarus have sometimes been conflated historically, they are generally understood to be two separate characters. Allusions to Lazarus as a poor beggar taken to the "Bosom of Abraham" should be understood as referring to the Lazarus mentioned in Luke, rather than the Lazarus who rose from the dead in John.
In referring to John's account of the resurrection of Lazarus, the name Lazarus is often used to connote apparent restoration to life. For example, the scientific term "Lazarus taxon" denotes organisms that reappear in the fossil record after a period of apparent extinction; and the Lazarus phenomenon refers to an event in which a person spontaneously returns to life (the heart starts beating again) after resuscitation has been given up. There are also numerous literary uses of the term.
- 1 The Raising of Lazarus
- 2 Additional traditions about Lazarus of Bethany
- 3 Liturgical commemorations
- 4 Conflation with the beggar Lazarus (of Lazarus and Dives)
- 5 Order of Saint Lazarus
- 6 Lazarus as Babalu Aye in Santería
- 7 In culture
- 8 Notes
- 9 References
The Raising of Lazarus
The biblical narrative of the Raising of Lazarus is found in chapter 11 of the Gospel of John. Lazarus is introduced as a follower of Jesus, who lives in the town of Bethany near Jerusalem. He is identified as the brother of the sisters Mary and Martha. The sisters send word to Jesus that Lazarus, "he whom thou lovest," is ill. Instead of immediately traveling to Bethany, according to the narrator, Jesus intentionally remains where he is for two more days before beginning the journey.
When Jesus arrives in Bethany, he finds that Lazarus is dead and has already been in his tomb for four days. He meets first with Martha and Mary in turn. Martha laments that Jesus did not arrive soon enough to heal her brother and Jesus replies with the well-known statement, "I am the resurrection, and the life: he that believeth in me, though he were dead, yet shall he live: And whosoever liveth and believeth in me shall never die". The narrator here gives the famous simple phrase, "Jesus wept".
In the presence of a crowd of Jewish mourners, Jesus comes to the tomb. Over the objections of Martha, Jesus has them roll the stone away from the entrance to the tomb and says a prayer. He then calls Lazarus to come out and Lazarus does so, still wrapped in his grave-cloths. Jesus then calls for someone to remove the grave-cloths, and let him go.
The narrative ends with the statement that many of the witnesses to this event "believed in him." Others are said to report the events to the religious authorities in Jerusalem.
The Gospel of John mentions Lazarus again in chapter 12. Six days before the Passover on which Jesus is crucified, Jesus returns to Bethany and Lazarus attends a supper that Martha, his sister, serves. Jesus and Lazarus together attract the attention of many Jews and the narrator states that the chief priests consider having Lazarus put to death because so many people are believing in Jesus on account of this miracle.
The miracle of the raising of Lazarus, the longest coherent narrative in John aside from the Passion, is the climax of John's "signs". It explains the crowds seeking Jesus on Palm Sunday, and leads directly to the decision of Caiaphas and the Sanhedrin to kill Jesus.
It is notable that Lazarus is the only resurrected character in the Bible (besides himself) that Jesus personally refers to as "dead." The Daughter of Jairus, whom he resurrected at another time, was said by Jesus to have been "sleeping."
A resurrection story that is very similar is also found in the controversial Secret Gospel of Mark, although the young man is not named there specifically. Some scholars believe that the Secret Mark version represents an earlier form of the canonical story found in John.
Depictions in art
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Resurrection of Lazarus.|
The Raising of Lazarus is a popular subject in religious art. Two of the most famous paintings are those of Michelangelo Merisi da Caravaggio (c. 1609) and Sebastiano del Piombo (1516). Among other prominent depictions of Lazarus are works by Rembrandt, Van Gogh, Ivor Williams, and Lazarus Breaking His Fast by Walter Sickert.
The Resurrection of Lazarus. Byzantine icon, late 14th — early 15th century, (From the Collection of G. Gamon-Gumun, Russian museum)
The Raising of Lazarus, 1540-1545, Giuseppe Salviati
The Raising of Lazarus, 1857, Léon Joseph Florentin Bonnat
Tomb of Lazarus in Bethany
The reputed first tomb of Lazarus at al-Eizariya in the West Bank (generally believed to be the biblical Bethany) continues to be a place of pilgrimage to this day. Several Christian churches have existed at the site over the centuries. Since the 16th century, the site of the tomb has been occupied by the al-Uzair Mosque. The adjacent Roman Catholic Church of Saint Lazarus, designed by Antonio Barluzzi and built between 1952 and 1955 under the auspices of the Franciscan Order, stands upon the site of several much older ones. In 1965, a Greek Orthodox church was built just west of the tomb.
The entrance to the tomb today is via a flight of uneven rock-cut steps from the street. As it was described in 1896, there were twenty-four steps from the then-modern street level, leading to a square chamber serving as a place of prayer, from which more steps led to a lower chamber believed to be the tomb of Lazarus. The same description applies today.
The first mention of a church at Bethany is in the late 4th century, but both the historian Eusebius of Caesarea (c. 330) and the Bordeaux pilgrim do mention the tomb of Lazarus. In 390 Jerome mentions a church dedicated to Saint Lazarus, called the Lazarium. This is confirmed by the pilgrim Egeria in about the year 410. Therefore, the church is thought to have been built between 333 and 390. The present-day gardens contain the remnants of a mosaic floor from the 4th-century church. The Lazarium was destroyed by an earthquake in the 6th century, and was replaced by a larger church. This church survived intact until the Crusader era.
In 1143 the existing structure and lands were purchased by King Fulk and Queen Melisende of Jerusalem and a large Benedictine convent dedicated to Mary and Martha was built near the tomb of Lazarus. After the fall of Jerusalem in 1187, the convent was deserted and fell into ruin with only the tomb and barrel vaulting surviving. By 1384, a simple mosque had been built on the site. In the 16th century, the Ottomans built the larger al-Uzair Mosque to serve the town's (now Muslim) inhabitants and named it in honor of the town's patron saint, Lazarus of Bethany.
According to the Catholic Encyclopedia of 1913, there were scholars who questioned the reputed site of the ancient village (though this was discounted by the Encyclopedia's author):
Some believe that the present village of Bethany does not occupy the site of the ancient village; but that it grew up around the traditional cave which they suppose to have been at some distance from the house of Martha and Mary in the village; Zanecchia (La Palestine d'aujourd'hui, 1899, I, 445f.) places the site of the ancient village of Bethany higher up on the southeastern slope of the Mount of Olives, not far from the accepted site of Bethphage, and near that of the Ascension. It is quite certain that the present village formed about the traditional tomb of Lazarus, which is in a cave in the village. The identification of this cave as the tomb of Lazarus is merely possible; it has no strong intrinsic or extrinsic authority. The site of the ancient village may not precisely coincide with the present one, but there is every reason to believe that it was in this general location."
Additional traditions about Lazarus of Bethany
While there is no further mention of Lazarus in the Bible, the Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic traditions offer varying accounts of the later events of his life. He is most commonly associated with Cyprus, where he is said to have become the first bishop of Kition (Larnaka), and Provence, where he is said to have been the first bishop of Marseille.
Bishop of Kition
According to Eastern Orthodox Church tradition, sometime after the Resurrection of Christ, Lazarus was forced to flee Judea because of rumoured plots on his life and came to Cyprus. There he was appointed by Paul and Barnabas as the first bishop of Kition (present-day Larnaka). He lived there for thirty more years, and on his death was buried there for the second and last time.
Further establishing the apostolic nature of Lazarus' appointment was the story that the bishop's omophorion was presented to Lazarus by the Virgin Mary, who had woven it herself. Such apostolic connections were central to the claims to autocephaly made by the bishops of Kition—subject to the patriarch of Jerusalem—during the period 325–431. The church of Kition was declared self-governing in 431 AD at the Third Ecumenical Council.
According to tradition, Lazarus never smiled during the thirty years after his resurrection, worried by the sight of unredeemed souls he had seen during his four-day stay in Hades. The only exception was, when he saw someone stealing a pot, he smilingly said: "the clay steals the clay."
In 890, a tomb was found in Larnaca bearing the inscription "Lazarus the friend of Christ". Emperor Leo VI of Byzantium had Lazarus' remains transferred to Constantinople in 898. The transfer was apostrophized by Arethas, bishop of Caesarea, and is commemorated by the Orthodox Church each year on October 17.
In recompense to Larnaca, Emperor Leo had the Church of St. Lazarus, which still exists today, erected over Lazarus' tomb. The marble sarcophagus can be seen inside the church under the Holy of Holies.
After the sacking of Constantinople by the Franks during the Fourth Crusade in 1204, the Crusaders carried the saint's relics to Marseilles, France as part of the booty of war. From there, "later on, they disappeared and up to the present day they have not been traced."
In the 16th century, a Russian monk from the Monastery of Pskov visited St. Lazarus’s tomb in Larnaca and took with him a small piece of the relics. Perhaps that piece led to the erection of the St. Lazarus chapel at the Pskov Monastery (Spaso-Eleazar Monastery, Pskov),[note 1] where it is kept today.
On November 23, 1972, human remains in a marble sarcophagus were discovered under the altar, during renovation works in the church of Church of St. Lazarus at Larnaka, and were identified as part of the saint's relics.[note 2]
In June 2012 the Church of Cyprus gave a part of the holy relics of St. Lazarus to a delegation of the Russian Orthodox Church, led by Patriarch Kirill of Moscow and All Russia, after a four-day visit to Cyprus. The relics were brought to Moscow and were given to Archbishop Arseniy of Istra, who took them to the Zachatievsky monastery (Conception Convent), where they were put up for veneration.
Bishop of Marseille
In the West, according to an alternative medieval tradition (centered in Provence), Lazarus, Mary, and Martha, were "put out to sea by the Jews hostile to Christianity in a vessel without sails, oars, or helm, and after a miraculous voyage landed in Provence at a place called today the Saintes-Maries." The family is then said to separate and go in different parts of southeastern Gaul to preach; Lazarus goes to Marseilles. Converting many people to Christianity there, he becomes the first Bishop of Marseille. During the persecution of Domitian, he is imprisoned and beheaded in a cave beneath the prison Saint-Lazare. His body is later translated to Autun, where he is buried in the Autun Cathedral, dedicated to Lazarus as Saint Lazare. However, the inhabitants of Marseilles claim to be in possession of his head which they still venerate.
Pilgrims also visit another purported tomb of Lazarus at the Vézelay Abbey in Burgundy. In the Abbey of the Trinity at Vendôme, a phylactery was said to contain a tear shed by Jesus at the tomb of Lazarus.
The Golden Legend, compiled in the 13th century, records the Provençal tradition. It also records a grand lifestyle imagined for Lazarus and his sisters (note that therein Lazarus' sister Mary is conflated with Mary Magdalene):
Mary Magdalene had her surname of Magdalo, a castle, and was born of right noble lineage and parents, which were descended of the lineage of kings. And her father was named Cyrus, and her mother Eucharis. She with her brother Lazarus, and her sister Martha, possessed the castle of Magdalo, which is two miles from Nazareth, and Bethany, the castle which is nigh to Jerusalem, and also a great part of Jerusalem, which, all these things they departed among them. In such wise that Mary had the castle Magdalo, whereof she had her name Magdalene. And Lazarus had the part of the city of Jerusalem, and Martha had to her part Bethany. And when Mary gave herself to all delights of the body, and Lazarus entended all to knighthood, Martha, which was wise, governed nobly her brother's part and also her sister's, and also her own, and administered to knights, and her servants, and to poor men, such necessities as they needed. Nevertheless, after the ascension of our Lord, they sold all these things.
The 15th century poet Georges Chastellain draws on the tradition of the unsmiling Lazarus: "He whom God raised, doing him such grace, the thief, Mary's brother, thereafter had naught but misery and painful thoughts, fearing what he should have to pass". (Le pas de la mort, VI).
Lazarus is honored as a saint by those Christian churches which keep the commemoration of saints, although on different days, according to local traditions.
In Christian funerals the idea of the deceased being raised by the Lord as Lazarus was raised is often expressed in prayer.
The Orthodox Church and Byzantine Catholic Church commemorate Lazarus on Lazarus Saturday, the day before Palm Sunday, which is a moveable feast day. This day, together with Palm Sunday, hold a unique position in the church year, as days of joy and triumph between the penitence of Great Lent and the mourning of Holy Week. During the preceding week, the hymns in the Lenten Triodion track the sickness and then the death of Lazarus, and Christ's journey from beyond Jordan to Bethany. The scripture readings and hymns for Lazarus Saturday focus on the resurrection of Lazarus as a foreshadowing of the Resurrection of Christ, and a promise of the General Resurrection. The Gospel narrative is interpreted in the hymns as illustrating the two natures of Christ: his humanity in asking, "Where have ye laid him?", and his divinity by commanding Lazarus to come forth from the dead. Many of the Resurrectional hymns of the normal Sunday service, which are omitted on Palm Sunday, are chanted on Lazarus Saturday. During the Divine Liturgy, the Baptismal Hymn, "As many as have been baptized into Christ have put on Christ", is sung in place of the Trisagion. Although the forty days of Great Lent end on the day before Lazarus Saturday, the day is still observed as a fast; however, it is somewhat mitigated. In Russia, it is traditional to eat caviar on Lazarus Saturday.
Lazarus is also commemorated on the liturgical calendar of the Orthodox Church on the fixed feast day of March 17,[note 3] while the translation of his relics from Cyprus to Constantinople in the year 898 AD is observed on October 17.[note 4]
No celebration of Saint Lazarus is included on the General Roman Calendar, but he is celebrated, together with his sister Mary of Bethany, on July 29, the memorial of their sister Martha. Earlier editions of the Roman Martyrology placed him among the saints of December 17.
In Cuba, the celebration of San Lázaro on December 17 is a major festival. The date is celebrated with a pilgrimage to a chapel housing an image Saint Lazarus, one of Cuba's most sacred icons, in the village of El Rincon, outside Havana.
Conflation with the beggar Lazarus (of Lazarus and Dives)
Historically within Christianity, the begging Lazarus of the parable (feast day June 21) and Lazarus of Bethany (feast day December 17) have often been conflated, with some churches celebrating a blessing of dogs, associated with the beggar, on December 17, the date associated with Lazarus of Bethany.
Another example of this conflation can be found in Romanesque iconography carved on portals in Burgundy and Provence. For example, at the west portal of the Church of St. Trophime at Arles, the beggar Lazarus is enthroned as St. Lazarus. Similar examples are found at the church at Avallon, the central portal at Vézelay, and the portals of the cathedral of Autun.
Order of Saint Lazarus
The Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem (OSLJ) is a religious/military order of chivalry which originated in a leper hospital founded by Knights Hospitaller in the twelfth century by Crusaders of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem. Sufferers of leprosy regarded the beggar Lazarus (of Luke 16:19-31) as their patron saint and usually dedicated their hospices to him.
Lazarus as Babalu Aye in Santería
Via syncretism, Lazarus (or more precisely the conflation of the two figures named Lazarus) has become an important figure in Santería as the Yoruba deity Babalu Aye. Like the beggar of the Christian Gospel of Luke, Babalu-Aye represents someone covered with sores licked by dogs who was healed by divine intervention. Silver charms known as the crutch of St. Lazarus or standard Roman Catholic-style medals of St. Lazarus are worn as talismans to invoke the aid of the syncretized deity in cases of medical suffering, particularly for people with AIDS. In Santería, the date associated with St. Lazarus is December 17, despite Santería's reliance on the iconography associated with the begging saint whose feast day is June 21.
Well known in Western culture from their respective biblical tales, both figures named Lazarus (Lazarus of Bethany and the Beggar Lazarus of Lazarus and Dives), have appeared countless times in music, writing and art. The majority of the references are to Lazarus of Bethany, including the following:
- In literature, allusions to Lazarus are made in several notable works. A few prominent examples include Crime and Punishment by Fyodor Dostoevsky, several novels of Robert A. Heinlein, Frank Herbert's novel The Lazarus Effect, A Separate Peace by John Knowles, A Canticle for Leibowitz by Walter M. Miller, Jr., a short story entitled 'Lazarus' by Russian writer Leonid Andreyev,"A Tree of Night" by Truman Capote, "Lazarus," by Edwin Arlington Robinson, and "Lady Lazarus", a poem written by Sylvia Plath. The poet David Constantine published a pair of sonnets, Christ to Lazarus and Lazarus to Christ in his 1983 collection Watching for Dolphins. Stephen King's novel, "Pet Sematary" also refers to the resurrection of Lazarus on several occasions within the text. John Derhak's novel, The Bones of Lazarus, blends fact and fiction, portraying Lazarus as an immortal creature of Judgment. MacArthur Foundation grantee Aleksandar Hemon's landmark 2008 novel The Lazarus Project is probably the most recent work of note to have referenced the story. The 1991 novel The Famished Road written by Nigerian writer Ben Okri follows the story of a boy called "Azaro", nickname for "Lazarus" and alludes to the story several times in the text, probably conflating both Lazarus the beggar and Lazarus of Bethany.
- In music, a popular retelling of the biblical Lazarus story from the point of view of Lazarus in heaven is the 1984 gospel story-song "Lazarus Come Forth" by Contemporary Christian Music artist Carman. A modern reinterpretation of the story is the title track to the album "Dig, Lazarus, Dig!!!" by the Australian alternative band Nick Cave and the Bad Seeds. Several other bands have composed songs titled "Lazarus" in allusion to the resurrection story, including Porcupine Tree, Conor Oberst, Circa Survive, Chimaira, moe., and Placebo.
- In Joshua, My Brother, author O.F. Gnal suggests that the "death" of Lazarus was a rebirth ritual of the very early Church and that the name relates to an earlier Egyptian resurrection of "Al-Azarus".
- In the video game Mass Effect 2, the Human terrorist organization Cerberus organizes a special project, codenamed Project Lazarus to resurrect the main protagonist, Commander Shepard, after their untimely death in the beginning of the game.
- In the steampunk video game Darkwatch, Lazarus is the main antagonist of the game. In this version, he was a former vampire hunter who, in his arrogance, fused his body and soul with a demon in the hopes of acquiring a stronger power to fight against the vampiric forces who destroyed ancient Rome. However, this attempt failed as he became a vampire lord as a result of the experiment and turned against the Darkwatch organization he created.
- Lazarus is shown in the film The Last Temptation of Christ, Lazarus is shown resurrected but later he is killed by Saul in order to discredit Jesus.
- In the movie Interstellar, the main space project in search of other planets to save humanity is codenamed Project Lazarus.
Literatary allusions to the Beggar Lazarus appear in Herman Melville's novel Moby-Dick (as part of a metaphor describing a cold night in New Bedford) and in the poem "The Love Song of J. Alfred Prufrock" by T. S. Eliot (which contains the lines: 'To say: "I am Lazarus, come from the dead,/Come back to tell you all, I shall tell you all" ', in reference to Dives' request to have Beggar Lazarus return from the dead to tell his brothers of his fate).
When John Howard lost the leadership of the Liberal Party of Australia, he rated his chances of regaining it as "Lazarus with a triple bypass". Howard did regain the leadership and went on to become Prime Minister of Australia.
Former President of Haiti, Jean Bertrand Aristide, was termed the "Haitian Lazarus" by journalist Amy Wilentz, in her description of his return to Haiti from exile and the political significance of this event.
The Lazarus Effect is a documentary project for HIV AIDS awareness by U2 musician Bono's private sector brand initiative (RED) (Product Red). Promotion involved the recruitment of high profile celebrities to advocate for consumer funding for effective ARV (Antiretroviral drug) therapy which cost just US$0.40 a day to provide. "In as few as 40 days, the medicine can help bring people back to life" from this viral illness, hence its reference to the story of the ((Raising of Lazarus)).
The scientific term "Lazarus taxon", which denotes organisms that reappear in the fossil record after a period of apparent extinction. The Lazarus phenomenon refers to an event in which a person spontaneously returns to life (the heart starts beating again) after resuscitation has been given up. The Lazarus sign is a reflex which can occur in a brain-dead person, thus giving the appearance that they have returned to life.
In DC Comics, Ra's al Ghul, an enemy of Batman, uses a mystical Lazarus Pit to keep himself young. In many occasions, characters that were dead or sick was brought to the Lazarus Pit to revive or restore their health.
In the video game BioShock, the ´´Lazarus Vector´´ is used to bring trees back to life.
In season three of Doctor Who, there is an episode called "The Lazarus Experiment" in which an old scientist makes himself young again, but with side effects.
The season three premiere of BBC's Sherlock involves one theory of how Sherlock faked his death having Sherlock send a text to his brother, Mycroft, saying "LAZARUS" to which Mycroft replies "LAZARUS IS A GO"
'Lazarus' is an ongoing comic book series published by Image Comics, wherein the main character is a woman genetically altered to have superhuman healing abilities, able to heal fatal injuries in a matter of minutes using iPS Cells, she is a 'Lazarus'.
In the film The Lazarus Project, Ben's 'Angel' makes frequent reference to having being given 'a new life.'
- (Russian) Спасо-Елеазаровский монастырь. Russian Wikipedia.
- In 1970 a fire that broke out in Church of St. Lazarus at Larnaka destroyed almost all of the internal furnishings of the church. Subsequent archaeological excavations and renovations led to the discovery of a portion of the saint's relics.
- In the Synaxarion of Constantinople and in the Lavreotic Codex, reference is made to the "Raising of Lazarus" - the Holy and Just Lazarus, the friend of Christ. The entry for October 17 in the Prologue from Ohrid also states that "Lazarus's principle feasts are on March 17 and Lazarus Saturday during Great Lent."
- "...Under today's date is commemorated the translation of his relics from the island of Cyprus to Constantinople. This occurred when Emperor Leo the Wise built the Church of St. Lazarus in Constantinople, and translated Lazarus's relics there in the year 890. When, after almost a thousand years, Lazarus's grave in the town of Kition on Cyprus was unearthed, a marble tablet was found with the inscription: "Lazarus of the Four Days, the friend of Christ.""
- Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ἀνάστασις τοῦ Λαζάρου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
- Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ὁ Ἅγιος Λάζαρος ὁ Δίκαιος, ὁ φίλος τοῦ Χριστοῦ. 17 ΜΑΡΤΙΟΥ. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
- Great Synaxaristes: (Greek) Ἀνακομιδὴ καὶ Κατάθεσις τοῦ Λειψάνου τοῦ Ἁγίου καὶ Δικαίου Λαζάρου. 17 Οκτωβρίου. ΜΕΓΑΣ ΣΥΝΑΞΑΡΙΣΤΗΣ.
- The Roman Martyrology. Transl. by the Archbishop of Baltimore. Last Edition, According to the Copy Printed at Rome in 1914. Revised Edition, with the Imprimatur of His Eminence Cardinal Gibbons. Baltimore: John Murphy Company, 1916. p. 387.
- The Benedictine Monks of St. Augustine's Abbey, Ramsgate (Comp.). The Book of Saints: A Dictionary of Servants of God Canonised by the Catholic Church: Extracted from The Roman and Other Martyrologies. London: A & C Black Ltd., 1921. p. 163.
- Tenney, Merrill C.. Kenneth L. Barker & John Kohlenberger III, ed. Zondervan NIV Bible Commentary. Grand Rapids, Michigan: Zondervan Publishing House.
- William Barclay, The Parables of Jesus, Westminster John Knox Press, 1999, ISBN 0-664-25828-X, pp. 92–98.
- Luke 16:19–31
- John 11:1-46
- John 11:1
- John 11:3
- John 11:25, KJV
- John 11:35, KJV
- John 12:2
- John 12:9-11
- For the treatment of this subject in Western European art, see the discussion in Franco Mormando, "Tintoretto's Recently Rediscovered Raising of Lazarus, in The Burlington Magazine, v. 142 (2000): pp. 624-29.
- In The Biblical World 8.5 (November 1896:40).
- Modern Bethany, by Albert Storme, Franciscan Cyberspot.
- "Sacred Destinations".
- The Onomastikon of Eusebius and the Madaba Map, By Leah Di Segni. First published in: The Madaba Map Centenary, Jerusalem, 1999, pp. 115-120.
- Bethany in Byzantine Times I and Bethany in Byzantine Times II, by Albert Storme, Franciscan Cyberspot.
- Mariam Shahin (2005). Palestine: A Guide. Interlink Books. p. 332. ISBN 1-56656-557-X.
- "Bethany". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Chev. C. Savona-Ventura (KLJ, CMLJ, BCrLJ). Lazarus of Bethany. Grand Priory of the Maltese Island: Military & Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. December 2009. p. 3.
- Michaelides, M.G. "Saint Lazarus, The Friend Of Christ And First Bishop Of Kition", Larnaca, Cyprus, 1984. Reprinted by Fr. Demetrios Serfes at St. Lazarus The Friend Of Christ And First Bishop Of Kition, Cyprus
- Roberson, Fr. Ronald G., (C.S.P.). The Orthodox Church of Cyprus. CNEWA United States. 26 June 2007.
- St. Lazarus Church & Ecclesiastical Museum, Larnaca. Cyprus Tourism Organisation. p. 4. Retrieved: 2013-04-17.
- St. Lazarus Church & Ecclesiastical Museum, Larnaca. Cyprus Tourism Organisation. p. 14. Retrieved: 2013-04-17.
- St. Lazarus' relics brought to Moscow from Cyprus. Interfax-Religion. 13 June 2012, 13:32.
- ST. LAZARUS' RELICS BROUGHT TO MOSCOW FROM CYPRUS. Pravoslavie.ru. Moscow, June 13, 2012.
- "St. Lazarus of Bethany". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- "Of Mary Magdalene", Legenda Aurea, Book IV.
- Huizinga, the Waning of the Middle Ages p147
- p. 59
- Archimandrite Kallistos Ware and Mother Mary, Tr., The Lenten Triodion (St. Tikhon's Seminary Press, South Canaan, Pennsylvania, 2002, ISBN 1-878997-51-3), p. 57.
- (John 11:34)
- (John 11:43)
- (Romans 6:3)
- Bishop Nikolaj Velimirović. October 17 - The Prologue from Ohrid. (Serbian Orthodox Church Diocese of Western America). Retrieved 2013-04-17.
- Translation of the relics of St Lazarus “of the Four Days in the Tomb” the Bishop of Kiteia on Cyprus. OCA - Lives of the Saints. Retrieved: 2013-04-17.
- Martyrologium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana 2001 ISBN 978-88-209-7210-3), p. 398
- December 17, Roman Martyrology (1749).
- With sackcloth and rum, Cubans hail Saint Lazarus, December 17, 1998. Reuters news story.
- Money talks: folklore in the public sphere December 2005, Folklore magazine.
- Richard Hamann, "Lazarus in Heaven" The Burlington Magazine for Connoisseurs 63 No. 364 (July 1933), pp. 3-5, 8-11
- "History", official international website of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. Retrieved on 2009-09-14.
- Carman Bio, MPCA promotional material.
- Comin' On Strong discography.
- Melville, Herman. Moby Dick. pp. 11–12.
- "Thoughts of a bypassed Lazarus", The Age (Melbourne), 29 February 2004, retrieved 25 July 2007
- Wilentz, Amy. The Haitian Lazarus. NY Times (Op-Ed). March 15, 2011.
- Source: The Lazarus Effect Trailer (Red), 30 April 2010, retrieved 12 October 201 Check date values in:
- 'The Lazarus Effect' Film from (RED) & HBO on YouTube
- Template:Official websiteurl=http://www.joinred.com
- "(RED): 2 Pills A Day - The Lazarus Effect". Youtube. 27 May 2010. Retrieved 12 October 2011.