Lee (Korean surname)

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For the Chinese surname from which this name is derived, see Li (surname 李). For the English surname, see Lee (English surname). For the list of people with this surname, see List of people with the Korean family name Lee.
Lee
Li (李).svg
The hanja for Lee
Pronunciation [iː] or [riː]
Language(s) Korean
Origin
Language(s) Chinese
Word/Name Korean peninsula
Meaning plum
Other names
Variant(s) I, Yi, Ri, Rhee, Rhie
See also Li,
Families
Deoksu clan, Jinseong clan, Yong-in clan, Gyeongju clan, Yeoju clan, Jeonju clan, Danyang clan, Yangsan clan, Suan clan, Seongjoo clan, Hongju clan, Yeonan clan
Lee
Hangul 이 (리)
Hanja
Revised Romanization I (Ri)
McCune–Reischauer Yi (Ri)
Note: North Korean usage is in parentheses
percentage of family names in Korea
  Kim, Gim
  Lee, Yi, Rhee
  Park, Pak
  Choi
  Jung, Jeong, Chung, Cheong

Lee is the typical romanization of the common South Korean surname I (Hangul ) and North Korean surname Ri (). It is the second-most-common surname in Korea, behind only Kim.

The name is derived from the common Chinese surname Li 李 and is written identically to the Chinese name in Hanja characters. In South Korea, the modern pronunciation is like the English letter "E" (IPA: [iː]) and it is therefore sometimes romanized as Yi, particularly when it is used as a given name. Due to North–South differences in the Korean language, the traditional pronunciation is still employed in North Korea and is similar to the English surname "Lee" (IPA: [liː]). Because Korean tends to shift the phoneme l to r at the beginning of words, leading to the pronunciation /riː/, which produces the occasional romanizations Rhee, Rhie, and Ri.

Distribution[edit]

was the surname of 6,796,227 South Koreans during the year 2000 census.[citation needed] Including millions more abroad and those named in North Korea,[citation needed] Lee is the surname of approximately 15% of ethnic Koreans around the world.[citation needed]

Clans[edit]

Monument for the founder of Gyeongju Yi clan

As with all Korean family names, the holders of the Lee surname are divided into different patrilineal clans, or lineages, known in Korean as bon-gwan, based on their ancestral seat. Most such clans trace their lineage back to a specific founder. This system was at its height under the yangban aristocracy of the Joseon Dynasty, but it remains in use today. There are approximately 241 such clans claimed by South Koreans. Most people with surname Lee in Korea belong to either the Jeonju or Gyeongju clans.

Pyeong-chang clan[edit]

The founder of this clan was Yi Gwang, an official of the Goryeo period. Yi Seung-Hoon, who was the first person that brought Catholicism to Korea, was in Pyeong-chang clan.

Deoksu clan[edit]

The founder of this clan was Yi Dongsu, an official of the Goryeo period. This was a prominent yangban clan during the Joseon Dynasty, producing figures including the admiral Yi Sun-sin and the philosopher Yi I. The clan seat, Deoksu, corresponds to Deoksu-hyeon, an old division of what is now Kaep'ung-gun in Kaesong city, North Korea.

Jinseong clan[edit]

Jinseong Yi clan (Hangul: 진성이씨, Hanja: 眞城李氏) was known for the famous Joseon scholar Yi Hwang (이황, 李滉) who founded the Yeongnam school and started a private Confucian academy. He also became one of the 18 Sages of Korea (동방 18현) and was honored as a Munmyo Bae-hyang (문묘배향).[1] The progenitor of this clan was Yi Seok (이석, 李碩) from the Goryeo Dynasty.

Yong-in clan[edit]

The founder of Yongin clan was Kil-kwon who helped to found Goryeo.

Gyeongju clan[edit]

The founder of this clan was Alpyeong, one of the original village headmen of Silla, who chose Bak Hyeokgeose as the first king. According to the Samguk Sagi, the Yi name was officially bestowed on the family by King Yuri around 9 CE. In present days, Lee Byung-chull, the founder of Samsung Group and the former Samsung CEO, Lee Kun-hee, and Lee Myung-bak, former president of South Korea are notable figures from the Gyeongju Lee clan.[2] It is the most populous Lee clan after the Jeonju Lee clan.

Yeoju clan[edit]

Prominent members of this clan include the Joseon Dynasty philosopher Yi Ik.

Jeonju clan[edit]

See also: House of Yi
Descendents of the Jeonju Lee family perform rites called Jongmyo jerye to honor their ancestors in an annual ceremony the Korean government has declared an Important Intangible Cultural Asset.

This is the most populous Lee clan. The founder of this clan was Yi Han, a native of Baekje who later married a Silla princess and became a high official of Silla. His 22nd-generation descendant, Taejo of Joseon, went on to found the Joseon Dynasty. The Jeonju Yi family ruled Joseon for 518 years between 1392 and 1910.

As of 2014 the pretender to the Korean throne was Haewon, Princess of Korea. Members of the different branches of Jeonju Yi family dominated Korean history until the formation of the current Republic of Korea. Many families claim membership in the Jeonju Yi clan.

Danyang clan[edit]

The founder of this clan was Jeong Dojeon, who was the first Prime Minister of Joseon and had close relations to King Yi Seonggye. He bestowed upon him the right to start his clan, a right only a yangban could ask, thus Jeong Dojeon created a new yangban clan. The clan's ancestral seat is Danyang.

Yangsan clan[edit]

The founder of this clan was Yi Man-young, an internal minister in Korea following the fall of the Goryeo Dynasty. He died of strangulation near an isolated mountain.

Suan clan[edit]

The founder of this clan was Yi Gyunwoong (Korean: 이견웅), who helped found the Goryeo Dynasty.

Seongjoo clan[edit]

The founder of this clan was Sun Yu (Korean: 순유, Hanja: 純由), a prominent official of late Silla. His 12th-generation descendant Jang Gyeong (Korean: 장경, Hanja: 長庚) was also a prominent official of the Goryeo Dynasty. Eight generations of Jang Kyung's descendants yielded 75 civil examination qualifiers. As of a 2000 census conducted by the ROK, 186,188 Koreans of the Seongjoo Yi clan live in South Korea.

Hongju clan[edit]

The founder of the Hongju Lee clan was Yi Yu-seong, a member of the King's inner circle during the late Goryeo Dynasty. The clan's ancestral seat was bestowed when his 9th generation descendant, Yi Gi-jong, was titled. Hongyang/Hongju is located in present day Hongseong, South Chungcheong Province. Especially during the late Goryeo and early Josoen Dynasties, the Hongju Lee clan produced many outstanding and influential people, including Yi Yeon-su, Yi Seong, Yi Seo, and Yi Jong-jang.

Yeonan clan[edit]

Yeonan Yi clan (Hangul: 연안이씨, Hanja: 延安李氏)[3] was an aristocratic family clan during the Joseon Dynasty. They had several members become prime ministers and were known to have one of the highest numbers of Chief Scholars during that period. The progenitor was Yi Mu (이무, 李茂) who was from Tang China.

People with the surname[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Joseon Annals, September 15, 1604. No. 4
  2. ^ Han Jeong-gon (한정곤) (2004-07-29) <재벌가 얽히고 설킨 혼맥 24탄> 삼성그룹 Ilyo Siisa, Vol. 445
  3. ^ Joseon Annals, March 21, 1790. No. 3