Patient safety organization

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A patient safety organization (PSO) is a group, institution or association that improves medical care by reducing medical errors. In the 1990s, reports in several countries revealed a staggering number of patient injuries and deaths each year due to avoidable adverse health care events. In the United States, the Institute of Medicine report (1999) called for a broad national effort to include the establishment of patient safety centers, expanded reporting of adverse events and development of safety programs in health care organizations.[1] The organizations that developed ranged from governmental to private, and some founded by industry, professional or consumer groups. Common functions of patient safety organizations are data collection and analysis, reporting, education, funding and advocacy.

Contents

Functions[edit]

Patient safety organizations may use several approaches to reducing adverse events:

  1. Collect data on the prevalence and individual details of errors.
  2. Analyze sources of error by root cause analysis.
  3. Propose and disseminate methods for error prevention.
  4. Design and conduct pilot projects to study safety initiatives, including monitoring of results.
  5. Raise awareness and inform the public, health professionals, providers, purchasers and employers.
  6. Conduct fundraising and provide funding for research and safety projects
  7. Advocate for regulatory and legislative changes.

Governmental organizations[edit]

World Health Organization[edit]

World Alliance for Patient Safety[edit]

In response to a 2002 World Health Assembly Resolution, the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the World Alliance for Patient Safety in October 2004. The goal was to develop standards for patient safety and assist UN member states to improve the safety of health care.[2] The Alliance raises awareness and political commitment to improve the safety of care and facilitates the development of patient safety policy and practice in all WHO Member States. Each year, the Alliance delivers a number of programmes covering systemic and technical aspects to improve patient safety around the world.[3]

At the Fifty-Ninth World Health Assembly in May 2006, the Secretariat reported that the Alliance held patient safety meetings in five of the six WHO regions and 40 technical workshops in 18 countries. Since the launch of the Alliance in October 2004, significant progress was achieved in six areas:

  1. The First Global Patient Safety Challenge, which for 2005-2006 (addressing health care-associated infection) developed the WHO Guidelines on Hand Hygiene in Health Care.[4]
  2. A patient involvement group, Patients for Patient Safety, built networks of patients’ organizations from around the world, through regional workshops.
  3. A patient safety taxonomy was developed to classify data on patient safety problems.
  4. Prevalence studies conducted on patient harm in ten developing countries.
  5. A WHO Collaborating Centre was established to develop and disseminate safety solutions.[5]
  6. The WHO Draft Guidelines on Adverse Event Reporting and Learning Systems.[6]

Patients for Patient Safety (PfPS)[edit]

Patients for Patient Safety is part of the World Alliance for Patient Safety lunched in 2004 by the WHO. The project emphasizes the central role patients and consumers can play in efforts to improve the quality and safety of healthcare around the world. PFPS works with a global network of patients, consumers, caregivers, and consumer organizations to support patient involvement in patient safety programmes, both within countries and in the global programmes of the World Alliance for Patient Safety.[7]

Australia and New Zealand[edit]

Therapeutic Goods Administration and Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee[edit]

The Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) is a unit of the Australian Government Department of Health and Ageing. The TGA approves and monitors prescription and non-prescription drugs (including herbal products), medical supplies and devices, and blood and biological products. Risks to users are assessed prior to product introduction, and manufacturers are regularly audited for efficacy, quality and safety. Manufacturers are required to report adverse drug effects to the Adverse Drug Reactions Advisory Committee (ADRAC) of the TGA; reporting by medical professionals and consumers is voluntary. ADRAC notifies medical professionals and the public by recalls and alerts on its website and publications.[8]

In December 2003, the Australian and New Zealand Governments signed an agreement to establish a joint regulatory organization for therapeutic products. The Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Authority (ANZTPA) will replace the Australian Therapeutic Goods Administration (TGA) and the New Zealand Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Authority (Medsafe), and be accountable to the Australian and New Zealand Governments. Implementing legislation is scheduled for introduction into both countries' parliaments in July 2006.[9]

On 16 July 2007, the New Zealand State Services Minister Annette King announced that "The Government is not proceeding at this stage with legislation that would have enabled the establishment of a joint agency with Australia to regulate therapeutic products." She further advised that "The [New Zealand] Government does not have the numbers in Parliament to put in place a sensible, acceptable compromise that would satisfy all parties at this time. The Australian Government has been informed of the situation and agrees that suspending negotiations on the joint authority is a sensible course of action."[10]

Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care[edit]

The Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care (the Commission) was established by the Australian, State and Territory Governments to lead and coordinate national improvements in safety and quality. The Commission replaced the Australian Council for Safety and Quality in Health Care in 2006.

The Commission engages in collaborative work in patient safety and healthcare quality that benefits from national coordination. This includes the development of the Australian Charter of Healthcare Rights and the National Safety and Quality Health Service Standards, improving areas such as patient identification, medication safety, clinical handover and open disclosure, and reducing healthcare associated infection. The Commission has also developed the National Safety and Quality Framework to improve the safety and quality of the Australian health system.

Other key areas of work for the Commission include National Health Service accreditation, recognising and responding to clinical deterioration, patient centred care, safety and quality in mental health and primary care and the development of national safety and quality indicators as part of the information strategies activity.

In its role primarily as a coordination and facilitation body, the Commission utilises evidence and data and the experience, enthusiasm and commitment of consumers, clinicians, managers and other stakeholders to influence the system to make changes for the safety and quality of health care in Australia.[11]

New Zealand Health Quality & Safety Commission[edit]

The New Zealand Health Quality & Safety Commission was established in November 2010 as a Crown Entity under the New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000 to lead and co-ordinate work across the health and disability sector for the purposes of:

  • monitoring and improving the quality and safety of health and disability support services
  • helping providers across the whole sector to improve the quality and safety of services.

The Commission aims to reduce avoidable deaths and harm, reduce wastage, and make the best use of the health dollar. It works towards the New Zealand Triple Aim for quality improvement:

  • improved quality, safety and experience of care
  • improved health and equity for all populations
  • best value for public health system resources.

Commission programmes include medication safety, infection prevention and control, reportable events, consumer engagement and participation, and mortality review committees. More information can be found at www.hqsc.govt.nz

United Kingdom[edit]

National Patient Safety Agency[edit]

The National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) is an NHS special health authority created in July 2001 to improve patient safety within the National Health Service (NHS) by encouraging voluntary reporting of medical errors, conducting analysis and initiating preventative measures. Since 2005, the NPSA has also been responsible for: safety aspects of hospital design, cleanliness and food; safe research practices through the National Research Ethics Service (NRES); and performance of individual doctors and dentists, through the National Clinical Assessment Service (NCAS).[12] The NPSA identifies patient safety deficiencies with the input of clinical experts and patients, develops solutions and monitors results of corrections within the NHS. Initiatives and alerts include hand hygiene, information for doctors and patients on steps to reduce risk of error, vaccine safety and disclosure of error to injured patients. In addition, the National Reporting and Learning System (NRLS) allows NHS employees to provide the NPSA with reports anonymously.

National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence[edit]

The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence is an independent organisation that produces guidance on public health, health technologies and clinical practice in England and Wales. NICE has three centres of excellence. The Centre for Public Health Excellence develops public health guidance, with information for patients on diagnosis and treatment of specific illnesses and conditions. The Centre for Health Technology Evaluation recommends medicines and evaluates the safety and efficacy of procedures within the National Health Service. The Centre for Clinical Practice develops evidence-based clinical guidelines for clinicians on the appropriate treatment of people with specific diseases.[13] NICE and the National Patient Safety Agency (NPSA) cooperate in risk assessment of new technology, monitoring safety incidents associated with procedures, and providing solutions if adverse outcomes are reported. In addition, NICE and NPSA share reporting in areas known as "Confidential Enquiries": maternal or infant deaths, childhood deaths to age 16, deaths in persons with mental illness, and perioperative and unexpected medical deaths.

United States[edit]

On July 29, 2005, the United States Congress established guidelines for Patient Safety Organizations under the Patient Safety Quality Act of 2005.[14] The focus of the legislation is to provide incentives for clinicians to participate in voluntary initiatives to improve the outcomes of patient care, provide information about the underlying causes of errors in the delivery of health care, and to disseminate this information in order to speed the pace of improvement.[15]

Composition[edit]

President Clinton's Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry completed its work on March 12, 1998. Its final report. entitled "Quality First: Better Health Care for All Americans," recommends the following characteristics of a patient safety organization:[16]

  • Be located in an entity that is credible and respected.
  • Be located in an entity that does not have public or private regulatory responsibilities (i.e., it should not be a licensing, accrediting, or compliance entity).
  • Have the ability to collect and analyze data.
  • Have mechanisms for communicating with a variety of health care entities, facilities, providers, and plans.
  • Be linked with initiatives for conducting interdisciplinary research and demonstrations addressing health care quality improvement.

Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality[edit]

In 2001, the US Congress responded to the IOM recommendation to create a National Center for Patient Safety by allocating $50 million annually for patient safety research to the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ), the lead federal agency for health care safety. The AHRQ organizes patient safety activities, provides grants to other organizations, serves as a clearinghouse for safety information, and publishes guidelines for evidence-based or "best practices". By 2006, the National Guideline Clearinghouse (NGC) contained more than 1,700 disease-specific diagnosis, management and treatment recommendations, developed from current medical literature.[17] The goal of the NGC is to provide health professionals and institutions, health plans and health care purchasers an accessible mechanism for obtaining objective clinical practice guidelines. Adoption of guidelines has been slowed by physician and hospital concern that practice guidelines threaten physician autonomy and authority, fuel malpractice liability, and allow managed care insurers to curtail patient care expenditures.[18][19][20]

Under the Secretary of Health and Human Services, the Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality coordinates the Patient Safety Task Force composed of three other agencies with regulatory and data collection responsibilities: the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and its National Electronic Disease Surveillance System, the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) and state Quality improvement organizations, and the Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[21]

The AHRQ, in partnership with data organizations in 37 states, sponsors the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS), a database of the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project (HCUP). The HCUP is a Federal-State-Industry partnership providing all discharge data from 994 hospitals—approximately 8 million hospital stays each year.[22] The Nationwide Inpatient Sample is the largest all-payer inpatient care database in the United States from which national estimates of inpatient care can be derived. Using safety data from the NIS, the AHRQ has been able to provide complication rates and risk data, even for rare surgical procedures, such as bariatric surgery.[23]

In 2005, AHRQ provided links to a compendium of 140 research articles, implementation programs and tools and products used to improve patient safety, sponsored jointly with the Department of Defense (DoD)-Health Affairs.[24]

In 2008, AHRQ launched the AHRQ Health Care Innovations Exchange site that contains profiles of hundreds of patient safety programs that have been implemented in hospitals and other health care settings across the United States. The goal of the site is to document and share these innovations with other organizations that can adapt them in different settings, allowing the adopters to base their quality improvement plans on previously tested methods.[25][26]

Food and Drug Administration[edit]

The Food and Drug Administration is an agency of the United States government that regulates food, drugs, medical devices and biological products for human use. The FDA receives medication error reports on marketed human drugs from direct contacts and manufacturer's reports, and in 1992, began monitoring medication error reports that are forwarded from the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) and the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP).

The effectiveness of the FDA's drug safety monitoring procedures was called into question after several approved drugs were shown to have serious side-effects.[27][28] In September 2006, an Institute of Medicine report commissioned by the FDA found that its drug safety system is limited by inadequate funding, insufficient regulatory authority, and a lack of oversight by experts free of pharmaceutical industry ties.[29]

The FDA launched a new program in 2005 to provide drug risk information directly to the public through internet-accessible drug sheets and bulletins.[30] The enactment of the Food and Drug Administration Amendments Act of 2007 (FDAAA),[31] expanded the authority of the FDA over drug safety monitoring after approval and introduction for use by the public. In 2008, the FDA established a single website for both the public and the healthcare profession with access to drug safety information, including warnings, recalls, and reporting of adverse reactions, using MedWatch.[32]

Independent organizations[edit]

Australia[edit]

Australian Patient Safety Foundation[edit]

The APSF is a non-profit independent organisation founded in 1989 for anaesthesia error monitoring, and expanded to patient incident reporting and monitoring after results from the Quality in Australian Health Care Study (QAHCS) in 1995 prompted reaction from the public.[33] Adverse medical events, both sentinel events (patient death and injury) and near misses (medical errors with potential harm), are reported and analyzed through its subsidiary, Patient Safety International (PSI), using a software tool, the Advanced Incident Management System (AIMS). AIMS is used in over half of Australia's hospitals, and was adopted in 2005 by the New Zealand Accident Compensation Corporation and the University of Miami Medical Group in Florida. Data remains confidential is protected from legal discovery under Australian Commonwealth Quality Assurance legislation. Patient safety information is provided by electronic newsletters.[34]

Canada[edit]

Canadian Patient Safety Institute[edit]

The Canadian Patient Safety Institute (CPSI)(Institut canadien pour la sécurité des patients) was developed in 2003 after consultations among Canadian healthcare professional organizations, provincial and territorial ministries of health and Health Canada.[35] An independent non-profit corporation, the CPSI promotes solutions and collaboration among governments and stakeholders to improve patient safety, and has a five year mandate. Areas of improvement are education, system innovation, communication, regulatory affairs and research. Together with the Institute For Safe Medication Practices Canada and Saskatchewan Health, a Canadian Root Cause Analysis Framework is offered to healthcare organizations to analyze the contributing factors that led to a critical incident or close call.

In April 2005, CPSI launched the Safer Healthcare Now! campaign, aimed at reducing error-related injuries by focusing on six evidence-based measures and through over 200 local organizations, based on the 100,000 lives campaign.[36]

Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada[edit]

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices Canada (ISMP) is an independent national non-profit agency that reviews and analyzes medication incident and near-miss reports.[37] In collaboration with the Canadian Institute for Health Information (CIHI), and Health Canada, ISMP established the Canadian Medication Incident Prevention and Reporting System (CMIRPS) in 2003. ISMP takes the lead role of collecting reports from health practitioners, analysing incidents, and disseminating preventative methods.

Germany[edit]

German Agency for Quality in Medicine[edit]

Based in Berlin, the German Agency for Quality in Medicine is a not-profit organisation, which co-ordinates healthcare quality programmes.[38] In the field of patient safety AQUMED was one of the first German organisations calling for effective patient safety programs.[39] The agency was co-founder of the German Coalition for Patient Safety. AQUMED established a national network of Critical Incident Reporting Systems.[40][41] The institution is partner of the international High 5 Project.

German Coalition for Patient Safety[edit]

The German Coalition for Patient Safety (APS), established in 2005 and located in Bonn is a German non-profit association of organisations and individuals interested and involved in promotion of patient safety. APS' multidisciplinary working groups develop recommendations for patient safety activities in in- and outpatient healthcare institutions. The recommendations are available as open-access documents and distributed in healthcare institutions for free. APS acting together with the German Agency for Quality in Medicine is a Lead Technical Agency of the High 5 Project.

United Kingdom[edit]

The Health Foundation[edit]

Based in London, England, the Health Foundation is an independent charity that aims to improve the quality of health care for the people of the United Kingdom. The Safer Patients Initiative,[42] one of the Foundation’s quality and performance improvement programmes, targets reducing medication-related adverse events and errors, reducing infections associated with intensive care units or surgery and improving organisational culture, leadership and expertise in measuring improvement. The goal of the initiative is a 50 percent reduction in adverse events per 1,000 patient days for each site. In 2004, The Health Foundation selected four hospitals from across the UK to work on a £4.3 million patient safety improvement programme. These four hospitals continue to show measurable improvements in their patient safety performance, and 16 more hospitals are being selected in 2006 to join the second phase.

Lancaster Patient Safety Research Unit[edit]

The Unit was founded in January 2008 and is a collaborative venture between the University Hospitals of Morecambe Bay NHS Trust and Lancaster University. It is funded by the UK National Health Service through the National Institute for Health Research. The unit has two aims. The first is to conduct world-class, high-quality research in patient safety. The second is to make sure that the unit's findings are used in practice, to improve the welfare of people in North Lancashire and South Cumbria and throughout the National Health Service. In June 2010 the Unit's director, Professor Andrew Smith, helped launch The Helsinki Declaration for Patient Safety in Anaesthesiology, a practical manifesto aimed at improving the safety of anaesthesia care throughout Europe. He is now part of a joint European Society of Anaesthesiology/European Board of Anaesthesiology Task Force overseeing the implementation of the Declaration.[43]

United States[edit]

ECRI Institute Patient Safety Organization[edit]

ECRI Institute PSO Website has been officially listed (effective 11/5/08) by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services as a federal Patient Safety Organization under the Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005. ECRI Institute Patient Safety Organization serves nationwide as a PSO directly for providers, hospitals, and health systems as well as provide support services to state and regional PSOs.

Medication Safety Officers Society[edit]

The Medication Safety Officers Society formerly known as The American Society of Medication Safety Officers (ASMSO)[44] is a not-for-profit association established in 2006 with a mission to advance and encourage excellence in the profession of pharmacy by providing leadership, direction, education and communication among its members, to represent pharmacy in organized healthcare settings and promote the advancement of safe medication use.

It was designed for medication safety officers with the goal to provide an open forum of information sharing and collaboration. ASMSO was acquired by the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) in 2013 and renamed the Medication Safety Officers Society (MSOS). Membership in MSOS is currently free to all interested parties who register.

Missouri Center for Patient Safety[edit]

The Missouri Center for Patient Safety (MOCPS)[45] is a private, not-for-profit corporation fostering change throughout Missouri’s health care delivery systems and across the continuum of care. It was established by the Missouri Hospital Association (MHA),[46] the Missouri State Medical Association (MSMA)[47] and Primaris [48] in response to recommendations from the Governor’s Commission for Patient Safety. The Center’s vision is “a health care environment safe for all patients, in all processes, all the time." The Center’s mission is “to be a leader in providing solutions and resources to improve patient safety and the quality of health care delivery by conducting activities in collaboration with health care providers, physicians, purchasers, consumers and government."

Initiatives that are currently the focus of MOCPS include the People, Priorities and Learning Together (PPLT) initiative, which brings together evidence-based practices that have been part of the work of the MOCPS and Missouri Hospital Association. This approach offers options for hospitals to select components of the initiative to fit their own unique needs for quality and safety efforts, providing options to select components of most value to the individual hospital. In addition to opportunities to learn the Comprehensive Unit-based Safety Program (CUSP), TeamSTEPPS™, Just Culture, and other processes to improve teamwork and communication, participants may join clinical collaboratives, including the national CUSP/Stop BSI and CUSP/CAUTI projects focused on prevention of blood stream infections and catheter-associated blood stream infections. Additional initiatives include the Hand Hygiene Project, Prevention of Injury from Falls, and Hospital and Medical Offices Surveys on Patient Safety.

National Quality Forum[edit]

The National Quality Forum(NQF)[49]</ is a not-for-profit membership organization created in 1999 to develop and implement a national strategy for health care quality measurement and reporting. Membership is open to national, state, regional, and local groups representing consumers, public and private purchasers, employers, health care professionals, provider organizations, health plans, accrediting bodies, labor unions, supporting industries, and organizations involved in health care research or quality improvement. The NQF has focused on several areas: error rates, unnecessary procedures and undertreatment, especially preventive care. Policies are formed through one of four Member Councils: the Consumer Council, Purchaser Council, Provider and Health Plan Council, and Research and Quality Improvement Council.

In 2002, the National Quality Forum defined 27 events that should never occur within a health care facility.[50] In 2003, the National Quality Forum (NQF) endorsed a set of 30 Safe Practices that should be universally utilized in applicable clinical care settings to reduce the risk of harm to patients. There are six types of "never events" (officially called Serious Reportable Events): surgical events (e.g., surgery being performed on the wrong patient), product or device events (e.g., using contaminated drugs), patient protection events (e.g., an infant discharged to the wrong person), care management events (e.g., a medication error), environmental events (e.g., electric shock or burn), and criminal events (e.g., sexual assault of a patient). The NQF’s report recommends a national state-based event reporting system to improve the quality of patient care. As of 2006, a little more than half of U.S. states have some version of a reporting system for Serious Reportable Events. NQF has now formally launched the Consensus Standards Maintenance Committee on Serious Reportable Events to review the list and recommend additions or changes for Members to consider so that the set remains current and appropriate. The organization has many ongoing projects including National Voluntary Consensus Standards for the Reporting of Healthcare-Associated Infections(HAIs) and developing a national consensus on symptom management and end-of-life care in cancer patients.

On January 9, 2013, the U.S. Department of Justice[51] and 49 U.S States and the District of Columbia[52] reached an out-of-court settlement with CareFusion, a medical products company, for USD 40million in a whistleblower suit that alleged that the company had paid Charles Denham over USD 11 mllion to influence medical standards settings in favor of the company while he was involved with NQF. In a press release,[53] NQF distanced itself from Dr. Denham and his foundation TMIT[54] while stating "reference to [the CareFusion product] was removed from the draft Safe Practices report after an NQF ad hoc review did not find sufficient evidence to support one skin preparation over another."

Leapfrog[edit]

Staggered by increasing health insurance costs, several large US companies met in 1998 to influence quality and affordability. The resulting Leapfrog Group agreed to base their purchase of health care on principles that "encourage provider quality improvement and consumer involvement".[55] The group was officially launched in November 2000 with the initial focus provided by the 1999 Institute of Medicine report – reducing preventable medical mistakes (the report recommended that large employers leverage their purchasing power for the quality and safety of health care). The "leapfrog" concept involved large advances stimulated by rewarding hospitals that implement significant improvements (the Leapfrog Hospital Rewards Program[56]). The quality practices mandated are computer physician order entry CPOE, evidence-based hospital referral, intensive care unit (ICU) staffing by physicians experienced in critical care medicine, and a "Leapfrog Safe Practices Score", based on the National Quality Forum endorsed Safe Practices.[57] Additional initiatives now include public reporting of health care quality and outcomes (hospital quality ratings) to influence consumers' choices.[58] Leapfrog now includes more than 170 large private and public healthcare purchasers providing health benefits to more than 37 million employees and retirees,[59] funded by the Business Roundtable, the Robert Wood Johnson Foundation and Leapfrog members.

Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations[edit]

Founded in 1951, the Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations (JCAHO) is an independent, not-for-profit organization that evaluates and accredits nearly 15,000 health care organizations and programs in the United States. An organization must undergo an on-site survey by a Joint Commission survey team at least every three years. The scope of reviews by JCAHO is broad, including hospitals, home care agencies, medical equipment providers, nursing homes, rehabilitation facilities, surgical centers and medical laboratories. Passing a survey is crucial for most organizations, since accreditation by JCAHO is required for participation in Medicare and some state and private health care programs. Since the accreditation rate is over 90%, there have been questions raised regarding the effectiveness of these surveys.[60]

In 1997, JCAHO began including outcomes and other performance data into the accreditation process (the "ORYX initiative"). Information gained allowed the Joint Commission to develop National Patient Safety Goals to promote specific improvements in patient safety.[61] The Goals highlight problem areas in health care and describe evidence-based solutions. Examples include prevention of falls, patient identification, reducing hospital infections and pressure ulcers, and improving hospital staff communication. In addition, the Joint Commission created a "do not use" list of abbreviations[62] in 2004 to avoid acronyms and symbols that lead to misinterpretation.

Identifying sentinel events and analyzing the root causes has been a focus of JCAHO since 1996; the first eight alerts were published in 1998. The Commission defines a sentinel event as "any unexpected occurrence involving death or serious physical or psychological injury, or the risk thereof."[63] The health care facility experiencing the sentinel event is expected to complete a thorough root cause analysis, make improvements to the underlying processes, and monitor the effectiveness of the changes. Although the cause of most sentinel events is human error, changes in organizational systems will reduce the likelihood of human error in the future and protect patients from harm when human error does occur. Specific causes of sentinel events and the solutions that hospitals then used successfully to reduce risks are publicized by JCAHO annually. Alerts have included issues as varied as wrong site surgery, restraint deaths, transfusion and medication errors and patient abductions.

In 2005, JCAHO established an International Center for Patient Safety to collaborate with international patient safety organizations to identify, develop and share safety solutions, conduct joint research, and advocate public policy changes. Educational materials to help patients prevent medical errors, sentinel event alerts and other resources are provide on the internet.[64]

Pittsburgh Regional Health Initiative[edit]

The Pittsburgh Regional Health Initiative, or PRHI, is an independent catalyst for improving healthcare safety and quality in Southwestern Pennsylvania. It operates on the premise that dramatic quality improvement is the best cost-containment strategy for health care. PRHI was the first regional consortium of medical, business and civic leaders to address healthcare safety and quality improvement as a social and business imperative. Turning its own community into a demonstration lab, PRHI strives to accelerate improvement and set the pace for the nation. Its experiment reflects three principles:

  1. Health care is local. Federal policy changes alone cannot achieve needed reform.
  2. Those who work at the point of care develop quality and safety improvements that work and last.
  3. Continuous improvement in quality and safety requires the highest possible standard, namely perfection. To settle for less limits achievement.

PRHI offers clinicians and other healthcare professionals necessary tools, expertise, education, models and networks to perfect patient care and safety in their organizations. Using the Toyota Production System and Alcoa Business System as models, PRHI developed a quality improvement method for clinical settings known as Perfecting Patient Care. PRHI teaches this method through a five-day curriculum called Perfecting Patient Care University, as well as in advanced and individualized courses and on-site coaching. PRHI reports that thousands across the nation have already learned how to use Perfecting Patient Care principles and are demonstrating the value of quality engineering in any healthcare setting—from neighborhood clinics, to hospitals and nursing homes. PRHI, cofounded by Paul O’Neill and Karen Wolk Feinstein, is a nonprofit operating arm of the Jewish Healthcare Foundation. It is funded by local corporations, foundations, health plans and government contracts and grants.[65]

Institute for Healthcare Improvement[edit]

The Institute for Healthcare Improvement (IHI) is an independent not-for-profit organization helping to lead the improvement of health care throughout the world.[66] Founded in 1991 and based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, IHI works to accelerate improvement by building the will for change, cultivating promising concepts for improving patient care, and helping health care systems put those ideas into action.

Employing a staff of approximately 100 people and maintaining partnerships with hundreds of faculty members, IHI offers comprehensive programs that aim to improve the lives of patients, the health of communities, and the joy of the health care workforce.

National Patient Safety Foundation[edit]

The National Patient Safety Foundation is a not-for-profit organization founded in 1996 by the American Medical Association, CNA HealthPro, and 3M, with significant support from the Schering-Plough Corporation.[67] Based on the model of the Anesthesia Patient Safety Foundation, the NPSF provides leadership training, research support, and education. Since 1998, an Annual Patient Safety Congress has been held to promote patient safety and medical error research in the United States. The Foundation publishes the Journal of Patient Safety, containing original papers and reviews, and provides a searchable database on its website of active research projects.

United States Pharmacopeia[edit]

The United States Pharmacopeia (USP) sets official standards for all prescription and over-the-counter medicines, dietary supplements, and other healthcare products manufactured and sold in the United States, but USP standards are also recognized and used in more than 130 other countries. USP operates two programs to promote patient safety.[68] The Medication Errors Reporting Program enables healthcare professionals to report medication errors directly to USP. MEDMARX, an internet-based error and drug reaction reporting program, is designed for use in hospitals. The USP analyzes the data it receives through its reporting programs, develops professional education programs and disseminates alerts related to medication errors.[69] The MEDMARX report released in 2007 analyzed 11,000 medication errors during surgery in 500 hospitals between 1998 and 2005. The analysis showed that medication errors that happen in the operating room or recovery areas are three times more likely to harm a patient than errors occurring in other types of hospital care. As of 2007, this was the largest known analysis of medical errors related to surgery.[70]

Institute for Safe Medication Practices[edit]

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP), based in suburban Philadelphia, is the only nonprofit organization in the US devoted entirely to medication error prevention and safe medication use.[71] Its medication error prevention efforts began in 1975 with a column in Hospital Pharmacy to inform healthcare professionals and others about medication error prevention. ISMP operates a voluntary practitioner error-reporting program to tabulate errors nationally, understand their causes, and share “lessons learned” with the healthcare community, known as the Medication Errors Reporting Program (MERP), operated by the United States Pharmacopeia (USP) in cooperation with ISMP. In addition, ISMP’s corporate subsidiary, Med-E.R.R.S. (Medical Error Recognition and Revision Strategies), works directly and confidentially with the pharmaceutical industry to prevent errors that stem from confusing or misleading naming, labeling, packaging, and device design. The ISMP list of error-prone abbreviations is distributed nationally.[72]

Safe Care Campaign[edit]

The Safe Care Campaign is a not-for-profit corporation created to help eradicate hospital acquired infections. Its goal is to instigate a national change in ideology and practices within the health care environment in regard to hand hygiene, by emphasizing well-established methods proven to result in safer patient care.[73]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Institute of Medicine (1999). "To Err Is Human: Building a Safer Health System (1999)". The National Academies Press. Retrieved 2006-06-20. [dead link]
  2. ^ World Health Organization: Patient Safety, retrieved July 15, 2006
  3. ^ http://www.who.int/patientsafety/en/
  4. ^ WHO guidelines on hand hygiene in health care : first global patient safety challenge : clean care is safer care.. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization, Patient Safety. 2009. ISBN 978-92-4-159790-6. Retrieved 30 July 2011. 
  5. ^ World Health Organization: Patient Safety Information Centre, retrieved July 15, 2006
  6. ^ World Health Organization: Draft Guidelines for Adverse Event Reporting and Learning Systems PDF (1.14 MB) (2005), retrieved July 15, 2006
  7. ^ http://www.who.int/patientsafety/patients_for_patient/en/
  8. ^ Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia): Drug recall and alerts
  9. ^ Australia New Zealand Therapeutic Products Authority: Introduction to the project
  10. ^ NZ Government Media Release: Therapeutics Products and Medicines Bill on hold
  11. ^ Australian Commission on Safety and Quality in Health Care: Home page
  12. ^ National Health Service: National Patient Safety Agency
  13. ^ The National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence (NICE) Providing national guidance on promoting good health
  14. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: The Patient Safety and Quality Improvement Act of 2005 (June 2006): Overview. Accessed 2008-04-08
  15. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: PSO Overview (February 2008): Highlights of the Notice of Proposed Rule-making Accessed 2008-06-08
  16. ^ Advisory Commission on Consumer Protection and Quality in the Health Care Industry: Quality First: Better Health Care for All Americans (March 12, 1998), Retrieved on July 11, 2006.
  17. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: The National Guideline Clearinghouse
  18. ^ American College of Surgeons Bulletin: Practice guidelines and liability implications
  19. ^ Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use (Institute of Medicine, 1992) Concerns about Tort Liability page 116
  20. ^ Guidelines for Clinical Practice: From Development to Use (Institute of Medicine, 1992) Medical Review Criteria and Managing Benefit Costs page 115
  21. ^ Tommy G. Thompson, Secretary, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services: Reducing Medical Errors and Improving Patient Safety (Testimony before the House Subcommittee on Health, Committee on Ways and Means (September 10, 2002)
  22. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Overview of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample (NIS) Retrieved July 24, 2006
  23. ^ Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality: Obesity Surgery Complication Rates Higher Over Time. Press Release, July 24, 2006. Retrieved July 24, 2006
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  61. ^ JCAHO National Patient Safety Goals
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  71. ^ Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) website Retrieved 12 August 2006
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