Le calife de Bagdad (The Caliph of Baghdad) is an opéra comique in one act by the French composer François-Adrien Boieldieu with a libretto by Claude de Saint-Just (Godard d'Aucourt). It was first performed at the Opéra-Comique, Paris on 16 September 1800 and soon became highly popular throughout Europe. It was Boieldieu's first major triumph. One member of the audience who was less impressed was the noted composer Luigi Cherubini who reproached Boieldieu, "Aren't you ashamed of such a great success, and doing so little to deserve it?" Boieldieu immediately applied to Cherubini for lessons in compositional techniques.
Le calife de Bagdad was part of the vogue for operas on Oriental subjects and the music makes use of local colour, especially the overture with its prominent "eastern" percussion. Késie's ariaDe tous pays is a bravura piece which illustrates the musical styles of several European countries, including Spain, Italy, Germany, Scotland and England. Le calife de Bagdad is believed to have influenced Carl Maria von Weber, particularly his operas Abu Hassan and Oberon.
Isaoun, the Caliph of Baghdad, has adopted a disguise so he can roam the streets of the city freely, going under the name "Il Bondocani". Two months before the action begins, he rescued Zétulbé from a band of brigands and Zétulbé has fallen in love with him. But Zétulbé's mother, Lémaïde, is unimpressed by his shabby appearance and refuses to let her marry him. She is amazed when "Il Bondocani" orders his followers to bring in gifts including a casket of jewels. Thinking "Il Bondocani" is a brigand, Lémaïde's neighbour has reported him to the police, who now try to break down the door. After further intrigue, Isaoun finally reveals his true identity to Zétulbé and the two can now be married.