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- where f0 is the output frequency, Ql is the loaded Q, fm is the offset from the output frequency (Hz), fc is the 1/f corner frequency, F is the noise factor of the amplifier, k is Boltzmann's constant, T is absolute temperature in Kelvins, and Ps is the oscillator output power.
- Rubiola, Enrico (2008), Phase noise and frequency stability in oscillators, Cambridge, ISBN 978-0-521-15328-7
- Ali M. Niknejad, Oscillator Phase Noise, University of California, Berkeley, 2009 http://rfic.eecs.berkeley.edu/~niknejad/ee242/pdf/eecs242_lect22_phasenoise.pdf, stating "Leeson modified the above noise model to account for several experimentally observed phenomena". Also, "In Leeson’s model, the factor F is a fitting parameter rather than arising from any physical concepts. It’s tempting to call this the oscillator "noise figure", but this is misleading."
- John van der Merwe, An Experimental Investigation into the Validity of Leeson's Equation for Low Phase Noise Oscillator Design, December 2010, https://scholar.sun.ac.za/bitstream/handle/10019.1/5424/vandermerwe_experimental_2010.pdf
- Enrico Rubiola, The Leeson effect, http://arxiv.org/pdf/physics/0502143.pdf. Superseded by Rubiola 2008.