Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale

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The Lees-Haley Fake Bad Scale (FBS) or MMPI Symptom Validity Scale is a set of 43 items in the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory that was selected by Pauk R.Lees-Haley in 1991 to detect malingering for the forensic evaluation of personal injury claimants.[1] It was endorsed by the MMPI publishers in 2006 and incorporated into the official scoring keys, but is very controversial, with many holding concerns that significant numbers of individuals with legitimate injuries are categorized as faking bad.[2]


The items on the FBS were selected by Lees-Haley on the basis of frequency differences between a sample of individuals known to be malingering and individuals judged to have legitimate complaints and his personal observations of malingerers.[1]


The largest meta-analysis of the FBS compared 1615 judged over-reporters to 2049 normal patients and found an effect size of 0.94.[3]


  1. ^ a b Lees-Haley, Paul R., Lue Thorn English, and Walter J. Glenn. "A fake bad scale on the MMPI-2 for personal injury claimants." Psychological reports 68.1 (1991): 203-210.
  2. ^ David Armstrong. "Malingerer Test Roils Personal-Injury Law". Wall Street Journal.
  3. ^ Nelson, Nathaniel W., Jerry J. Sweet, and George J. Demakis. "Meta-analysis of the MMPI-2 Fake Bad Scale: Utility in forensic practice." The Clinical Neuropsychologist 20.1 (2006): 39-58.