Lebanese diaspora

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Lebanese
Total population
From 18[1] to 26 million[2]
Languages
Brazilian Portuguese, Spanish, French, English, Lebanese Arabic, Armenian
Religion
85% Christianity, mainly Maronite, as well as Greek Orthodox, Melkite, Roman Catholic, Protestant, and non-native to Lebanon like Armenian Orthodox, Armenian Catholic, Syriac Orthodox, Syriac Catholic.
10% Muslim, mainly Shia, Sunni, Alawite
1-5% Lebanese Jews and Druze

Lebanese diaspora refers to Lebanese migrants and their descendants who, whether by choice or coercion, emigrated from Lebanon and now reside in other countries. There are more Lebanese living outside of Lebanon (18-26 million), than within (4.8 million). The majority of the diaspora population consists of Lebanese Christians; however, there are some who are Muslim. They trace their origin to several waves of Christian emigration, starting with the exodus that followed the 1860 Druze–Maronite conflict in Ottoman Syria.

Under the current Lebanese nationality law, diaspora Lebanese do not have an automatic right of return to Lebanon. Due to varying degrees of assimilation and high degree of interethnic marriages, most diaspora Lebanese have not passed on the Arabic language to their children, while still maintaining a Lebanese ethnic identity.

Although there are no reliable figures, the diaspora is estimated to be around 18 to 26 million people, far more than the internal population of Lebanon of 4.8 million.[2] According to other estimates the number of Lebanese living outside the country is thought to at least Triple the number of citizens living inside, which means at least 18 million people.[3] Of the diaspora, only 1.2 million are Lebanese citizens.[4]

History[edit]

The Lebanese diaspora, while historically trade-related, has more recently been linked to the Lebanese Civil War, with many Lebanese emigrating to Western countries. Because of the economic opportunities, many Lebanese have also worked in the Arab World, most notably the Gulf countries like Saudi Arabia and Kuwait. Currently around 52% of Lebanese citizens resident in Lebanon are Muslim and around 44% are Christian.[5]

The Americas have long been a destination for Lebanese migration, with Lebanese arriving in some countries at least as early as the nineteenth century. The largest concentration of Lebanese outside the Middle East is in Brazil, which has reportedly almost 10 million Brazilians of Lebanese ancestry, making Brazil's population of Lebanese nearly twice that of the entire population of Lebanon. There are also other large Lebanese communities in Latin American countries, namely Argentina, Mexico, Colombia, Ecuador, Venezuela, and Dominican Republic. Many Lebanese have also been settled for quite some time in the United States, Canada, Australia and in the European Union member states. There are also sizable populations in francophone West Africa, particularly Ivory Coast.

Lebanese abroad are not presently permitted the right to vote in Lebanese elections. A law passed in late 2008 gives expatriates the right to vote in elections in 2013.[6]

Economic impacts[edit]

Lebanese abroad are considered "rich, educated and influential"[7] and over the course of time emigration has yielded Lebanese "commercial networks" throughout the world.[8] As a result, remittances from Lebanese abroad to family members within the country were estimated at $7.5 billion in 2010 and accounted for 18% of the country's economy.[9]

Lebanese populations in the diaspora[edit]

There are no reliable statistics about the actual number of people of Lebanese descent. The list below contains approximate figures for people of Lebanese descent by country of residence, largely taken from the iLoubnan diaspora map.[10] Additional reliable cites have been provided where possible. Additional estimates have been included where they can be cited; where applicable, these are used in place of the iLoubnan figures.

Country Estimate Upper Estimate Region Country article in English Wikipedia List of personalities of Lebanese origin
 Brazil 7,000,000[10] 11,000,000[11] Latin America Lebanese Brazilian Brazil
 Argentina 2,500,000[10][12] 4,000,000[12] Latin America Lebanese Argentine Argentina
 United States 1,500,000[13][note 1] 3,300,000 [14][note 2] North America Lebanese American USA
 Venezuela 800,000[10] 1,300,000 Latin America Lebanese Venezuelan Venezuela
 Australia 371,000[15][16] 550,000[17] Oceania Lebanese Australian Australia
 Mexico 900,000[10] 1,100,000[18] Latin America Lebanese Mexican Mexico
 Canada 344,000[19] 570,000[10][20] North America Lebanese Canadians Canada
 Colombia 425,000[10] 1,200,000[21] Latin America Lebanese Colombian Colombia
 Saudi Arabia 120,000[10] Middle East
 France 250,000[22][23] 500,000[10] European Union Lebanese French France
 Ecuador 100,000[10] Latin America Lebanese Ecuadorian Ecuador
 United Arab Emirates 100,000[24] Middle East Lebanese people in the United Arab Emirates United Arab Emirates
 Uruguay 60,000[10] 100,000[25] Latin America Lebanese Uruguayan Uruguay
 Germany 50,000[26] 100,000 European Union Lebanese German Germany
 Ivory Coast 50,000[27] 150,000[28] Sub-saharan Africa
 New Zealand 45,300[10] Oceania
 Kuwait 50,000[10] 110,000[29] Middle East
 Senegal 80,000[30][31] Sub-Saharan Africa Lebanese Senegalese
 South Africa 50,000[32] Sub-Saharan Africa South Africa
 Spain 11,820[10] 67,800[33] European Union Lebanese Spanish Spain
Caribbean[note 3] 600,000[10] Latin America Lebanese Jamaican Caribbean  · Cuba  · Haiti  · Jamaica
Rest of Latin America, ex. Caribbean[note 4] 500,000[10] Latin America Lebanese Chileans  · Lebanese Surinamese Chile  · Guatemala  · Dutch Antilles
Scandinavia 108,220[10] European Union Lebanese Swedish Sweden  · Denmark
Rest of GCC[note 5] 150,000[10] Middle East
Rest of European Union[note 6] 100,000[10] European Union Lebanese British  · Lebanese Bulgarian** · Lebanese Greek Bulgaria  · Cyprus  · Germany  · Italy  · Monaco  · Netherlands  · Switzerland  · UK
Rest of Sub-Saharan Africa[note 7] 200,000[10] Sub-Saharan Africa Lebanese Sierra Leonean Ghana  · Sierra Leone
North Africa[note 8] 150,000[10] North Africa Lebanese Egyptian Egypt
Asia[note 9] 50,000[10] Asia

Note: An important percentage of Arabs in Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Bulgaria, Romania, Italy, Portugal and Spain are of Lebanese ancestry. They are denoted ** for this purpose.

Notable persons of Lebanese descent[edit]

Prominent Lebanese Figures
وجوه من لبنان

StJhonMaron.jpg Charbel.jpg Estephane-Douaihi.jpg Peter Hoayek.JPG
Camille chamoun.jpg Fairuz in btd concert 2001.jpg Khalil Gibran.jpg


Carlos Slim Helú.jpg Sabah - Al Mawed.jpg Carlos Ghosn - India Economic Summit 2009.jpg Elie Saab in Beirut 2005.jpg
CharlesElachi.jpg John Abizaid.jpg Elissar Zakaria Khoury.jpg
Donna Shalala - Knight Foundation.jpg Ray LaHood official DOT portrait.jpg Michel Temer.jpg Naderspeak.JPG Miss USA 2010 Rima Fakih.jpg Cardinal Nasrallah Peter Sfeir.jpg Béchara-Raï.jpg

Kirchner&Sleiman.png

Famous scientists of Lebanese descent include: Peter Medawar (Nobel Prize in Physiology and Medicine), Elias Corey (Nobel Prize in Chemistry), Michael Atiyah (Fields Medalist, Mathematics).

Prominent members of the Lebanese diaspora include Presidents and Vice-Presidents, e.g. Julio Teodoro Salem, Abdalá Bucaram, Alberto Dahik, Jamil Mahuad (all in Ecuador), Jacobo Majluta Azar (Dominican Republic), Julio Cesar Turbay (Colombia) and Alberto Abdala (Uruguay). Other famous politicians include Philip Habib US Politician and Peace Envoy, George J. Mitchell US Politician and Peace Envoy, Ralph Nader, 2004 and 2008 US presidential candidate, Edward Seaga Prime Minister of Jamaica.

Very famous businessmen of Lebanese descent include Carlos Slim Helú, Carlos Ghosn and Nicolas Hayek and famous names in entertainment like Danny Thomas, Salma Hayek, Shakira, Tony Shalhoub, Paul Anka, Mika and sportsmen like Mário Zagallo and Rony Seikaly.

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

  • The Lebanese Demographic Reality Lebanese Information Center, reviewed by Statistics Lebanon. 14 January 2013.
  • KUSUMO, Fitra Ismu, "ISLAM EN AMERICA LATINA Tomo I: La expansión del Islam y su llegada a América Latina (Spanish Edition)"[1]
  • KUSUMO, Fitra Ismu, "ISLAM EN AMÉRICA LATINA Tomo II: Migración Árabe a América Latina y el caso de México (Spanish Edition)" [2]
  • KUSUMO, Fitra Ismu, "ISLAM EN AMÉRICA LATINA Tomo III: El Islam hoy desde América Latina (Spanish Edition)"[3]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ 26% of 1.9m Americans of Arab descent
  2. ^ 26% of 3,665,789 Americans of Arab descent
  3. ^ Includes Cuba, Guadalupe & Haiti
  4. ^ Belize, Bolivia, Chile, Costa Rica, El Salvador, Guatemala, Honduras, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru
  5. ^ Excludes Saudi Arabia & Kuwait, includes Iraq & Jordan
  6. ^ Belgium, Cyprus, Germany, Greece, Italy, Monaco, Switzerland, United Kingdom
  7. ^ Burkina Faso, Gambia, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria & Sierra Leone
  8. ^ Egypt, Libya & rest of North Africa
  9. ^ Iran & Philippines

References[edit]

  1. ^ Bassil promises to ease citizenship for expatriates
  2. ^ a b "Country Profile: Lebanon". FCO. 3 April 2007. 
  3. ^ Bassil promises to ease citizenship for expatriates
  4. ^ "Petition for expatriate voting officially launched". The Daily Star. 14 July 2012. 
  5. ^ "Study shows stable Christian population in Lebanon". The Daily Star. 7 February 2013. 
  6. ^ "Lebanon approves new election law". BBC News. 30 September 2008. 
  7. ^ "The invisible occupation of Lebanon". The Christian Science Monitor. 18 May 2005. 
  8. ^ "Background Note: Lebanon". US Department of State. 1 December 2011. 
  9. ^ "IMF lowers Lebanon growth forecast to sluggish 2 percent". The Daily Star. 22 April 2013. 
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v "Geographical Distribution of the Lebanese Diaspora". The Identity Chef. 
  11. ^ "Sleiman meets Brazilian counterpart, Lebanese community". The Daily Star. 23 April 2010. 
  12. ^ a b "Argentinian President's visit to the Lebanese Parliament". The Lebanese Parliament. 7 June 2007. Archived from the original on 2007-06-07. 
  13. ^ "Demographics". Arab American Institute. 
  14. ^ "Demographics". Arab American Institute. 
  15. ^ "Australian Population: Ethnic Origins". Monash University. 1999. 
  16. ^ "Lebanese in Australia: Facts & Figures". General Consulate of Lebanon in Melbourne. 
  17. ^ "Lebanon country brief". Department of Foreign Affairs and Trade. March 2013. 
  18. ^ "The biggest enchilada". The Sunday Telegraph. 8 July 2007. 
  19. ^ "The Lebanese Community in Canada". Statistics Canada. 2007. 
  20. ^ "Canada and Lebanon, a special tie". CBC News. 1 August 2006. 
  21. ^ "Colombia awakens to the Arab world". Brazil-Arab News Agency. 21 July 2009. 
  22. ^ "Painting a Picture of Exile". New York Times. 27 November 2009. 
  23. ^ "The Lebanese in the World: An Entrepreneurial Minority". RMIT University. February 2004. 
  24. ^ Lebanese Living in UAE Fear Deportation Al-Monitor, accessed December 2, 2013
  25. ^ "INTERVIEW - L’ambassadeur Jorge Jure (Khoury) raconte son pays et ses propres origines". Embassy of Uruguay (Lebanon). 19 February 2008.  (French)
  26. ^ http://www.dailystar.com.lb/Sports/Football/2012/Apr-14/170193-what-is-it-about-lebanon-and-german-football.ashx#axzz2lLHf4Kh8
  27. ^ "Lebanese Émigré Enclaves in Africa Await Presidential Visit". Al-Akhbar. 6 Feb 2013. 
  28. ^ "Lebanese business makes up 35 percent of Ivory Coast economy". The Daily Star. 23 May 2011. 
  29. ^ "The Global Financial Crisis: Impact on Lebanese Expatriates in the Gulf". LERC. December 2009. 
  30. ^ "Lebanese Immigrants Boost West African Commerce". Voice of America. 1 November 2009. 
  31. ^ "Suleiman Tells Lebanese Expats in Senegal that he Rejects Sectarian Vote Law". Naharnet. 14 March 2013. 
  32. ^ "The Struggle Of The Christian Lebanese For Land Ownership In South Africa". The Marionite Research Institute. 
  33. ^ "People Group - Arab, Lebanese :: Joshua Project". joshuaproject.net. Retrieved 2014-05-10.