||The examples and perspective in this article deal primarily with North America and do not represent a worldwide view of the subject. (May 2012)|
Leadership studies is a multidisciplinary academic field of study that focuses on leadership in organizational contexts and in human life. Leadership studies has origins in the social sciences (e.g., sociology, anthropology, psychology), in humanities (e.g., history and philosophy), as well as in professional and applied fields of study (e.g., management and education). The field of leadership studies is closely linked to the field of organizational studies.
As an academic area of inquiry, the study of leadership has been of interest to scholars from a wide variety of disciplinary backgrounds. Today, there are numerous academic programs (spanning several academic colleges and departments) related to the study of leadership. Leadership degree programs generally relate to: aspects of leadership, leadership studies, and organizational leadership (although there are a number of leadership-oriented concentrations in other academic areas).
Leadership in higher education 
Leadership has become one of the fastest growing academic fields in higher education At all levels, undergraduate through doctoral, an increasing number of colleges and universities have begun developing not only individual courses, but entire degree programs specifically devoted to the study of leadership.
Even among some of the more established and traditional academic disciplines such as engineering, education, and medicine, specialization and concentration areas have been developed around the study of leadership. Most of these academic programs have been designed to be multidisciplinary in nature—drawing upon theories and applications from related fields such as sociology, psychology, philosophy, and management. Such an approach, Rost (1991) has argued “allows scholars and practitioners to think radically new thoughts about leadership that are not possible from a unidisciplinary approach” (p. 2).
History of leadership as a field of study 
The study of leadership can be dated back to Plato, Sun Tzu and Machiavelli; however, leadership has only become the focus of contemporary academic studies in the last 60 years, and particularly more so in the last two decades. Contemporary leadership scholars and researchers have often been questioned about the nature of their work, and its place within the academy, but much of the confusion surrounding leadership as a field of study may be attributed to a lack of understanding regarding transdisciplinary, inter-, and multi- disciplinary academic fields of study in general.
The discipline (which encompasses a host of sub-fields) is filled with definitions, theories, styles, functions, competencies, and historical examples of successful and diverse leaders. Collectively, the research findings on leadership provide a far more sophisticated and complex view of the phenomenon than most of the simplistic views presented in the popular press.
Some of the earliest studies on leadership include:
- The Ohio State Leadership Studies which began in the 1940s and focused on how leaders could satisfy common group needs. The findings indicated that the two most important dimensions in leadership included: "initiating structure", and "consideration". These characteristics could be either high or low and were independent of one another. The research was based on questionnaires to leaders and subordinates. These questionnaires are known as the Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) and the Supervisor Behavior Description Questionnaire (SBDQ). By 1962, the LBDQ was on version XII.
- The Michigan Leadership Studies which began in the 1950s and indicated that leaders could be classified as either "employee centered," or "job centered." These studies identified three critical characteristics of effective leaders: task oriented behavior, relationship-oriented behavior, and participative leadership.
- McGregors Theory X & Theory Y developed by Douglas McGregor in the 1960s at MIT Sloan School of Management. These theories described employee motivation in the workforce. Both theories begin with the premise that the role of management is to assemble the factors of production, including people, for the economic benefit of the firm. Beyond this point, the two theories of management diverge.
- Blake & Mouton Managerial Grid (1964)-updated in 1991 to the Blake & McCanse Leadership Grid-developed the orientation of "task orientation" and "people orientation" in leader behavior. They developed the leadership grid which focused on concern for results (on the one axis) and concern for people (on the other axis).
In addition to these studies, leadership has been examined from an academic perspective through several theoretical lenses:
- Trait & Behavioral theories of Leadership: Attempt to describe the types of behavior and personality tendencies associated with effective leadership.
- Situational & Contingency theories of Leadership: Incorporate environmental and situational considerations into leader behavior.
- Functional Leadership theory: Suggests that a leader’s primary responsibility is to see that whatever is necessary in relation to group needs is taken care of.
- Self Leadership theory: Although behaviorally oriented, the essence of self leadership theory is that behaviors are directed toward the attainment of super-ordinate goals.
- Transactional & Transformational theories of Leadership: The transactional leader focuses on managerial reward and contingent valuation. The transformational leader focuses on motivation and goal attainment.
The first doctoral program in Leadership Studies was established at the University of San Diego in the School of Leadership and Education Sciences in 1979. The first undergraduate school of Leadership Studies was established at the University of Richmond (The Jepson School) in 1992. The Jepson School of Leadership Studies at the University of Richmond studies leadership as a process that can be taught. The growth of transpersonal psychology means that this field has relevance to Transpersonal business studies.
Research on different types of leadership 
Empirical, meta-analytic, and theoretical studies have been conducted on various types of leadership. Some of the styles of leadership studied include:
Notable leadership scholars 
- Bruce Avolio: Was Clifton Chair in Leadership at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the Director of the Gallup Leadership Institute, and a Senior Research Scientist at the Gallup Organization. Currently the Executive Director of the Center for Leadership and Strategic Thinking at the University of Washington, Michael G. Foster School of Business, Marion B. Ingersoll Professor, and Professor of Management at the University of Washington. Dr. Avolio is also a known pioneer in the use of simulations for leadership and ethics development  such as The High Ground recently released by the Center for the Army Professor and Ethic.
- Bernard Bass: Was a distinguished professor emeritus in the School of Management at Binghamton University (State University of New York) and a member of the Academy of Senior Professionals at Eckerd College in Florida. He was also the founding director of the Center for Leadership Studies at Binghamton and founding editor of The Leadership Quarterly journal.
- Warren Bennis: American scholar, organizational consultant and author, widely regarded as a pioneer of the contemporary field of Leadership Studies. Bennis is University Professor and Distinguished Professor of Business Administration and Founding Chairman of The Leadership Institute at the University of Southern California.
- Jean Lipman-Blumen: Thornton F. Bradshaw Professor of Public Policy and Professor of Organizational Behavior at the Peter F. Drucker and Masatoshi Ito Graduate School of Management Claremont Graduate University. In addition to her professorial roles at Claremont Graduate University, Professor Lipman-Blumen is co-founding director of the Institute for Advanced Studies in Leadership at the Drucker Ito Graduate School of Management. She also is Director of the Achieving Styles Institute, a Pasadena-based leadership and management consulting group.
- Stephen R. Covey: An international respected leadership authority, author of Principle Centered Leadership, Seven Habits of Highly Effective People, and The 8th Habit. Founder and vice chairman of FranklinCovey Company.
- James McGregor Burns: Presidential biographer, authority on leadership studies, Woodrow Wilson Professor (emeritus) of Political Science at Williams College, and scholar at the James McGregor Burns Academy of Leadership at the University of Maryland, College Park. He received a Pulitzer Prize and National Book Award in 1971 for his Roosevelt: Soldier of Freedom 1940–1945.
- Peter Drucker: Writer, management consultant, and self-described “social ecologist.” Widely considered to be the father of “modern management,” his 39 books and countless scholarly and popular articles explored how humans are organized across all sectors of society—in business, government and the nonprofit world.
- Alice Eagly: Social psychologist who has published widely on the psychology of attitudes, especially attitude change and attitude structure. She is equally devoted to the study of gender and social behavior.
- Ronald Heifitz: Co-founder of the Center for Public Leadership and King Hussein bin Talal Lecturer in Public Leadership at Harvard University's John F. Kennedy School of Government.
- Robert J. House: Principal Investigator of the Global Leadership And Organizational Behavior Effectiveness Research Program (GLOBE) from 1993 through 2003. He was appointed the Joseph Frank Bernstein Professor Endowed Chair of Organization Studies at the Wharton School of the University of Pennsylvania in 1988. He has published 130 journal articles. In total, his articles have been reprinted in approximately 50 anthologies of readings in Management and Organizational Behavior
- Jim Kouzes: Co-author with Barry Posner of the award-winning and best selling book, The Leadership Challenge, with over one million copies sold.
- Craig L. Pearce: University of Nebraska – Lincoln. Formerly Professor of Management at the Peter F. Drucker & Masatoshi Ito Graduate School of Management, Claremont Graduate University. He is currently the holder of the Clifton Chair in Leadership at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, the Director of the Institute for Innovative Leadership and the author of Shared Leadership: Reframing the Hows and Whys of Leadership (2003) with Jay A. Conger. His empirical work in the area of Shared Leadership has become the foundation to a new meta theory about how sharing leadership can affect organizational and team outcomes and performance.
- Barry Posner: Dean of the Leavey School of Business as well as a Professor of Leadership at Santa Clara University.
- George Reed: Faculty member in the School of Leadership and Education Sciences at the University of San Diego. Before joining the faculty in 2007 he served for 27 years as a military police officer including six as the Director of Command and Leadership Studies at the U.S. Army War College. Recipient of the American Society for Public Administration Marshall Dimock Award for the best lead article in Public Administration Review, 2007.
- Ronald Riggio: The Henry R. Kravis Professor of Leadership and Organizational Psychology and Director of the Kravis Leadership Institute at Claremont McKenna College.
- Joseph Rost: Was professor emeritus of leadership studies in the School of Leadership and Education Sciences at the University of San Diego. Author of Leadership for the 21st Century.
- Georgia Sorenson: Georgia Sorenson, Ph.D., a pioneer in the field of leadership studies, founded the James MacGregor Burns Academy of Leadership at the University of Maryland in 1980. It was the first academic institution to focus on leadership scholarship and education for emergent leaders, women, minorities, and other underrepresented groups.
- Ralph Stogdill: With the publication of his first article on leadership, "Personal Factors Associated with Leadership: A Survey of the Literature," Ralph Stogdill became a leader in leadership research. This influential and much reprinted 1948 paper marked a turning point in Ralph's career, but more importantly it marked a turning point in the study of leadership.
- Victor Vroom: Business school professor at the Yale School of Management. Vroom's primary research was on the expectancy theory of motivation, which attempts to explain why individuals choose to follow certain courses of action in organizations, particularly in decision-making and leadership. His most well-known books are Work and Motivation, Leadership and Decision Making, and The New Leadership. Vroom has also been a consultant to a number of corporations such as GE and American Express.
- Gary Yukl: Professor of the University of Albany, is leading writer on organizational leadership.
Academic Journals 
- The International Journal of Leadership Studies: Representing the multidisciplinary field of leadership, the IJLS publishes theoretically grounded research that enhances knowledge and understanding of the phenomenon of leadership at all levels within a variety of industries and organizations and seeks contributions that present leadership from different perspectives unique to different cultures, settings, and religions around the world.
- The International Journal of Servant Leadership: The International Journal of Servant-Leadership is published by Gonzaga University in collaboration with the Larry Spears Center for Servant-leadership.
- The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies: The Journal of Leadership and Organizational Studies is the Official Journal of the Midwest Academy of Management. The Journal publishes articles to advance the theory, research and practice of all aspects of leadership and organizations. Research results are preferred, but theoretical contributions and new applications are also appropriate. Although leadership topics are emphasized, any area of interest in organizational behavior, human resource management, strategy, international management, or entrepreneurship is also encouraged.
- Journal of Leadership Studies: The mission of the Journal of Leadership Studies is to publish leadership research and theoretical contributions that bridge the gap between scholarship and practice and that exemplify critical inquiry into contemporary organizational issues and paradigms. The journal promotes interdisciplinary and interorganizational theory, fostering dialogue that transcends industry specific contexts and that explores leadership's role in improving organizational practices and human life. Published material in the journal will include research-based and theoretical papers that explicitly address leadership on various social, cultural, and organizational contexts.
- Leadership: Leadership is an international, peer-reviewed journal designed to provide an ongoing forum for academic researchers to exchange information, insights and knowledge based on both theoretical development and empirical research on leadership. It will publish original, high quality articles that contribute to the advancement of the study of leadership. The journal will be global in orientation and focus.
- The Leadership Quarterly: Is an international journal of political, social and behavioral science published in affiliation with the International Leadership Association (ILA).
- Leadership and Organization Development Journal: The Leadership & Organization Development Journal explores behavioral and managerial issues relating to all aspects of leadership, and of individual and organization development, from a global perspective.
- Journal of Leadership Education: An international, refereed journal that serves scholars and professional practitioners engaged in leadership education.
Associations and organizations 
- Association of Leadership Educators, Inc.
- The Center for Creative Leadership
- Greenleaf Center for Servant Leadership
- Center for Leadership Studies
- Institute of Leadership and Management (ILM)
- International Leadership Association (ILA)
- LeadCap: Building a nation of leaders
- National Clearinghouse for Leadership Programs
- National School of Leadership
Research centers 
- Northern Leadership Center at University of Alaska Fairbanks
- Best Practice Institute
- Center for Civic Leadership at Fort Hays State University
- Center of Excellence in Research at National School of Leadership, India
- Center for Leadership at Florida International University
- Center for Leadership Studies at Binghamton University
- Center for Leadership Studies at the University of Exeter (UK)
- Institute for the Advanced Study of Management at the Drucker School of Management
- The Institute for Innovative Leadership at University of Nebraska-Lincoln
- Institute for Leadership Studies at Dominican University of California
- Judkins Institute for Leadership Studies at Vanguard University
- Kravis Leadership Institute at Claremont Mckenna College
- The Leadership Center Saint Mary's College of California
- Leadership Institute at University of San Diego
- Leadership Institute at University of Southern California
- Leadership Research Institute
Educational materials 
Leadership training courses 
- African Nutrition Leadership Programme, (South Africa).
- Programme de Leadership Africain en Nutrition, (Casablanca, Morocco).
- THNK, the Amsterdam School of Creative Leadership
Research methods in the study of leadership 
Leadership has been studied using quantitative, qualitative, and mixed methods (a combination of quantitative and qualitative) research methodologies. From a quantitative psychology orientation, statistical and mathematical modeling has been used in the development of leadership scales and in testing established leader evaluation tools. Survey methodology has also been widely used in leadership research. As such, traditional methods of analysis in survey research have also extended to the analysis of survey research within the study of leadership (e.g., cross-tabulations, ANOVAs, regression analysis, log-linear analysis, factor analysis, etc.). From a qualitative orientation, leadership research has included a host of research techniques: phenomenology, ethnography, grounded theory, interviews, case studies, historiography, etc.
"Coaches and coaching psychologists are increasingly using the lessons and tools of positive psychology in their practice (Biswas-Diener, 2010)." An example of leadership research done was by P. Alex Linley and Gurpal Minhas researching the strengths that may be found in more effective strengthspotters; the people who are skilled in the identification and development of strengths in others. The study consisted of an online survey used to collect data on the Strengthspotting Scale, together with an assessment of 60 different strengths using the Realise2 model (www.realise2.com). There were 528 respondents to retrieve data from and the results showed that the four strengths connector, enabler, esteem builder and feedback were found across the Strengthspotting Scale. "The strengths of Connector, Enabler and Feedback were significant predictors for each strengthspotting domain, suggesting that these may be the essence of the personal characteristics of an effective strengthspotter" (Linley and Minhas, 2011).
Online searchable directory of leadership education programs 
The International Leadership Association received a grant from the C. Charles Jackson Foundation to create an online searchable directory of leadership education programs. This resource launched in beta version in June 2010.
Academic programs 
The following is a list of doctoral, masters, and undergraduate degree programs related to the study of leadership. With some notable exceptions (particularly in regard to the list of doctoral programs), this list does not include programs related to specific sub-areas of leadership (e.g., educational leadership, health care leadership, environmental leadership). The programs listed primarily focus on leadership, leadership studies, and organizational leadership.
Given that the study of leadership is interdisciplinary, leadership-related degree programs are often situated within various colleges, schools, and departments across different university campuses (e.g., Schools of Education at some universities, Business Schools at other universities, and Graduate and Professional Schools at still other universities). As such, at the doctoral level leadership related degree programs primarily include: Ph.D., Ed.D., and executive doctoral degrees (depending on the situation of the program within the university). At the masters level leadership related degree programs primarily include: Master of Science, Master of Arts, and executive Masters degrees. At the undergraduate level leadership related degree programs primarily include: Bachelor of Science and Bachelor of Arts degrees as well as leadership certificate and minor programs.
See also 
- Brungardt, C. L. (1996). "The making of leaders: A review of the research in leadership development and education". The Journal of Leadership Studies 3 (3): 81–95.
- Brungardt, C. L.; Gould, L. V.; Moore, R.; Potts, J. (1997). "The emergence of leadership studies: Linking the traditional outcomes of liberal education with leadership development". The Journal of Leadership Studies 4 (3): 53–67.
- Rost, J.C. (1991). Leadership for the twenty-first century. New York: Praeger Press.
- Rost, J. C.; Baker, R. A. (2000). "Leadership education in colleges: Toward a 21st century paradigm". The Journal of Leadership Studies 7 (1): 3–12. doi:10.1177/107179190000700102.
- Guide to College Majors in Leadership (n.d.). What is Leadership and Organizational Management? http://www.worldwidelearn.com/online-education-guide/business/leadership-major.htm
- Doh, J. P (2003). "Can leadership be taught? Perspectives from management educators". Academy of Management Learning and Education 2 (1): 54–67. doi:10.5465/AMLE.2003.9324025.
- Daloz Parks, S. (2005). Leadership can be taught: A bold approach for a complex world. Cambridge: Harvard Business School Press.
- The Ohio State University (n.d.). Leader Behavior Description Questionnaire (LBDQ) http://fisher.osu.edu/offices/fiscal/lbdq
- Boje, D. (2000). The Isles Leadership: The Voyage of the Behaviorists. The Leadership Box (Northern Michigan State University) http://business.nmsu.edu/~dboje/teaching/338/behaviors.htm#katz_michigan
- Katz, D., Maccoby, N., and Morse, N. 1950. Productivity, Supervision, and Morale in an Office Situation. Ann Arbor, MI: Institute for Social Research.
- Mind Tools (n.d.) Blake Mouton Managerial Grid: Balancing Task- and People-Oriented Leadership http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newLDR_73.htm
- Lord, R. (1994). Leadership and Information Processing: Linking Perceptions and Performance (People and Organizations) http://www.amazon.com/Leadership-Information-Processing-Perceptions-Organizations/dp/0415099013
- Neck, C. P., & Houghton, J. D. (2006). Two decades of self-leadership theory and research: Past developments, present trends, and future possibilities. Journal of Managerial Psychology http://www.emeraldinsight.com/Insight/viewContentItem.do?contentType=Article&contentId=1554367
- University of San Diego (n.d.). Ph.D. in Leadership Studies. School of Leadership and Education Sciences website http://www.sandiego.edu/soles/programs/leadership_studies/academic_programs/doctoral_program/index.php
- University of San Diego (n. d.). History and Facts. School of Leadership and Education Sciences. http://www.sandiego.edu/soles/about/history_and_facts.php
- University of Richmond (n. d.). Jepson School of Leadership Studies http://admissions.richmond.edu/majors/leadership/index.html
- Avolio, B. (n.d.). University of Nebraska-Lincoln faculty webpage http://www.cba.unl.edu/profiles/968/
- Avolio, B. (n.d.). University of Washington-faculty webpage http://foster.washington.edu/faculty/faculty_detail.asp?ID=260
- University of Nebraska-Lincoln (n. d.). Gallup Leadership Institute http://www.gallup.com/Home.aspx
- University of Washington (n.d.). Center for Leadership and Strategic Thinking http://www.foster.washington.edu/centers/leadership/Pages/leadership.aspx
- Seattle Business Magazine Blog http://seattlebusinessmag.com/blog/uw-business-school-ties-game-maker
- Seattle Business Magazine Article http://www.seattlebusinessmag.com/article/play-time?page=0,5
- The High Ground http://cape.army.mil/highground/The%20High%20Ground.html
- Bernard Bass (books listed on Amazon.com) http://www.amazon.com/s?ie=UTF8&search-type=ss&index=books&field-author=Bernard%20M.%20Bass&page=1
- Academy of Senior Professional organizational website http://www.eckerd.edu/aspec/
- Leadership Quarterly academic journal. Elsevier Publishing http://www.elsevier.com/wps/find/journaldescription.cws_home/620221/description#description
- The Leadership Institute in the Marshall School of Business at the University of Southern California http://www.marshall.usc.edu/mor/leadership-institute.htm
- Lipman-Blumen, J. (n. d.). Claremont Graduate University faculty webpage http://www.cgu.edu/pages/1832.asp
- Institute for Advanced Studies in Leadership website at Claremont Graduate University http://www.cgu.edu/pages/303.asp
- Achieving Styles Institute organizational website http://www.achievingstyles.com/
- James McGregor Burns Academy of Leadership website at the University of Maryland http://www.academy.umd.edu/
- Burns, J. M. (2006). Roosevelt, the Soldier of Freedom: 1940–1945. History Book Club http://www.amazon.com/Roosevelt-Soldier-Freedom-James-MacGregor/dp/1582882606
- Eagly, A. (n. d.). Northwestern University faculty webpage http://www.wcas.northwestern.edu/psych/people/faculty/faculty_individual_pages/eagly.htm
- Robert J. House (books listed on Amazon.com) http://www.amazon.com/s?ie=UTF8&search-type=ss&index=books&field-author=Robert%20J.%20House&page=1
- Global Leadership And Organizational Behavior Effectiveness (GLOBE) Research Program website http://www.thunderbird.edu/wwwfiles/ms/globe/
- Jim Kouzes full biography http://media.wiley.com/assets/986/66/Jim_Bio.pdf
- Posner, B. (n. d.) Santa Clara School of Business faculty webpage http://www.scu.edu/business/about/barry-posner-profile.cfm
- Kouzes, J., & Posner, B. (1996). http://www.leadershipchallenge.com/WileyCDA/
- Reed, G. (n. d.). University of San Diego. School of Leadership and Education Sciences faculty webpage http://www.sandiego.edu/soles/about/bio.php?id=1057
- Riggio, R. (n. d.). Claremont McKenna College faculty webpage http://www.claremontmckenna.edu/academic/faculty/profile.asp?Fac=72
- Kravis Leadership Institute at Claremont McKenna College http://www.claremontmckenna.edu/kli/
- Sorenson, G. (n. d.). University of Maryland faculty webpage http://www.academy.umd.edu/People/facultyStaffindividual.asp?DBID=29
- Ralph Stogdill (books listed on Amazon.com) http://www.amazon.com/s?ie=UTF8&search-type=ss&index=books&field-author=Ralph%20M.%20Stogdill&page=1
- Vroom, V. H. (1964). Work and Motivation. John Wiley & Sons Press http://www.amazon.com/Work-Motivation-Victor-H-Vroom/dp/0471912050
- Vroom, V. H., & Yetton, P. W. (1976). Leadership and Decision Making. Pittsburgh University Press http://www.amazon.com/Leadership-Decision-Making-Pitt-Paperback-110/dp/0822952653
- Yukl, Gary (2006). Leaderhip in Organizations (6th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson, Printice Hall. ISBN 0-13-149484-8.
- McDougle, Lindsey (2008). Leadership in Colleges and Universities. Leadership as a Field of Study Blog http://leadershipasafieldofstudy.blogspot.com/2007/11/leadership-in-colleges-and-universities.html
Further reading 
- Scharmer, C. O. (2009). Theory U: Leading from the Future as It Emerges. Berrett-Koehler Publishers
- Young, M. (2009). 3 Handbook of Research on Leadership Education. Routledge
- Bennis, W. (2009). On Becoming a Leader. Basic Books
- Bass, B, & Bass, R. (2008). The Bass Handbook of Leadership: Theory, Research, and Managerial Applications. Free Press
- Northouse, P. (2006). Leadership: Theory and Practice. Sage Publications
- Parks, S. D. (2005). Leadership Can Be Taught: A Bold Approach for a Complex World. Harvard Business School
- Cooperrider, D., & Whitney, D. (2005). Appreciative Inquiry: A Positive Revolution in Change. Berrett-Koehler Publishers
- Lindebaum D, Cartwright S (2010) A critical examination of the relationship between emotional intelligence and transformational leadership.Journal of Management Studies vol 47 issue 7 pp 1317–1342
- Lindebaum D, Fielden S (2011) “It’s good to be angry”: Enacting anger in construction project management to achieve perceived leader effectiveness. Human Relations vol 64 issue 3 pp 437–458
- Burns, J. M. (2004). Transforming Leadership. Grove Press
- Goethals, G. R., Sorenson, G., & Burns, J. M. (2004). Encyclopedia of Leadership (4 vol. set). Sage Publications
- Schein, E. (2004). Organizational Culture and Leadership. Jossey Bass
- Hiebert, M., & Klatt, B. (2000). The Encyclopedia of Leadership: A Practical Guide to Popular Leadership Theories and Techniques. McGraw Hill
- Center for Creative Leadership (1998). The Center for Creative Leadership Handbook of Leadership Development. Jossey Bass
- Heifitz, R. (1998). Leadership Without Easy Answers. Harvard University Press
- Rost, J. (1993). Leadership for the Twenty-First Century. Praeger
- Bass, B. (1990). Bass & Stogdill's Handbook of Leadership. Free Press
- Burns, J. M. (1982). Leadership. Harper Perennial Modern Classics
- Greenleaf, R. (1977). Servant Leadership: A Journey Into the Nature Of Legitimate Power and Greatness. Paulist Press
- Paige, G. D. (1977). The Scientific Study of Political Leadership. The Free Press