Leblouh or gavage is the practice of force-feeding teenage girls and including girls as young as five, in Mauritania, where obesity was traditionally regarded as desirable. Especially prevalent in rural areas, and having its roots in Berber tradition, leblouh is practiced to increase chances of marriage in a society where high body volume used to be a sign of wealth. The practice goes back to the 11th century, and has been reported to have made a significant comeback after a military junta took over the country in 2008.
Older women called "fatteners" force the young girls to consume enormous quantities of food and liquid, including their own vomit, and inflicting pain on them if they don't eat and drink. One way of inflicting pain is to pinch a limb between two sticks. A six-year-old might typically be forced to drink 20 liters of camel's milk, and eat two kilos of pounded millet mixed with two cups of butter, every day.
The younger generations of males in Mauritania now see fattening negatively.
- LaFRANIERE, SHARON. In Mauritania, Seeking to End an Overfed Ideal, The New York Times, published on July 4, 2007. Accessed on June 30, 2011.
- "Girls as young as 5 and as old as 19 had to drink up to five gallons of fat-rich camel’s or cow’s milk daily, aiming for silvery stretch marks on their upper arms. If a girl refused or vomited, the village weight-gain specialist might squeeze her foot between sticks, pull her ear, pinch her inner thigh, bend her finger backward or force her to drink her own vomit. In extreme cases, girls died.
- Smith, Alex Duval. Girls being force-fed for marriage as junta revives fattening farms, The Observer, March 1, 2009.
- Young Mauritanians reject forced fattening, Al Arabiya, February 24, 2009.
- Mauritania's 'wife-fattening' farm January 26, 2004.
- Mauritania seeks to reverse 'fat is beautiful' ethos By Sharon LaFraniere July 3, 2007
- Leblouh Negative cultures November 2010
- Mauritania: Force-feeding of young girls waning, replaced by drugs formulated for livestock February, 2011
- Grasso è bello in Mauritania February 25, 2009.
- Forced to Be Fat July 21, 2011
- Where Fat Is a Mark of Beauty Los Angeles Times, September 30, 1998
- Mbodi: Brides are Fattened for Beauty
- The fattening room: Nkuho an Efik tradition
- Le gavage à Djerba 1987
- The Price of Beauty Ep# 104 Title: "Uganda" Air-date: April 5, 2010