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A driver's permit, learner's permit, learner's license or provisional license, is a restricted license that is given to a person who is learning to drive, but has not yet satisfied the requirements to obtain a driver's license. Having a driver's permit for a certain length of time is usually one of the requirements (along with driver's education and a road test) for applying for a full driver's license. To get a learner's permit, one must typically pass a written permit test about rules of the road, although the process varies between jurisdictions.
Learner's permit by country
Laws regarding learner's permits in Australia differ between states. However, all states require a number of hours supervised driving to be undertaken and for the permit to be held for a set period. The age to get a Learner Permit is 16 in all states and territories except the ACT where it is 15 and 9 months. When on your learners permit you have to log 75–120 hours depending on the state you are in. Learners permit must obtain at least 15 night hours. You can be supervised or taught in your log book hours by any person/persons holding a full license. They must sign the log book for allocated hours.
A provisionally learners license can be obtained after passing a theoretical exam less than three years earlier. The minimum age for a learners permit is 18 years. The learner needs to be accompanied by a designated person with a valid driving license. The vehicle needs to bear a clearly visible predesigned sign with the letter "L".
In Canada, the minimum age varies from province to province and may be 14 or 16. In Ontario, a G1 License is issued to new drivers at the age of 16 after completing a written test. G1 license restrictions include:
- have time or road restrictions, and the learner must drive with a fully licensed driver of at least 4 years. After one year with a G2, the learner may upgrade to their full G class license by taking another road test, which has a major highway component. A similar program is in effect for motorcycles, the M class license.
In Nova Scotia, a beginner's permit (L) is issued to new drivers after the age of 16 after a written test. The L license restrictions include:
- A fully licensed driver must sit in the seat adjacent the new driver
- There can not be additional other passengers
- The learner must have a blood alcohol count of 0
- No time or road restrictions
In Hong Kong any person aged 18 or above can apply for a Learner's Driving License for private cars, light goods vehicle and motorcycles. For other types of vehicle the age required is 21 and the applicant must have a valid private car or light goods vehicle driving license for 3 years. Unlike other jurisdictions, a learner must be supervised by an approved driving instructor instead of an ordinary fully licensed driver, or attending an approved driving school to learn to drive (except motorcycles, which learners can drive on their own, but motorcycle learners must pass a motorcycle course from an approved driving school before they can learn to drive on road). L-plate is also required when the learner is practicing.
In Jamaica, any person 17 years or over may apply for a Provisional (Learners) License.
In New Zealand any person 16 years or over can sit a learner's licensing test, which is a theory multiple choice test on road rules. Once they have passed this, they may drive with an adult who has had their full license for at least two years. They must display L plates at all times when driving. You may drive up to the speed of 100 km/h in allowed areas .You may carry passengers with an adult in the car that has had their full licence for more than two years. After at least 6 months have passed, they take a road test in order to receive their restricted license. On a restricted license, the learner may only drive between 5am and 10pm, with no passengers other than their dependent children, spouse, or persons holding a full license for more than 2 years. If you are a learner, you may only drive between 5am and 10pm. Learners who sit the practical test in an automatic car are only legally allowed to drive an automatic while restricted. People can also sit a full license road test after 18 months or a year if they have undertaken a defensive driving course. In March 2010 the New Zealand Government announced changes to licence regulations which included raising the minimum age for a learner's licence to 16, since September 2011 the minimum age to attempt to obtain a learners licence is the age of 16.
In Norway, any person 16 or above can attend a 17-hour Basic Course on Traffic and receive a permit which allows the person to start driving at the age of 16. No test is required; the learner will earn the permit as long as she/he be present during the whole course. The requirements include an L plate on the back of the car and an additional rearview mirror for the compulsory passenger who must be over the age of 25 and have had the license for at least five consecutive years.
In South Africa, any person who is of the minimum required age and holds a valid ID document may sit a learner's licence exam. The minimum required age varies by vehicle class and has the following minimum age restrictions:
- for a motorcycle (without a sidecar) with an engine not exceeding 125 cc – 16 years
- for light motor vehicles with a mass not exceeding 3 500 kilograms – 17 years
- for all other vehicles (also motorcycles with an engine exceeding 125 cc) – 18 years
The Learner's Licence exam is a 68 question multiple choice exam with questions spread over three sections: Rules of the road (30 questions); Signs, signals and road markings (30 questions), and vehicle controls (8 questions).  If you hold a learner’s licence you are allowed to drive only when you are supervised by a licensed driver. If the category of vehicle you are driving requires a professional driving permit, the licensed driver must also hold a professional driving permit.South African Learners must carry their Learner's Licence with them whenever they are driving a vehicle and have L plates on the rear window. The Learner's Licence is valid for 24 months.
In Sweden, the minimum age is 16 to get a basic car learner's permit; 17 years and six months are required for more advanced light vehicle combinations and up to 23 years for heavy vehicle combinations. Körkortslag 4kap 2§
In the United Kingdom, the minimum age at which a provisional licence is valid is 17 (16 for driving a tractor, riding a scooter, or those receiving Disability Mobility Allowance). When driving under a provisional license, the learner must be accompanied by a driver holding a full driving license for three years, and who is 21 or over. The supervisor has to be in view of the road, however the road safety act 1988 states that the supervisor does not have to be in the passenger seat, although the passenger in the front seat DOES have to be over the ages of 15. A full licence can be acquired as soon as the provisional license is received, unlike many other countries where applicants must wait a minimum of 6–12 months with this being said, before getting a full license. The provisional license is available without taking a test, although to get a full, unrestricted license - the applicant must take a written 'Theory' test Containing a 50 Multiple Choice Questions and 14 Clip Hazard Perception Test both of which are done on a computer at one of the many DSA (Driving Standards Agency) Test centers, for Car learner drivers both of the tests will be done on the same day., followed by an intensive physical driving test.
The vehicle being driven by the learner must also be fitted with L-plates on both the back and front of the vehicle. This tells other road users that the vehicle is being operated by a driver without their full license and that they may make mistakes easily and that the driver may not be fully competent yet. The L-plate consists of a white square plate (often tied to the vehicle or attached by magnets) with a large red L in the middle. In Wales the L-plate or the D-plate may be used due to bilingual laws in effect in Wales. When the learner has passed, they can get a non-compulsory 'P' plate, which shows that they have just passed their test, and so may not have much experience on the road. The P plate has a white background, with a green 'P'.
In Northern Ireland for one year after the passing of a driving test, the driver is defined as a "restricted driver" who must not exceed 45 mph (72 km/h) and must display an "R-plate" consisting of an amber sans-serif R on a white background.
Once you have passed both tests you are on a probationary period, if you get 6 or more points within 2 years of passing your test, your licence will be withdrawn and you will need to retake your theory and practical driving tests again. After 2 years the limit on the amount of points you can build up on your licence will double to 12.
In the United States, the minimum age at which a person can receive a learner's permit varies by state, ranging 15 to 18. Drivers may also count drives to and from school or work in their driving log without a supervising driver having been in the car with them. Holders of a permit are (15-21) restricted from driving during a certain period of time (usually around midnight to dawn).
In order for a minor to get a learner's permit, they must have signed permission from a parent or guardian. After six months of driving supervised with a permit, and reaching the requisite age, a person can apply for a license. Obtaining a license allows certain restrictions to be lifted from the driver, such as the times that they are allowed to drive, and the number of people allowed in the car. In some states, permit holders are allowed to drive to and from school or work with a permit, without a supervising driver.
A written knowledge permit test is required in many states. A permit is obtained by showing proof of age and identity and proof of enrollment in a driver's education class.
In some states, but not all, an adult learner need only have the driver's permit for a few days before being able to get a driver's license. If the adult learner is over the age of 21, he/she may take the written test and pass for a permit, then is granted to take the driving test for a license on the same day if all fees are paid, and if it is convenient for both the DMV and the adult learner. In the state of Colorado, an adult learner over the age of 21 can take both tests on the same day, so long as the driving test is scheduled by appointment and the learner has passed and paid in full the written exam/permit first.
Driving ages, for permits, probationary licenses, and basic licenses vary greatly by state. Once a permit is obtained, the licensee may be allowed to drive to and from school or work in some states: California, Arizona, Texas, Oklahoma, Florida, Nevada, Washington, Michigan, New York (Excludes NYC) North Carolina and South Carolina.
To obtain a restricted license, the driver must be the minimum age for testing and have had his or her permit for the required duration. A computerized knowledge test is first required. After that is passed, a 6 hrs drive test is given over a two-day period. It consists of driving around a residential neighborhood. There are no hazard tests. If you fail the test, you must usually wait a week or two to retake it.
In Puerto Rico the minimum age for getting a learner's permit is 14 with a parent's or guardian's permission.
- "About your licence". New Zealand Transport Agency. 30 September 2011. Retrieved 14 October 2011.
- John Hartevelt, Hank Schouten and NZPA (2 March 2010). "Government to raise driving age". Stuff.co.nz. Retrieved 14 October 2011.