Leadership Conference of Women Religious
The Leadership Conference of Women Religious (LCWR) is a canonically approved membership organization which serves as a support system and voice for nuns and sisters (Catholic women religious) in the United States.
The group was under investigation by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith via Archbishop Gerhard Ludwig Müller over heretical and doctrinal issues, a position disputed by its leaders. After a four-year doctrinal assessment of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious, Archbishop James Peter Sartain was appointed to work with the conference to revise its statues and review its connections to affiliated organizations. He will also help design a new formation program to offer a deeper understanding of Church teaching.
Pope Francis reaffirmed the canonical investigation formerly sanctioned by the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith to reform their charisms and organizational teachings. The organization's members were ordered to review their statutes and reassess their plans and programs.
- 1 History
- 2 Mission and purpose
- 3 Membership statistics
- 4 Doctrinal issues
- 5 Apostolic visitation
- 6 CDF Investigation
- 7 Haag Prize
- 8 CBS: 60 Minutes interview
- 9 See also
- 10 Notes
- 11 References
- 12 Further reading
- 13 External links
The organization was originally founded in 1956 by the Holy See under the pontificate of Pope Pius XII to assist its members carry out public services of leadership to further the mission of the Gospel of Jesus Christ.[not in citation given]
At the request of the Holy See through the Congregation for Institutes of Consecrated Life and Societies of Apostolic Life (CICLSAL), leaders of pontifical religious institutes of women in the United States founded the conference in 1956, initially named the Conference of Major Superiors of Women. The name was later changed in 1971 to the Leadership Conference of Women Religious. In 1995 CICLSAL established the Council of Major Superiors of Women Religious (CMSWR), an organization parallel to the LCWR, whose 168 members of the level of provincial or general superiors represent some 20% of the country's women religious.
Mission and purpose
According to its official website, the LCWR serves as a resource to its members and to others seeking information on leadership for religious life and living religious life. The Conference assists its members to do the following:
- Assisting its members personally and communally to carry out more collaboratively their service of leadership in order to accomplish further the mission of Christ in today's world.
- Fostering dialogue and collaboration among religious congregations within the church and in the larger society.
- Developing models for initiating and strengthening relationships with groups concerned with the needs of society, thereby maximizing the potential of the conference for effecting change.
The membership of LCWR is composed of women who are the superiors, or leaders, of their respective congregations. In 2011, the approximately 1,500 members of LCWR constituted less than 3% of the 55,944 women religious in the United States. The congregations which the members of the LCWR led included 46,451 members, or 83% of the women religious in the United States.
The membership of the congregations in the LCWR declined rapidly in the early 21st century, both through a lack of any new members in most member congregations and the increasing age of the women who remain. According to the Study on Recent Vocations, the average median age of women in LCWR institutes is 74. Among those who entered since 1994, 56% were over 30 by 2009. For these reasons, the membership of the congregations in the LCWR declined from 60,642 in 2007, to 46,451 in 2011, to an estimated 43,664 in 2012.
According to Mary Gautier, Senior Research Associate at Georgetown University's Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate (CARA), and author of New Generations of Catholic Sisters: The Challenge of Diversity:
Some commentators, for ideological purposes, attempt to create generalized typologies that mask the complexity of the religious reality, arguing that all new entrants go to traditionalist (CMSWR [Council of Major Superiors of Women Religious]) institutes and few or none go to LCWR [Leadership Conference of Women Religious] institutes. The reality of the situation is that almost an equal percentage of LCWR and CMSWR institutes have no one at all in formation at the present time (32 percent and 27 percent, respectively). One of the most striking findings regarding new entrants is that almost equal numbers of women have been attracted to institutes in both conferences in recent years.”
On October 7, 1979, Sister Theresa Kane R.S.M., former president of the LCWR, issued a formal plea during Pope John Paul II's Apostolic visit to the United States at the National Shrine of the Immaculate Conception for "providing the possibility of women as persons being included in all ministries of the church." Since then, various similar sentiments were expressed by LCWR members which later drew conflict with the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith who sought to maintain Catholic doctrinal orthodoxy, a position disputed by LCWR members as unfair and unjust to what they perceive as gender inequality in the Catholic Church. According to Franciscan Sr. Florence Deacon, those doing the doctrinal assessment in 2012 were apparently concerned with a 1977 statement in favor of women’s ordination, which the LCWR had never withdrawn.
Moving beyond Jesus
On 2 August 2007, former president of LCWR Sister Laurie Brink O.P, during her keynote address quoted another sister's comment that stated, "I was rooted in the story of Jesus, and it remains at my core, but I've also moved beyond Jesus," a statement that stirred controversy regarding both its sentiment and meaning, particularly among LCWR members.
On December 22, 2008, the Holy See's CICLSA announced it would conduct an apostolic visitation of U.S. women religious to examine their quality of life, ministries, vocation efforts, and financial status, which many saw as indictment against some of the less traditional communities within the LCWR. In February 2009 the Vatican's Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith (CDF) announced it would be conducting a Doctrinal Assessment of the LCWR because of what it perceived as the tenor and content of various addresses at the organization's annual assemblies since 2001. LCWR said that Vatican had not fully disclosed the reasons behind the investigation, nor its funding.
The Prefect of the Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura Cardinal Raymond Burke declared on a public televised interview that if the organization "cannot be reformed, then it does not have a right to exist."
Leonard Paul Blair, Bishop of Toledo, was appointed as the CDF's Delegate to oversee the Assessment. Bishop Blair submitted reports to the CDF and engaged in correspondence with the LCWR during 2009 and 2010. The documentation collected during the Assessment was submitted to the CDF in January, 2011, and transmitted, together with the CDF's recommendation to the Pope that steps be taken to reform the LCWR. The Pope approved the CDF's decision in this regard, and the CDF began its implementation after the submission of the Assessment's Final Report in December 2011.
In April 2012, the CDF released the findings from the Doctrinal Assessment and announced that it was appointing Archbishop J. Peter Sartain of the Archdiocese of Seattle as an Archbishop Delegate with a mandate to oversee changes in the LCWR to reform its statutes, programs, and affiliations to conform more closely to "the teachings and discipline of the Church."  These findings announced that the Assessment begun in February 2009 was motivated by concerns that addresses at annual LCWR Assemblies were contradictory to teachings of the Catholic Church, that the CDF had received letters from LCWR Officers which indicated the LCWR collectively held positions differing from Catholic Church teachings on sexuality, and perception of "certain radical feminist themes incompatible with the Catholic faith". The findings by the CDF stated that these reasons for the Assessment had been communicated to the LCWR presidency in a meeting with Cardinal William Levada in Rome on April 8, 2008.
The mandate of the Archbishop Delegate, Archbishop Sartain, includes the following:
- To revise LCWR Statutes to ensure greater clarity about the scope of the mission and responsibilities of this conference of major superiors. The revised Statutes will be submitted to the Holy See for approval by the CICLSAL.
- To review LCWR plans and programs, including General Assemblies and publications, to ensure that the scope of the LCWR’s mission is fulfilled in accord with Church teachings and discipline. In particular:
- Systems Thinking Handbook will be withdrawn from circulation pending revision
- LCWR programs for (future) Superiors and Formators will be reformed
- Speakers/presenters at major programs will be subject to approval by Delegate
- To create new LCWR programs for member Congregations for the development of initial and ongoing formation material that provides a deepened understanding of the Church’s doctrine of the faith.
- To review and offer guidance in the application of liturgical norms and texts. For example:
- To review LCWR links with affiliated organizations, e.g. Network and Resource Center for Religious Life.
Initial response by LCWR leaders
After a June 12, 2012 meeting with representatives of the LCWR, Cardinal Levada expressed his fear that the lack of response to Vatican concerns by the LCWR was becoming like a "dialogue of the deaf". He presented the possibility that if the LCWR did not accept the demanded reforms that they could be decertified to make way for a new organization that would take up their duties and be more responsive to the Vatican. He rejected claims that Vatican actions were based on "unsubstantiated accusations", saying "In reality, this is not a surprise," the demand for reforms are based on "what happens in their assemblies, what's on their website, what they do or don't do." Sister Pat Farrel, president of the LCWR, and Sister Janet Mock, LCWR executive director stated that the group would consider its response in an upcoming regional meeting and an August, 2012 national assembly and would make no further comment on the issue.
On August 10, 2012, the former president of the organization, Sister Patricia Farrell gave a keynote address to the LCWR members to be "truthful and fearless" with regards to the doctrinal assessment issued by the Vatican. Farrell said that "some larger movement in the church ... has landed on LCWR." In addition, Farrell distinguished between an expression of concern vs. an attempt to control. "Concern is based in love and invites unity. Control through fear and intimidation would be an abuse of power." In conclusion, Sister Patricia noted, "They can crush a few flowers, but they cannot hold back the springtime," a saying derived from her service in Chile military dictatorship of Chile. The LCWR awarded Sister Pat Farrell its highest honor for leadership “through an exceptionally challenging time.” Farrell will formally receive the award in August 2013 and will make another speech then.
On August 11, 2012, the group maintained a postponement to the official reform of its statutes and by-laws, with various leaders citing the need to have a further ecclesial dialogue with the Holy See with regard to the continuance of the organization as an official canonical entity of the Catholic Church. According to Cathy Lynn Grossman, reporting for USA Today, "The assembly instructed the LCWR officers to conduct their conversation with Archbishop Sartain from a stance of deep prayer that values mutual respect, careful listening and open dialogue. The officers will proceed with these discussions as long as possible, but will reconsider if LCWR is forced to compromise the integrity of its mission."
Sister Mary Hughes, past president of the LCWR's indicated the group's preference is to remain canonically approved by the Holy See. Hughes noted that the group is a leadership support group, not a "theological society.
In October 2012, when it was pointed out in an interview that the LCWR did not speak out on abortion, contraception, and gay marriage, Sister Florence Deacon responded that "Jesus welcomed sinners with the idea that they would be drawn to change their lives". According to Deacon the LCWR opposed tax cuts because the Gospel encourages Catholics to create a world in which everyone has what they need so they can live as full human beings and develop their faith. To the suggestion that the assessment may have occurred because the sisters supported the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act while the bishops were against that reform, Deacon pointed out that the review began prior to that.
Prefect of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Gerhard Ludwig Müller expressed appreciation for the work the LCWR do for vulnerable people but stated that Pope Francis reaffirmed the findings of the Assessment and the program of reform.
Activist and member of the Sisters of Loretto Maureen Fiedler expressed doubts that the Pontiff had any concrete knowledge of the internal struggles of the LCWR, along with suspicions of male-dominated sexism perpetrated by the members of the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith. Later developments indicated that Pope Francis knew of the LCWR situation, as indicated in press statements released by the Vatican, surprising many who speculated that the Pope was not fully aware of the LCWR disagreements.
On 8 May 2013, during the General Wednesday Audience for the International Union of Superiors General given at Paul VI Audience Hall, Pope Francis delivered a televised speech admonishing priests, sisters and nuns who use their religious titles and privileges to serve their careers and ambition. The Pope called upon religious sisters to be a spiritual mother to others, and not a spiritual "Zitella", an Italian term which may be roughly translated as spinsters. Furthermore, the Pope stressed the demand for obedience to the Church and its doctrines, citing it as inseparable from the divinity of Jesus Christ.
The LCWR position
The sisters say that "they have been unjustly criticised". BBC's David Willey said "They were understandably hurt at being told to mend their ways by the Vatican at a time when the US Church has lost credibility over sexual abuse scandals involving priests."
In May 2013, LCWR president Sister Florence Deacon addressed the plenary assembly of the International Union of Superiors General. Deacon indicated that the LCWR members were "shocked" by the results of the doctrinal assessment. In her speech, Deacon defended the controversial speech made in August 2007 in reference to "moving beyond Jesus" citing the context of dwindling religious members but maintains that it was misinterpreted by the secular media as Protestant and Anti-Catholic. In addition, Sister Florence Deacon defended the group as being held liable for the opinions and actions individual members acting within their respective congregations. Furthermore, Deacon reiterated that the LCWR is a leadership development networking organization rather than an organization set up to teach and enforce Church moral doctrine among its own religious congregants, a position she deems as solely reserved to the Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith.
Sister Simone Campbell, of the a Catholic social justice lobbying group NETWORK, said "The censure (of the LCWR) has always been about politics. And politics are shifting in the church right now. We know when politics shift, there are opportunities and there are risks ... But we are concerned that Catholic sisters below the decision-making level are caught in the bigger picture of Vatican politics. We're sort of the soccer ball here."
Citing the group's choice of futurist Barbara Marx Hubbard as the 2012 keynote speaker, Father Mitch Pacwa charged that the LCRW has had a New Age approach for some time. Some LCWR members openly endorse the ordination of women as part of the Roman Catholic priesthood. Similar to the Episcopal Church in the United States, LCWR members take a nuanced position on abortion.[not in citation given]
In November 2012, the Haag Foundation awarded the LCWR with the 2013 Herbert Haag Prize for "recognition of its extensive efforts in helping the poor, the marginalized and people in difficult circumstances', noting that "their careful reflection of the signs of the times in the spirit of the Second Vatican Council, making the nuns a pillar of the Catholic Church in the United States of America." The Foundation also held that their efforts resulted in a situation where "women religious, and especially their leaders, stand in the eye of an ecclesiastical storm." The Haag Prize was established by the liberal Swiss theologian Herbert Haag who was a critic of the institutional church and had a noted dispute with church authorities over whether ordained priests were needed to celebrate the Eucharist.
CBS: 60 Minutes interview
On March 2013, CBS News broadcast a segment on 60 Minutes episode pertaining to the group's doctrinal assessment and critique. The segment interviewed Sister Pat Farrel and also Archbishop James Peter Sartain. Some criticism by viewers was expressed at the show's graphic depicting a nun in a traditional religious habit holding a picket sign. Many LCWR members no longer dress in a traditional religious habit.
- Bauman, Michelle. "Archbishop Sartain stresses dedication to addressing religious sisters' issues", Catholic News Agency, June 1, 2012
- "US Catholic nuns criticised in Vatican report on LCWR", BBC News, April 15, 2013
- McElwee, Joshua L. (August 10, 2012). "At LCWR assembly, sisters contemplate surrender, discernment, authority". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "The Holy Office puts the American sisters in the corner". L'espresso. April 30, 2012. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- "Study on Recent Vocations to Religious Life", National Religious Vocation Conference
- "Mission Statement", LCWR
- Clark, Monica (October 19, 2011). "Studies chart diminishment of US sisters' numbers". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Study on Recent Vocations to Religious Life (2009, available only to members - August 06, 2012)
- McElwee, Joshua J. (April 26, 2012). "LCWR annual assembly to go forward". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- "Sister Statistics: What Is Happening?", Center for Applied Research in the Apostolate, Georgetown University
- Nun Who Confronted the Pope. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- Deacon, Florence. "Speech at the plenary assembly of the International Union of Superiors General" May 4, 2013, NCR
- Brink O.P., Laurie. "A Marginal Life: Pursuing Holiness in the 21st Century"
- Clooney S.J., Francis X., "Sister Laurie Brink OP and the CDF", America
- Goodstein, Laurie (July 1, 2009). "U.S. Nuns Facing Vatican Scrutiny". New York Times. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- U.S. Catholic sisters probed
- Schmalz, Valerie. "Religious on edge", OSV Weekly, November 11, 2009
- Wooden, Cindy. "Cardinal Rode defends apostolic visitation of US nuns", Catholic News Service, November 5, 2009
- "Women religious leadership conference faces investigation for continued ‘problems’". Catholic News Agency. April 18, 2009. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Sadowsky, Dennis. "LCWR questions lack of full disclosure", Catholic News Service, August 18, 2009
- "Vatican Cardinal Burke on women religious group's right to exist", The World Over show with Raymond Arroyo, EWTN
- "Doctrinal Assessment of the Leadership Conference of Women Religious". US Conference of Catholic Bishops. Retrieved 10 April 2013.
- Bauman, Michelle. "Vatican announces reform of US women's religious conference", Catholic News Agency. April 18, 2012
- Vatican orders LCWR to revise[dead link]
- John L Allen Jr (June 12, 2012). "Vatican official warns of 'dialogue of the deaf' with LCWR". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- John L Allen Jr (June 15, 2012). "Exclusive interview: Levada talks LCWR, criticism in the States". National Catholic Reporter. Retrieved August 6, 2012.
- McElwee, Joshua J., "LCWR president to sisters: Be 'fearless' on Vatican mandate", National Catholic Reporter, August 10, 2012
- McElwee, Joshua J., "LCWR to honor former president Farrell’s leadership during ‘challenging time", April 5, 2013
- Brinker, Jennifer (August 10, 2012). "LCWR agrees to enter into "conversation" with Vatican". St. Louis Review. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Grossman, Cathy Lynn (August 11, 2012). "Bishop to sisters: Let's clear up 'misunderstandings'". USA Today. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Eckstrom, Kevin (August 16, 2012). "Nuns group plans to stick with the church". Religion News Service. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Donovan, John (August 16, 2012). "What Lies Ahead For America's Nuns". NPR. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Calhoun, Ada. "Sister Florence Deacon, the Rebel Nun", New York Times Magazine, October 26, 2012
- "Pope Francis maintains Vatican stance against US nuns' group", The Guardian, April 13, 2013
- Communique of The Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith Concerning a Meeting with the Presidency of The Leadership Conference of Women Religious in The USA
- LCWR Statement on Meeting with CDF
- Fiedler, Maureen. "Did Pope Francis get enough information on the LCWR mandate?", National catholic Reporter, April 16, 2013
- "Pope Francis to nuns: Don’t be old maids". The Washington Post.
- http://attualita.vatican.va/sala-stampa/bollettino/2013/05/08/news/30952.html[dead link]
- "US nuns won't 'compromise mission'". BBC News. August 10, 2012. Retrieved April 10, 2013.
- Grossman, Cathy Lee. "Pope Francis to keep Vatican reins tight on U.S. nuns", USA Today, April 15, 2013
- Drake, Tim. "Register Radio: New Age Influence at the LCWR Assembly", National Catholic Register, August 17, 2012
- Fabrizio Mastrofini (November 19, 2012). "The Conference of Women Religious (LCWR) has been awarded the prestigious Herbert Haag 2013 prize". Vatican Insider.
- Pace, Eric. "Herbert Haag, 86, Priest Who Challenged Vatican", New York Times, August 30, 2001
- CBS Online - American Nuns Struggle with the Vatican for change - http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4qcCgMvOvLo
- Clooney S.J., Francis X., "Sister Laurie Brink OP and the CDF", America
- Cones, Brian. "Half-truths and innuendo about the Leadership Conference of Women Religious", U.S. Catholic
- Donovan, John. "What Lies Ahead For America's Nuns", NPR, April 10, 2013
- O'Reilly, Molly Wilson. "Moving beyond the Church? The CDF and the LCWR", Commonweal, April 19, 2012
- Piazza, Jo. "The Great Nunquisition: Why the Vatican Is Cracking Down on Sisters", Time, August 31, 2014
- Schroth, Raymond A., "The Battle of the Nuns", America, August 27, 2014