Le Petit Journal
Konstantin Stoitzner (1863–1934):
„Le petit journal”
|Owner||Moïse Polydore Millaud|
|Publisher||Moïse Polydore Millaud|
|Circulation||1,000,000 <1890s> Daily|
Le Petit Journal was a daily Parisian newspaper published from 1863 to 1944. It was founded by Moïse Polydore Millaud. In its columns were published several serial novels of Émile Gaboriau and of Ponson du Terrail.
In the 1890s, at the height of its popularity, the newspaper had a circulation of a million copies, and by 1884 it also included a weekly illustrated supplement.
Promotional events 
Paris–Brest–Paris cycle race 
In 1891, Le Petit Journal created the Paris–Brest–Paris road cycling race. Its editor Pierre Giffard promoted it as Paris-Brest et retour in his editorials which he signed "Jean-sans-Terre". It is now established as the oldest long-distance cycling road event. Le Petit Journal described it as an "épreuve," a test of the bicycle's reliability and the rider's endurance. Riders were fully self-sufficient, carrying their own food and clothing and riding the same bicycle for the duration. The public response to his articles was so phenomenal that he had to change the rules and start charging five francs entrance, as 300 riders including 7 women signed up, although the women were later refused entrance. Each bicycle was given an 'official seal' at a two-day ceremony in front of the offices of Le Petit Journal. The 280 sealed machines included 10 tricycles, two Tandem bicycles, and one Penny-farthing.
Participation was restricted to French men and 99 of the 207 (or 280) participants finished. Michelin's Charles Terront won in 71 hours 22 minutes after passing Dunlop's Jiel-Laval as he slept during the third night. Both had suffered punctures in their pneumatic tyres, but still enjoyed an advantage over riders on solid tires.
The first race was a coup for Le Petit Journal and the organisers decided to run it every ten years. The second race in 1901 was again organised by Pierre Giffard but on behalf of Le Vélo.
Paris-Belfort running race 
On 5 June 1892, Le Petit Journal organised a foot-race from Paris to Belfort, a course of over 380 kilometers, the first large scale long distance running race on record. Over 1,100 competitors registered for the event and over 800 started from the offices of Le Petit Journal, at Paris Opera. This had also been the start point for the inaugural Paris–Brest–Paris cycle-race the previous year. Newspaper circulation dramatically increased as the French public followed the progress of race participants, 380 of whom completed the course in under 10 days. In Le Petit Journal on June 18, 1892, Giffard praised the event as a model for the physical training of a nation faced by hostile neighbours. The event was won by Constant Ramoge in 100 hours 5 minutes.
Paris–Rouen. World's first motor-race 
In 1894, Pierre Giffard organised what is considered to be the world's first car race from Paris to Rouen,[a] sporting events were a tried and tested form of publicity stunt and circulation booster. The paper promoted it as a Competition for Horeseless Carriages (Concours des Voitures sans Chevaux) that were not dangerous, easy to drive, and cheap during the journey. Thus it blurred the distinctions between a reliability trial, a general event and a race, but the main prize was for the first across the finish line in Rouen. 102 people paid the 10 franc entrance fee.
On July 22, 1894, 69 cars started the 50 km selection event that would show which entrants would be allowed to start the main event, the 127 km race from Paris to Rouen. The entrants ranged from serious manufacturers like Peugeot, Panhard or De Dion to amateur owners, and only 25 were selected for the main race.
The race started from Porte Maillot and went through the Bois de Boulogne. Count Jules-Albert de Dion was first into Rouen after 6 hours and 48 minutes at an average speed of 19km/h. He finished 3’30” ahead of Albert Lemaître (Peugeot), followed by Auguste Doriot (Peugeot) at 16’30”, René Panhard (Panhard) at 33’30’’ and Émile Levassor (Panhard) at 55’30”. The official winners were Peugeot and Panhard as cars were judged on their speed, handling and safety characteristics, and De Dion's steam car needed a stoker which was forbidden.
Paris Marathon 
On July 18, 1896, Giffard organised the inaugural Paris Marathon on behalf of Le Petit Journal, although he was editor of Le Vélo, suggesting a cooperative commercial relationship. The event followed on from the success of the marathon in the 1896 inaugural Olympics. Gifford started the race before a large crowd at the Porte Maillot, and it followed a course to Versailles and finished in Conflans-Sainte-Honorine. The race and the 200-franc prize were won by Len Hurst, a 24-year-old brick maker from England. It was the last marathon held in Paris until the mid-1980s.
Editors and staff 
Pierre Giffard 
Hippolyte Marinon[b] asked Giffard to reorganise the newsroom of the daily paper, Le Petit Journal. He began work on 1 October 1887. There he started a diary which, in the tradition of the paper, he signed with a pseudonym: Jean-sans-Terre. He stayed at the paper for 10 years.
National Library of France – Gallica 
All copies of Le Petit Journal are stored at the National Library France – Gallica. They can be freely accessed online at Gallica, Online Archive, Le Petit Journal Index
- A previous motoring event had been held in 1887 but received only a single entrant. Georges Bouton and his passenger the Comte Jules-Albert de Dion had completed the two-mile drive from the Bois de Boulogne to Porte Maillot in a steam-powered vehicle of their own manufacture, the genesis of the De Dion-Bouton.
- Hippolyte Marinon was known for his invention of the rotary press.
- A Hands – A short history of Paris Brest Paris by Gary Smith
- Randonneurs Ontario, Profile of Pierre Giffard
- La Marcha De Gran Fondo:Entre La Competicion Y El desafio, By Bernardo José Mora
- Forix, Autosport, 8W – Welcome to Who? What? Where? When? Why? on the World Wide Web. The cradle of motorsport by Rémi Paolozzi, May 28, 2003
- Running through the ages By Edward Seldon Sears, p160
- FrWiki Hippolyte Auguste Marinoni
Further reading 
- W. Schneider, An empire for the masses: the French popular image of Africa 1870–1900 (Westport 1982). On the way French newspapers, and the Petit Journal in particular, shaped representations of imperialism in the French public mind.
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