Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape
|Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape|
|Name as inscribed on the World Heritage List|
|Criteria||i, ii, iv|
|UNESCO region||Europe and North America|
|Inscription||1996 (20th Session)|
The Lednice-Valtice Cultural Landscape (also Lednice-Valtice Area or Lednice-Valtice Complex, Czech: Lednicko-valtický areál) is a cultural-natural complex of 283,09 km² in the Czech Republic, South Moravian Region, close to Břeclav and Mikulov.
The Lednice-Valtice Area is registered in the list of monuments protected as World Heritage by UNESCO next to another site – Pálava Landscape Protected Area, registered by UNESCO only a few years prior to the nearby Pálava Biosphere Reserve. Such close proximity of two landscape systems protected by UNESCO is world-unique.
History and description
in 1249, the House of Liechtenstein acquired a castle in Lednice, which marked the beginning of their settlement in the area. It would remain the Liechtensteins' principal residence until 1939. At the end of the 18th century, the Liechtenstein family began to create a unique manmade landscape complex: The Lednice – Valtice Area. During the 19th century, the Liechtenstein family continued transforming the area, which has since been called the "Garden of Europe", into a large landscape park with two centres:
In 1715 these two localities were connected by the so-called Bezruč Avenue. There is also one more village – Hlohovec. Between Lednice, Valtice and Hlohovec, the Lednice Ponds (Lednické rybníky) are situated, together with Mlýnský, Prostřední, Hlohovecký and Nesyt Ponds. A substantial part of the complex is covered with pines called the Pine wood (Boří les), and partially with a riparian forest adjacent to the River Dyje.
The Liechtenstein family opposed the annexation of Czech Sudetenland by Nazi Germany and as a consequence, their properties were confiscated by the Nazis, with the family leaving for Vaduz in 1939. After World War II the family made several legal attempts to have the property returned but it passed into possession of the Czechoslovak government. The Communist regime did not want to return large estates to aristocratic landowners. After the Velvet Revolution the family made renewed legal attempts at restitution, which have all been turned down by the current owner of the property, the Czech state. 
- Rajsna (German: Reistna, The Colonnade)
– a Classicist colonnade on the top of a hill ridge above Valtice (like a gloriette) from the 1810s to 1820s
- Rendezvous (or Temple of Diana)
– a hunting lodge in a form of a Classicist arch from the 1810s
- St Hubert Chapel (Kaple svatého Huberta)
– a Neo-Gothic column structure from the 1850s dedicated to the patron saint of hunters, situated in the Pine wood
- Border House (Hraniční zámeček)
– a Classicist chateau built in the 1820s directly on the former (until 1920) borderline between Lower Austria and Moravia
- Temple of the Three Graces (Tři Grácie)
– a semicircle gallery with allegorical statues of Sciences and Muses and a statue of the Three Graces from the 1820s
- Pond House (Rybniční zámeček)
– ashore of one of the Lednice Ponds
- Nový dvůr (German: Neuhof, New Farm) – a Classicist farm finished in 1809, originally used for sheep husbandry, nowadays for horse breeding
- Apollo Temple (Apollónův chrám)
– a Classicist hunting lodge from the 1810s, ashore of one of the Lednice Ponds
- Hunting Lodge (Lovecký zámeček)
– a Classicist house from 1806
- John's Castle (Janův hrad or Janohrad)
– a Neo-Gothic "artificial ruins" (Czech: umělá zřícenina, German: künstliche Ruine) in style of a castle, finished in 1810
– a Moorish Revival structure (62 m high) in the Lednice Castle garden (finished in 1804), it serves as an observation tower
– erected in memory of the peace treaty of Campo Formio (1798)
– an Empire-style hunting lodge finished after 1812, it houses an exhibition of Břeclav Town Museum:
close to the lodge there are both an important archaeological site of Great Moravian remains and reconstructed parts of the Czechoslovak border fortifications
– an Empire-style hunting lodge from the beginning of the 19th century
The garden follies and the conservatory of Lednice Park were included in the 1998 World Monuments Watch by the World Monuments Fund for their deteriorating condition, the result of insufficient financial resources. The Fund had previously studied the preservation of Lednice and Valtice Castles and after 1998 helped restore the Valtice Rendezvous folly as a demonstration project with support from American Express.
The Garden of Europe spreads in the warmest place of the Czech Republic area close to Mikulov town. This part of land is full of architectural jewels, romantic nooks, unique nature reserves, beautiful place for many activities especially during tourist season.
The Garden of Europe means not only famous Neo-Gothic Chateau Lednice with an extensive park, protected as World Heritage by UNESCO, but also colourful folklore, the Viticultural Educational Route, hospitable people, and countless curtural events.
Lednice is the best-known tourist destination in south Moravia. All roads in the Chateau park lead to the Minaret. The gallery, 60 metres high, provides a view of the entire Garden of Europe. It is easy to see from this point the magnificent Pálava Hills and Malé Karpaty Mountains, when weather allows. The whole Lednice-Valtice Area shows many other sightseeings as middle-age castle imitations like Janohrad, the empire temple Apollónův chrám, the classic salet Tři Grácie, and the classic castle Rybniční zámeček. All of these sightseeings are connected by a network of bike roads located in wooded area.
- "The former Liechtenstein possessions of Lednice-Valtice". Minor Sights. September 2014. Retrieved 4 October 2014.
- The term zámeček (German: Schlösschen, literally a small château), is here translated usually as a (manor) house – or a hunting lodge (Czech: lovecký zámeček, German: Jagdschlösschen), if it served for hunting.
- World Monuments Fund – Lednice and Valtice Cultural Landscape
- Elaine Louie, New York Times, "Saving Endangered Art and Architecture," June 25, 1998.
- Kordiovský, Emil – Klanicová Evženie (eds.), Město Břeclav, Muzejní a vlastivědná společnost, Brno (2001).
- Památkový ústav v Brně: text on the reverse of a tourist map, Shocart, Zlín (1998).
Media related to Category:Lednice–Valtice Cultural Landscape at Wikimedia Commons
- World Monuments Fund, Conservation & Economic Enhancement Plan for Valtice Zamek & its Environs, 1993.
- World Monuments Fund, Conservation & Economic Enhancement Plan for Lednice Zamek & its Environs, 1995.
- Lednice-Valtice Areal (Czech)