Lebanese people

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Lebanese people
Lebanese people.JPG
Total population
Lebanon: 4,017,095 (all ethnic groups)[1]
Total worldwide: 14–15 million[2][3][4]
Regions with significant populations
 Brazil 7,000,000[5][6]
 Lebanon 4,130,000[1]
 Argentina 1,500,000[7]
 Colombia 700,000[8]
 Mexico 500,000[9]
 United States 440,000[10]
 Venezuela 340,000[11]
 Canada 250,000[12]
 France 225,000[13]
 Australia 181,000[14]
 Dominican Republic 80,000[15]
 Uruguay 70,000[16]
 Senegal 30,000[17]
 Sierra Leone 33,000-40,000[18]
 South Africa 20,000[19]
 Cyprus 20,000[citation needed]
 Spain 11,820[20]
 United Kingdom 10,459[citation needed]
 Israel 7,000[21]
 Liberia 4,000[22]
Languages
Spoken Vernacular
Lebanese Arabic & Cypriot Maronite Arabic
Spoken Traditional
Phoenician, succeeded by Western Aramaic[23]
Second Languages
French, English
Diaspora
French, English, Spanish, Portuguese
Religion
Maronite Christianity1
Islam2
(mostly Shia and Sunni)3
Greek Orthodox, Greek Catholic and Protestant.
Alawites and Druze4
Related ethnic groups
Other Levantines
Arabs and other Semites.
Footnotes
  1. Lebanese Christians constitute the majority of all Lebanese, but represent only a large minority within Lebanon.
  2. Lebanese Muslims of all denominations represent a majority within Lebanon, but add up to only a large minority of all Lebanese.
  3. They account for 54% of Lebanon's population together, even split in half (27%).
  4. In Lebanon, the Druze religion is officially categorized as a Muslim denomination by the Lebanese government.

The Lebanese people (Arabic: الشعب اللبناني‎ / ALA-LC: ash-shaʻb al-Libnānī  Lebanese Arabic pronunciation: [eʃˈʃaʕeb ellɪbˈneːne]) are the inhabitants of the country of Lebanon and their ancestors. The term may also include those who had inhabited Mount Lebanon prior to the creation of the modern Lebanese state.

The cultural and linguistic heritage of the Lebanese people is a blend of both indigenous elements and the foreign cultures that have come to rule the land and its people over the course of thousands of years.

As the relative proportion of the various sects is politically sensitive, Lebanon has not collected official census data on ethnic background since the 1932 under the French Mandate. It is therefore difficult to have an exact demographic analysis of Lebanese society.[24] The largest concentration or people of Lebanese ancestry is in Brazil having an estimated population of 6 to 7 million. As with their predecessors, the Lebanese have always travelled the world, many of them settling permanently, most notably in the last two centuries.

Reduced in numbers and estimated to have lost their status as a majority in Lebanon itself, largely as a result of their emigration, Christians still remain one of the principal religious groups in the country.[25] Descendants of Lebanese Christians make up the majority of Lebanese people worldwide, appearing principally in the diaspora.[26]

Identity

Cultural and linguistic shifts

Aramization transformed the ancient Levant into an Aramaic-speaking and identifying region, making the population abandon their indigenous Canaanite language and cultural norms. Most of the population would also abandon the polytheistic Canaanite religion in favour of Christianity.

Aramaic cultural norms would remain dominant until the commencement of the era of Arabization (often, but not always, in conjunction with Islamization), which transformed the Levant and most of the Middle East and North Africa during the Arabian Muslim conquest. Thus, it is from the Arabization of the Levant that the people receive the strongest cultural and linguistic imprint to date, although most would remain Christian. As a result of this, in modern discourse, the Lebanese people (as is also the case with Syrians, Palestinians, Egyptians, Moroccans, etc.) are now often referred to as Arabs, or as forming part of the Arab world, albeit all with their own separate and distinct ancestral origins and ancient histories.

Immediately prior to Arabization, the people residing in the Levant—both those who would become Muslim and the vast majority who would remain Christian, along with the tiny Jewish minority—still spoke Aramaic,[27] or more precisely, a Western Aramaic language.[23] However, since at least the 15th century, the majority of people of all faiths living in what is now Lebanon have been Arabic-speaking,[28][29] or more specifically, speakers of Lebanese Arabic, although up until the 17th century, travellers in the Lebanon still reported on several Aramaic-speaking villages.[30]

Among the Lebanese Maronites, Aramaic still remains the liturgical language of the Maronite Church, although in an Eastern Aramaic form (the Syriac language,[31] in which early Christianity was disseminated throughout the Middle East), distinct from the spoken Aramaic of Lebanon, which was a Western Aramaic language. As the second of two liturgical languages of Judaism, Aramaic was also retained as a language in the sphere of religion (in the Talmud) among Lebanese Jews, although here too in an Eastern Aramaic form (the Talmud was composed in Babylonia in Babylonian Aramaic). Among Lebanese Muslims, however, Aramaic was lost twice, once in the shift to Arabic in the vernacular (Lebanese Arabic) and again in the religious sphere, since Arabic (Qur'anic Arabic) is the liturgical language of Islam.

Identity shifts

Some Lebanese, mainly Christians, identify themselves as Phoenician rather than Arab, seeking to draw "on the Phoenician past to try to forge an identity separate from the prevailing Arab culture".[32] They argue that Arabization merely represented a shift to the Arabic language as the vernacular of the Lebanese people, and that, according to them, no actual shift of ethnic identity, much less ancestral origins, occurred. Their argument, based on the premise of ancestry, has recently been vindicated by some emerging genetic studies as discussed below. Thus, Phoenicianists emphasize that the Arabs of Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Egypt, Sudan, Tunisia, Iraq, and all other "Arabs", are different peoples, each descended from the indigenous pre-Arab populations of their respective regions, with their own histories and lore, and that therefore they do not belong to the one pan-Arab ethnicity, and thus such categorisation is erred or inapplicable. Certain portions of Lebanon's Christian population in particular tend to stress aspects of Lebanon's non-Arab prior history to encompass all Lebanon's historical stages, instead of considering the beginning of Lebanese history ibeing with the Arab conquests, an attitude that prevails in the rest of the Arab world. Some consider addressing all Lebanese as Arabs somewhat insensitive, and prefer to call them Lebanese as a sign of respect of Lebanon's long non-Arab past.

Among the Arabists, most do not dispute the differing ancestral origins of not only the Lebanese, but every other "Arab" group, nor do they disagree with acknowledging those roots. However, they do contest the Phoenicianists' assertion that a shift to an Arab identity did not occur, whether from a Phoenician or later pre-Arab identity. Arabists argue such a shift did in fact occur, if not for the population as a whole and for generations up until the rise of modern Phoenicianism, then at the very least for the larger part of the population, up to and including today. Further, they contend that this was the case for the Lebanese even in light of the differing Lebanese religious communities, especially pointing to the fact that most of the leading Arabists in recent Lebanese history were in fact Christians. The Arabists' point of contention is that Phoenicianists and Phoenicianism disregards and often altogether seems to relegate the reality of the Arab cultural and linguistic heritage of Lebanon and the Lebanese, given the extent to which the culture and customs of today's Lebanese people are indebted to that period of Lebanon's history. This is argued especially when the Arab cultural elements are quantified against the elements that can be attributed to have originated prior to, and survived, the Arab period into the modern time and culture. Therefore, they see the notion of deriving a Lebanese identity based on pan-Arabism as valid, and thus many Lebanese, whether Muslim, Christian or other, do identify as Arabs.

In light of this "old controversy about identity",[32] some Lebanese prefer to see Lebanon, Lebanese culture and themselves as part of a "Mediterranean" or "Levantine" civilization, in a concession to Lebanon's various layers of heritage, both indigenous, foreign non-Arab, and Arab. Arab influence, nevertheless, applies to virtually all aspects of the modern Lebanese culture.

Population numbers

The total population of Lebanese people is estimated at 13-18 million. Of these, the vast majority, or 8.6[33] - 14[34] million, are in the Lebanese diaspora (outside of Lebanon), and approximately 4.3 million in Lebanon itself.[35]

Lebanon

[1][1][36]
Ethnic Groups in Lebanon
Ethnicity Percent
Arabic-speaking (of all ethnicities)
  
93%
Armenians
  
4%
Kurds
  
2%
Various other ethnicities:
Turks, Assyrians, Iranians,
Europeans (Greeks, Italians, French) and others
  
1%

There are approximately 4.3 million Lebanese in Lebanon.[35]

In addition to this figure, there are an additional 1 million foreign workers and about 400,000 Palestinian refugees in the nation.[37]

Lebanon is also a multi-ethnic society. Prominent ethnic minorities in the country include the Armenians, the Kurds, the Turks, the Assyrians, the Iranians and many European ethnicities (Greeks, Italians, French).

There are also a small number of nomadic Gypsies (part of the Roma people)[citation needed]

Diaspora

Jill Kelley (left).
Main article: Lebanese diaspora

In 1994, the Lebanese government estimated there were 15.4 million Lebanese immigrants worldwide with 43.2% living in Brazil (1996) and 26.1% of these residing in the USA.[38]

The Lebanese diaspora consists of approximately 8.6[39] - 14[34] million, both Lebanese-born living abroad and those born-abroad of Lebanese descent. The majority of the Lebanese in the diaspora are Christians,[40] disproportionately so in the Americas where the vast majority reside. An estimate figure show that they represent about 75% of the Lebanese in total.

The largest number of Lebanese is to be found in Brazil, where there is an estimated 10 million people of Lebanese descent. The Lebanese government claims there are 7 million Brazilians of Lebanese descent.[5] Large numbers also reside elsewhere in North America, most notably in the United States and Mexico with close to half a million in both countries. In the rest of the Americas, significant communities are found in Argentina,[7] Chile,[41] Colombia[8] and Venezuela, with almost every other Latin American country having at least a small presence.

In Africa, Ghana and the Ivory Coast are home to over 100,000 Lebanese.[42] There are significant Lebanese populations in other countries throughout Western and Central Africa.[43][44] Australia hosts over 180,000 and Canada 250,000. In the Arab world, the Gulf States harbour around 400,000 Lebanese.[45] Lebanese people also can be found in all of the 28 member states of the European Union. More than 2,500 ex-SLA members remain in Israel.[46]

Currently, Lebanon provides no automatic right to Lebanese citizenship for emigrants who lost their citizenship upon acquiring the citizenship of their host country, nor for the descendants of emigrants born abroad. This situation disproportionately affects Christians. Recently, the Maronite Institution of Emigrants called for the establishment of an avenue by which emigrants who lost their citizenship may regain it, or their overseas-born descendants (if they so wish) may acquire it.[47]

Country Estimate Country article in English Wikipedia List of personalities of Lebanese origin
 Brazil 7,000,000 Lebanese Brazilian List of Lebanese people (Brazil)
 United States 3,300,000 Lebanese American List of Lebanese people (USA)
 Argentina 1,500,000 Lebanese Argentine List of Lebanese people (Argentina)
 Colombia 700,000 Lebanese Colombian List of Lebanese people (Colombia)
 Mexico 500,000 Lebanese Mexican List of Lebanese people (Mexico)
 Venezuela 340,000 Lebanese Venezuelan List of Lebanese people (Venezuela)
 Canada 250,000 Lebanese Canadians List of Lebanese people (Canada)
 France 250,000 Lebanese people in France List of Lebanese people (France)
 Australia 182,000 Lebanese Australian List of Lebanese people in Australia
 Egypt 131,000 Lebanese people in Egypt List of Lebanese people in Egypt
 Saudi Arabia 120,000
Gulf States 100,000
 Ecuador 100,000 Lebanese people in Ecuador List of Lebanese people (Ecuador)
 Chile 90,000 Lebanese Chileans List of Lebanese people (Chile)
 United Kingdom 90,000 Lebanese people in the United Kingdom List of Lebanese people (UK)
 Uruguay 70,000 Lebanese Uruguayan List of Lebanese people (Uruguay)
 Ghana 67,000 Ghanaian Arabs** List of Lebanese people (Ghana)
 Ivory Coast 60,000 Arab residents in Ivory Coast**
 Germany 50,000 Lebanese people in Germany List of Lebanese people (Germany)
 Spain 12,000-67,800 Lebanese people in Spain List of Lebanese people (Spain)
 New Zealand 47,200 Arabs in New Zealand**
 Senegal 40,000 Lebanese people in Senegal
 Sierra Leone 33,000 Lebanese people in Sierra Leone List of Lebanese people (Sierra Leone)
 Nigeria 31,000 List of Lebanese people (Nigeria)
 Greece 30,000 Lebanese Greek
 Denmark 23,500 Arabs in Denmark** List of Lebanese people in Denmark
 Cyprus 20,000 List of Lebanese people (Cyprus)
 South Africa 20,000[19] List of Lebanese people (South Africa)
 Sweden 21,000 Lebanese people in Sweden List of Lebanese people (Sweden)
 Jamaica 20,000[48] Lebanese immigration to Jamaica List of Lebanese people (Jamaica)
 Haiti 15,000 List of Lebanese people (Haiti)
 Liberia 10,000 List of Lebanese people (Liberia)
 Kuwait 10,000
 Belgium 7,000
 Switzerland 5,800 List of Lebanese people in Switzerland
 Italy 3,860 Arabs in Italy** List of Lebanese people in Italy
 Angola 3,300
 Bulgaria 3,000 Arabs in Bulgaria** List of Lebanese people (Bulgaria)
 Austria 3,000 Arabs in Austria**
 Romania 3,000 Arabs in Romania**
 Serbia 3,000 Arabs in Serbia**
 Macedonia 3,000 Arabs in the Republic of Macedonia**

Note: An important percentage of Arabs in Argentina, Chile, Brazil, Colombia, Mexico, Venezuela, Bulgaria, Denmark, Austria, Romania, Serbia, Republic of Macedonia, Italy, Portugal, Spain, New Zealand, Ghana and Ivory Coast are of Lebanese ancestry. They are denoted ** for this purpose.

Religion

Lebanon religions
Religion Percent
All Muslims
  
54%
All Christians
  
40.5%
Druze
  
5.5%
Lebanese Christians[49][50][51][35]
Year Percent
1932
  
51.2%
2013
  
39%

Lebanon has several different main religions. The country has the most religiously diverse society in the Middle East, encompassing 17 recognized religious sects.[52] The main two religions are Christianity (the Maronite Church, the Eastern Orthodox Church, the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Assyrian Church of the East) and Islam (Sunni and Shia). There is also the Druze minority religion.

No official census has been taken since 1932, reflecting the political sensitivity in Lebanon over confessional (i.e. religious) balance.[53]

A study conducted by Statistics Lebanon, a Beirut-based research firm, cited by the United States Department of State found that of Lebanon's population of approximately 4.3 million is estimated to be:[35]

  • 54% Islam (Sunni and Shia, 27% each)
  • 5.6% Druze (who do not consider themselves to be Muslims)

There are also very small numbers of other religions such as Judaism, Bahá'í Faith, Buddhism, Hindusim and Mormons.[35]

The CIA World Factbook specifies that of those residing in Lebanon, 59.7% are Muslims (Sunni, Shia, Druze, Sufi and Alawites) and 39% are Christians (mostly Maronites, Greek Orthodox, Melkite Greek Catholics, Armenian Apostolic, Assyrian Church of the East, Syriac Orthodox, Chaldean Catholic, Syrian Catholics) and 1.3% "Other".[1]

However, as soon as the diaspora is included, the Christians become an absolute majority. Lebanon has a population of Mhallamis also known as Mardinli), most of whom migrated from northeast Syria and southeast Turkey are estimated to be between 75,000 and 100,000 and considered to be part of the Sunni population. These have in recent years been granted Lebanese citizenship and, coupled with several civil wars between Islamic extremists and the Lebanese military that have caused many Christians to flee the country, have re-tipped the demographic balance in favour of the Muslims and the Sunnis in particular.[54] In addition, many thousands of Arab Bedouins in the Bekaa and in the Wadi Khaled region, who are entirely Sunnis, were granted Lebanese citizenship. Lebanon also has a Jewish population, estimated at less than 100.

Even though Lebanon is a secular country, family matters such as marriage, divorce and inheritance are still handled by the religious authorities representing a person's faith. Calls for civil marriage are unanimously rejected by the religious authorities but civil marriages held in another country are recognized by Lebanese civil authorities.

Legally registered Muslims form around 54% of the population (Shia, Sunni, Alawite). Legally registered Christians form up to 41% (Maronite, Greek Orthodox-Christian, Greek Catholic, Armenian, Evangelical, other). Druze form around 4%. A small minority of 0.5% includes Jewish, Hindu and Buddhist individuals.

Even though non-religion is not recognized by the state, in 2009, the Minister of the Interior Ziad Baroud made it possible to have the religious sect removed from the Lebanese identity card, this does not, however, deny the religious authorities complete control over civil family issues inside the country.[55][56]

Genetics

In recent years efforts have been made by various genetic researchers,[who?] both in Lebanon and abroad, to identify the ancestral origins of the Lebanese people, their relationship to each other, and to other neighbouring and distant human populations. Like most DNA studies that attempt to identify a population's origins and migration patterns in the region that may have influenced the genetic make-up—these studies have focused on two human genome segments, the Y chromosome (inherited only by males and passed only by fathers) and mtDNA (mitochondrial DNA, which passes only from mother to child). Both segments are unaffected by recombination, thus they provide an indicator of paternal and maternal origins, respectively.

A Druse family of the Lebanon, late 1800s

Theories from some studies propose to corroborate that the Lebanese trace genetic continuity with earlier inhabitants, including the Phoenicians, regardless of their membership to any of Lebanon's different religious communities today. "The genetic marker which identifies descendants of the ancient Levantines is found among members of all of Lebanon's religious communities"[57] as well as some Syrians and Palestinians. By identifying the ancient type of DNA attributed to the Phoenicians, geneticist Pierre Zalloua was also able to chart their spread out of the eastern Mediterranean. These markers were found in unusually high proportions in non-Lebanese samples from other parts of the "Mediterranean coast where the Phoenicians are known to have established colonies, such as Carthage in today's Tunisia."[32] The markers were also found among samples of Maltese and Spaniards, where the Phoenicians were also known to have established colonies. The study shows that 1 out of 17 people in the countries surrounding the Mediterranean basin can be identified with the Phoenician genetic markers in their Male Chromosomes. However, the particular marker associated by some studies with the historical Phoenicians, haplogroup J2, actually represents a complex mosaic of different demographic processes which affected the Mediterranean in prehistoric and historic times.[58]

Beyond this, more recent finds have also interested geneticists and Lebanese anthropologists. These indicate foreign non-Levantine admixture from some unexpected but not surprising sources, even if only in a small proportion of the samples. Like a story written in DNA, it recounts some of the major historical events seen in the land today known as Lebanon.

Among the more interesting genetic markers found are those that seem to indicate that a small proportion of Lebanese Christians (2%) and a smaller proportion of Lebanese Muslims are descended, in part, from European Crusader Christians and Arabian Muslims respectively. The author states that the "study tells us that some European crusaders did not just conquer and leave behind castles. They left a subtle genetic connection as well."[59] In much the same manner, some of the Arabian Muslims did not just conquer and leave behind mosques.

Christian men from Mount Lebanon, late 1800s

It was during a broader survey of Middle Eastern populations conducted for the Genographic Project of the National Geographic Society that the findings were stumbled upon. "We noticed some interesting lineages in the dataset. Among Lebanese Christians, in particular, we found higher frequency [2%] of a genetic marker — R1b — that we typically see only in Western Europe."[59]

The lineage was seen at that "higher" frequency only in the Christian populations in Lebanon, even though among the Muslims it was not altogether absent. "The study matched the western European Y-chromosome lineage against thousands of people in France, Germany, Italy, and the United Kingdom."[60] On the other hand, in the Lebanese Muslim population a similar pattern, this time associated with genetic markers from Arabia, was also observed in "higher" preferential frequencies, although they too were not altogether absent in the Christian population. "We found that a lineage that is very common in the Arabian Peninsula — Hg J*— is found in slightly higher frequencies preferentially in the Muslim population."[59] The author of the study added that the findings "certainly doesn't undermine the similarities among the various Lebanese communities, but it does agree with oral tradition."[59]

Other unrelated studies have sought to establish relationships between the Lebanese people and other groups. At least one study by the International Institute of Anthropology in Paris, France, confirmed similarities in the Y-haplotype frequencies in Lebanese, Palestinian, and Sephardic Jewish men, identifying them as "three Near-Eastern populations sharing a common geographic origin."[61] The study surveyed one Y-specific DNA polymorphism (p49/Taq I) in 54 Lebanese and 69 Palestinian males, and compared with the results found in 693 Jews from three distinct Jewish ethnic groups; Mizrahi Jews, Sephardi Jews, and Ashkenazi Jews.

In a 2013 interview Pierre Zalloua, pointed out that genetic variation preceded religious variation and divisions:"Lebanon already had well-differentiated communities with their own genetic peculiarities, but not significant differences, and religions came as layers of paint on top. There is no distinct pattern that shows that one community carries significantly more Phoenician than another."[62]

Notable individuals

See also

External links

References

  1. ^ a b c d e CIA, the World Factbook (2006). "Lebanon". Retrieved March 8, 2009.
  2. ^ Fielding-Smith, Abigail (2009-06-05). "From Brazil to Byblos, Lebanese diaspora pours in for vote". thenational. Retrieved 2009-12-25. [dead link]
  3. ^ Foreign & Commonwealth Office. "Country Profile: Lebanon" (governmental). FCO. Retrieved 2009-12-25. 
  4. ^ Linking Lebanon. "Lebanese Diaspora". LinkingLebanon. Retrieved 2009-12-25. 
  5. ^ a b ":: Embaixada do Líbano no Brasil ::". Libano.org.br. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  6. ^ "News :: Politics :: Sleiman meets Brazilian counterpart, Lebanese community". The Daily Star. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  7. ^ a b "Argentinian President's visit to the Lebanese Parliament". The Lebanese Parliament. 7 June 2007. 
  8. ^ a b "Brazil-Arab News Agency - Colombia awakens to the Arab world". .anba.com.br. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  9. ^ The biggest enchilada, Telegraph
  10. ^ The Arab Population: 2000
  11. ^ [1]
  12. ^ Canada and Lebanon, a special tie, CBC News
  13. ^ "Geographical Distribution of the Lebanese Diaspora". The Identity Chef. 
  14. ^ 2006 Census Table : Australia
  15. ^ González Hernández, Julio Amable (11 August 2012). "Registro de Inmigrantes de El Líbano". Cápsulas Genealógicas en Areíto (in Spanish). Santo Domingo: Instituto Dominicano de Genealogía. Retrieved 15 August 2014. "Se calcula que en República Dominicana existen unos 80,000 descendientes de esos inmigrantes que una vez dejaron sus tierras para buscar una vida mejor." 
  16. ^ "Les Libanais d'Uruguay". "En Uruguay, ils sont actuellement quelque 70 000 habitants d'origine libanaise." 
  17. ^ Immigrants Boost West African Commerce, Voice of America, 10 July 2007. Retrieved 4 November 2011.
  18. ^ "Lebanese people abroad" Big Issue Magazine. Jan. 12, 2010
  19. ^ a b The Struggle Of The Christian Lebanese For Land Ownership In South Africa, By Guita G. Hourani, access date 6 October 2010
  20. ^ "Geographical Distribution of the Lebanese Diaspora". The Identity Chef. 
  21. ^ Lebanese in Israel Find Beirut Evermore Distant
  22. ^ Paye-Layleh, Jonathan (2005-07-22). "Lebanese demand Liberia poll rights". BBC News. 
  23. ^ a b Owens, Jonathan (2000). Arabic as a Minority Language. Walter de Gruyter. p. 347. ISBN 3-11-016578-3. 
  24. ^ "Lebanon: A Country Study". US Library of Congress. Section: Population. 
  25. ^ The Maronite Catholic Church
  26. ^ "Senior Seminar: Transnational Migration and Diasporic Communities". Hamline University. 18 December 2002. 
  27. ^ Review of Phares Book
  28. ^ The Precarious Republic: Political Modernization in Lebanon By Michael C. Hudson, 1968
  29. ^ Lebanon: Its Stand in History Among the Near East Countries By Salim Wakim, 1996.
  30. ^ Owens, Jonathan (2000). Arabic as a Minority Language. Walter de Gruyter. p. 347. ISBN 3-11-016578-3. 
  31. ^ St. George Maronite Church.
  32. ^ a b c In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts
  33. ^ Bassil promises to ease citizenship for expatriates
  34. ^ a b "Country Profile: Lebanon". FCO. 3 April 2007. 
  35. ^ a b c d e "2012 Report on International Religious Freedom - Lebanon". United States Department of State. 20 May 2013. Retrieved 9 January 2014. 
  36. ^ The cultural situation of the Kurds (dead link)
  37. ^ Business Portal to Lebanon.
  38. ^ Culture care diversity and ... - Google Livros. Books.google.com.br. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  39. ^ Bassil promises to ease citizenship for expatriates
  40. ^ Senior Seminar: Transnational Migration and Diasporic Communities[dead link]
  41. ^ Arab Chileans.
  42. ^ Ivory Coast - The Levantine Community
  43. ^ Lebanese man shot dead in Nigeria, BBC News
  44. ^ Lebanese nightmare in Congo, Al-Ahram Weekly.
  45. ^ One in three Lebanese want to leave, Reuters
  46. ^ Lebanon's refugees in Israel, Elias Bejjani - 10/28/2008.
  47. ^ "News :: Politics :: Sfeir tells new Maronite group emigrants 'deserve' Lebanese nationality". The Daily Star. 2008-07-24. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  48. ^ Jamaica – People Groups
  49. ^ CIA World Factbook, Lebanon
  50. ^ The collapse and reconstruction of Lebanon
  51. ^ Lebanon – International Religious Freedom Report 2010 U.S. Department of State. Retrieved on 14 February 2010.
  52. ^ Alfred B. Prados (June 8, 2006). 8, 2006)Update.pdf "Lebanon". The Library of Congress. Retrieved June 11, 2012. 
  53. ^ Country Studies. "Lebanon Population". Retrieved November 25, 2006.
  54. ^ International Journal of Kurdish Studies, Jan, 2002 by Lokman I. Meho "The Kurds in Lebanon: a social and historical overview"
  55. ^ Religious affiliation to disappear from Lebanese documents
  56. ^ Religious Affiliation Can Be Removed From Lebanese ID Cards
  57. ^ Perry, Tom (2007-09-10). "In Lebanon DNA may yet heal rifts". Reuters. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  58. ^ Di Giacomo 2004, Semino 2004, Cruciani 2004
  59. ^ a b c d news.nationalgeographic.com
  60. ^ "Crusades, Islam Expansion Traced in Lebanon DNA". News.nationalgeographic.com. 2010-10-28. Retrieved 2011-07-04. 
  61. ^ Y-chromosome DNA haplotypes in Jews: comparisons with Lebanese and Palestinians.
  62. ^ Maroon, Habib (31 March 2013). "A geneticist with a unifying message". Nature. Retrieved 3 October 2013.