Left ventricle

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Left ventricle
Diagram of the human heart (cropped).svg
The heart, with cutaways, as viewed from the left side.
Gray496.png
Left ventricle at lower left, cutaway shows some internal cavity detail.
Latin ventriculus sinister cordis
Gray's p.534
System Circulatory System
Artery anterior interventricular branch of left coronary artery
Vein posterior vein of the left ventricle
Precursor primitive ventricle, bulbus cordis
MeSH Left+Ventricle

The left ventricle is one of four chambers (two atria and two ventricles) in the human heart. It receives oxygenated blood from the left atrium via the mitral valve, and pumps it into the aorta via the aortic valve.

Shape[edit]

The left ventricle is shorter and more conical in shape than the right, and on transverse section its concavity presents an oval or nearly circular outline. It forms a small part of the sternocostal surface and a considerable part of the diaphragmatic surface of the heart; it also forms the apex of the heart. The left ventricle is thicker and more muscular than the right ventricle because it pumps blood at a higher pressure.

Development[edit]

By teenage and adult age, its walls have thickened to three to six times greater than that of the right ventricle. This reflects the typical five times greater pressure workload this chamber performs while accepting blood returning from the pulmonary veins at ~80mmHg pressure (equivalent to around 11 kPa) and pushing it forward to the typical ~120mmHg pressure (around 16.3 kPa) in the aorta during each heartbeat. (The pressures stated are resting values and stated as relative to surrounding atmospheric which is the typical "0" reference pressure used in medicine.)

Function[edit]

In a healthy heart, the left ventricular muscle must relax and contract quickly, and be able to increase or lower its pumping capacity under the control of the nervous system.

The left ventricle must relax very rapidly after each contraction so as to fill rapidly with oxygenated blood flowing from the pulmonary veins, (the diastolic relaxation and filling).

It must contract rapidly and forcibly to push most of this blood into the aorta, overcoming the much higher aortic pressure. Extra pressure is also required to stretch the aorta and other major arteries in order to accommodate the increase in blood volume, (the systolic contraction and ejection).

Pumping volume[edit]

Typical healthy adult heart pumping volume is ~5 liters/min, resting. Maximum capacity pumping volume extends from ~25 liters/min for non-athletes to as high as ~45 liters/min for Olympic level athletes.

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