Legacy of the Indo-Greeks

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Indo-Greek Kingdoms in 100 BC.
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The Legacy of the Indo-Greeks starts with the formal end of the Indo-Greek Kingdom from the 1st century CE, as the Greek communities of central Asia and northwestern India lived under the control of the Kushan branch of the Yuezhi, apart from a short-lived invasion of the Indo-Parthian Kingdom.[1] The Kushans founded the Kushan Empire, which was to prosper for several centuries. In the south, the Greeks were under the rule of the Western Kshatrapas.

It is unclear how much longer the Greeks managed to maintain a distinct presence in the Indian sub-continent.

Political legacy[edit]

Hellenistic couple from Taxila (IV).

The 36 Indo-Greek kings known through epigraphy or through their coins belong to the period between 180 BCE to 10–20 CE.[2] There are a few hints of a later Indo-Greek political presence in the Indian subcontinent.

Theodamas, known from an inscription on a signet, may have been an Indo-Greek ruler in the Bajaur area in the 1st century CE.

In the 3rd century, the Scythian Western Satraps seem to have relied on Greeks, such as Yavanesvara ("Lord of the Greeks"), who may have been organized in more or less independent poleis.[3]

Some sort of Greek political organization is thought to have existed in the first half of the 4th century after the rule of the Satavahanas.[4] This is also suggested by the Puranas (the Matsya Purana, the Vayu Purana, the Brahmanda Purana, the Vishnu Purana, the Bhagavata Purana) which give a list of the dynasties who ruled following the decline of the Satavahanas: this list includes 8 Yavana kings, thought to be some dynasty of Greek descent, although they are not otherwise known.[5] According to one theory however, the Southern Indian dynasty of the Chalukyas was named after "Seleukia" (the Seleucids),[6] their conflict with the Pallava of Kanchi being but a continuation of the conflict between ancient Seleukia and "Parthians", the proposed ancestors of Pallavas.[7]

Greek cities[edit]

Some Greek cities seem to have remained intact under Parthian rule: Isidorus of Charax in his 1st century CE "Parthian stations" itinerary described "Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia" as being Greek:

"Beyond is Arachosia (Old Persian Hara[h]uvati, Avestan Haraxvaiti)). And the Parthians call this White India; there are the city of Biyt and the city of Pharsana and the city of Chorochoad (Haraxvat) and the city of Demetrias; then Alexandropolis, the metropolis of Arachosia; it is Greek, and by it flows the river Arachotus (Harahvati). As far as this place the land is under the rule of the Parthians."

—"Parthians stations", 1st century CE. Original text in paragraph 19 of Parthian stations

Also, the city of Alexandria Bucephalus on the Jhelum River is still mentioned in the 1st century Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, as well as in the Roman Peutinger Table.

Military role[edit]

Greek mercenary soldiers from northwestern India are mentioned in the accounts of the Pandyan Kingdom in Madurai, and described in admiring terms: "The valiant-eyed Yavanas, whose bodies were strong and of terrible aspect".[8]

At the beginning of the 2nd century CE, the Central India Satavahana king Gautamiputra Satakarni (r. 106–130 CE) was described as the "Destroyer of Sakas (Western Kshatrapas), Yavanas (Indo-Greeks) and Pahlavas (Indo-Parthians)" in his inscriptions, suggesting a continued presence of the Indo-Greeks until that time.[9]

Men in Greek uniform, Tillia Tepe, 1st century CE.[10]

Around 200 CE, the Manu Smriti describes the downfall of the Yavanas, as well as many others:

"43. But in consequence of the omission of the sacred rites, and of their not consulting Brahmanas, the following tribes of Kshatriyas have gradually sunk in this world to the condition of Shudras;
44. (Viz.) the Paundrakas, the Chodas, the Dravidas, the Kambojas, the Yavanas, the Shakas, the Paradas, the Pahlavas, the Chinas, the Kiratas, the Daradas and the Khashas." (Manusmritti, X.43–44)

There are important references to the warring Mleccha hordes of the Yavanas, Sakas, Kambojas, Pahlavas, etc. in the Bala Kanda of the Valmiki Ramayana.[11]

Indologists like Dr H. C. Raychadhury, Dr B. C. Law, Satya Shrava and others see, in these verses, the clear glimpses of the struggles of the Hindus with the mixed invading hordes of the barbaric Sakas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Kambojas, etc. from north-west.[12] The time frame for these struggles is 2nd century BCE downwards. Dr Raychadhury fixes the date of the present version of the Valmiki Ramayana around/after 2nd century CE.[13]

The invading hordes of the Sakas, Kambojas, Yavanas, Pahlavas, Abhiras, etc. from the north-west had entered Punjab, United Province, Sindhu, Rajasthan and Gujarat in large numbers, wrested political control of northern India from the Indo-Aryans and had established their respective kingdoms and principalities in the land of the Indo-Aryans.[14]

There is also a distinct prophetic statement in the Mahabharata which says that the Mlechha (Barbaric) kings of the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Bahlikas, Abhiras, etc. will rule unrighteously in Kaliyuga.[15]

According to Dr H. C. Ray Chaudhury, this is too clear a statement to be ignored or explained away.

This statement, couched in the form of prophecy in true puranic style, alludes to a historical situation (2nd and 1st century BC downwards) which followed the collapse of Maurya and Sunga dynasties in North India.[16]

This chaotic situation of Aryan India is said to have ended with the destruction of these Mlechcha Saka, Kamboja, Yavana and Parsika hordes by king Vikramaditya of Ujjaini (c. 60 BC) as is related by Brihat-Katha-Manjari of the Kashmiri Pandit Kshemendra and Kathasaritsagara of Somadeva, and the establishment of the Vikrama era.[17][18][19]

Linguistic legacy[edit]

A Greco-Roman-style carnelian seal from the Punjab region, with Brahmi inscription "Kusumadasasya" ("Flower-Servant"). 4–5th century CE. British Museum.

A few common Greek words were adopted in Sanskrit, such as words related to writing and warfare:[20]

  • "ink" (Sankrit: melā, Greek: μέλαν "melan")[21][22]
  • "pen" (Sanskrit:kalamo, Greek: κάλαμος "kalamos")[23]
  • "book" (Sanskrit: pustaka, Greek: πύξινον "puksinon")[24][25]
  • "bridle", a horse's bit (Sanskrit: khalina, Greek: χαλινός "khalinos")[26][27]
  • "center" (Sanskrit: kendram, Greek: κέντρον "kentron")[28][29][30]
  • "siege mining", (Greek: ὑπόνομος "hyponomos", with the meaning of undermining fortifications, in order to enter behind an enemy line, or, just to pull down the enemy's wall)[31][32]
  • "syringe" (Sanskrit: surungā, Greek: σύριγξ-σύριγγα "syrinx-syringa")[31][32]
  • "barbarian, blockhead, stupid" (Sanskrit: barbara, Greek: βάρβαρος "barbaros")[31]
    also: "a shell" cambuka from σαμβύκη, "flour" samita from σεμίδαλις.[33]

The "Avaca" Kharosthi inscription, found on a Buddhist relic casket, indicates that the old Greek military title of strategos ("commander") had apparently endured the Indo-Scythian invasion and was being used by the Apracarajas of Bajaur during the 1st century CE (the inscription mentions the dedication date of the casket as "the year 63 of the late Maharaja Aya", Aya being the Indo-Scythian ruler Azes I, who started the Vikrama era in 58 BCE, therefore suggesting a date around 5 CE). The dedication mentions "vaga stratego puyaite viyayamitro ya" i.e. "The Lord Commander (Stratego) Viyayamitra is honored too".[34]

The Greek philosopher Apollonius of Tyana is related by Philostratus in Life of Apollonius Tyana to have visited India, and specifically the city of Taxila around 46 CE. He describes constructions of the Greek type,[35] probably referring to Sirkap, and explains that the Indo-Parthian king of Taxila, named Phraotes, received a Greek education at the court of his father and spoke Greek fluently:

"Ancient Indian and Indo-Greek theater" by M.L. Varadpande explores the Indo-Greek interaction in the theatrical arts.
"Tell me, O King, how you acquired such a command of the Greek tongue, and whence you derived all your philosophical attainments in this place?"[36]
[...]-"My father, after a Greek education, brought me to the sages at an age somewhat too early perhaps, for I was only twelve at the time, but they brought me up like their own son; for any that they admit knowing the Greek tongue they are especially fond of, because they consider that in virtue of the similarity of his disposition he already belongs to themselves."[37]

Lastly, from the Rabatak inscription we have the following information, tending to indicate that Greek was still in official use until the time of Kanishka (c. 120 CE):

"He (Kanishka) issued(?) an edict(?) in Greek and then he put it into the Aryan language". …but when Kanishka refers to "the Aryan language" he surely means Bactrian, …"By the grace of Auramazda, I made another text in Aryan, which previously did not exist". It is difficult not to associate Kanishka's emphasis here on the use of the "Aryan language" with the replacement of Greek by Bactrian on his coinage. The numismatic evidence shows that this must have taken place very early in Kanishka's reign, …" — Prof. Nicholas Sims-Williams (University of London).
The story of the Trojan horse was depicted in the art of Gandhara. British Museum.

The Greek language was probably still "alive" during the time of Kanishka,[weasel words] as this king introduced a new title in Greek on his early coins (Βασιλεὺς Βασιλέων, "King of Kings" in the nominative), as well as the name of Greek deities such as Ἥλιος (Sun god Helios), Ἥφαιστος (Fire god Hephaistos), and Σαλήνη (Moon goddess Selene).

The Greek script was used not only on coins, but also in manuscripts and stone inscriptions as late as the period of Islamic invasions in the 7th-8th century.[citation needed]

Greek era[edit]

A Greek "Yona" calendar era seems to have been in use in Northwestern Indian for several centuries following the foundation of the Indo-Greek kingdom. A recently discovered inscription in Kharoshthi on a Buddhist reliquary gives a relationship between several eras of the period:

"In the twenty-seventh - 27 - year in the reign of Lord Vijayamitra, the King of the Apraca; in the seventy-third - 73 - year which is called "of Azes", in the two hundred and first - 201 - year of the Yonas (Greeks), on the eighth day of the month of Sravana; on this day was established [this] stupa by Rukhana, the wife of the King of Apraca, [and] by Vijayamitra, the king of Apraca, [and] by Indravarma (Indravasu?), the commander (stratega), [together] with their wives and sons."[38]

As the Azes era is usually considered identical to the Vikrama era starting in 58 BCE, the Yona era would correspond to 186 BCE, which falls in the reign of Demetrius I, although dates ranging from 186 to 150 BCE are still debated.[39] The inscription would date to c. 15 CE.

A second inscription, called the Maghera inscription, found in the Mathura district, is dated to the year 116 of the "Era of the Greeks" ("Yavanarajyasya sodasuttare varsasate 100 10 6), which would correspond to 70 BCE.[40]

Macedonian calendar[edit]

The Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos" for calendrical purposes (British Museum).

The names of the months belonging to the Ancient Macedonian calendar remained in use under the Indo-Scythians and the Kushans until around the 2nd century CE. For example the Indo-Scythian Taxila copper plate inscription uses the Macedonian month of "Panemos".[41] Later, the Dast-i Nawur inscription mentionning the Kushan king Vima Kadphises (reigned circa 90–100 CE) is dated to the 279th year (possibly in the Yona era, which would make it 93 CE, but alternatively in "the Great Arya era" mentioned by Kanishka in the Rabatak inscription, possibly an era started by Mithridates I which would give 108 CE), and the 15th day of the month of "Gorpaios" (Γορπιαίος), which is the 11th month of the Macedonian calendar, corresponding to the moon of August.[42]

Astronomy and astrology[edit]

One of the earliest Indian writings on astronomy and astrology (although not the earliest, as the Vedanga Jyotisha is dated to around 135 BCE[citation needed]), titled the Yavanajataka or "The Saying of the Greeks", is a translation from Greek to Sanskrit made by "Yavanesvara" ("Lord of the Greeks") in 149–150 CE under the rule of the Western Kshatrapa king Rudrakarman I. The Yavanajataka contains instructions on calculating astrological charts (horoscopes) from the time and place of one's birth. Astrology flourished in the Hellenistic world (particularly Alexandria) and the Yavanajataka reflects astrological techniques developed in the Greek-speaking world. Various astronomical and mathematical methods, such as the calculation of the 'horoskopos' (the zodiac sign on the eastern horizon), were used in the service of astrology.[43]

Another set of treatises, the Paulisa Siddhanta and the Romaka Siddhantas, are attributed to later Greco-Roman influence in India. The Paulisa Siddhanta has been tentatively identified with the works of Paulus Alexandrinus, who wrote a well-known astrological hand-book.[citation needed]

Indian astronomy is widely acknowledged to be influenced by the Alexandrian school, and its technical nomenclature is essentially Greek:[citation needed] "The Yavanas are barbarians, yet the science of astronomy originated with them and for this they must be reverenced like gods" (The Gargi-Samhita). Several other Indian texts show appreciation for the scientific knowledge of the "Yavana" Greeks.[44]

Influence of Indo-Greek coinage[edit]

Coin of the Western Kshatrapa ruler Bhratadarman (278–295), with corrupted Greek legend on the obverse and Brahmi legend on the reverse.
A silver coin of the Gupta King Kumara Gupta I (414–455) influenced by Indo-Greek coinage through the Western Kshatrapas, with profile of the ruler and obverse legend in pseudo Greek (succession of letters H and O), and reverse legend is in Brahmi.

Overall, the coinage of the Indo-Greeks remained extremely influential for several centuries throughout the Indian subcontinent:

  • The Indo-Greek weight and size standard for silver drachms was adopted by the contemporary Buddhist kingdom of the Kunindas in Punjab,[citation needed] the first attempt by an Indian kingdom to produce coins that could compare with those of the Indo-Greeks.[45]
  • In central India, the Satavahanas (2nd century BCE- 2nd century CE) adopted the practice of representing their kings in profile, within circular legends.[46]
  • The direct successors of the Indo-Greeks in the northwest, the Indo-Scythians and Indo-Parthians continued displaying their kings within a legend in Greek, and on the obverse Greek deities.[47]
  • To the south, the Western Kshatrapas (1st-4th century) represented their kings in profile with circular legends in corrupted Greek.[48][49]
  • The Kushans (1st-4th century) used the Greek language on their coinage until the first few years of the reign of Kanishka, whence they adopted the Bactrian language, written with the Greek script.[50]
  • The Guptas (4th-6th century), in turn imitating the Western Kshatrapas, also showed their rulers in profile, within a legend in corrupted Greek, in the coinage of their western territories.[51]

The latest use of the Greek script on coins corresponds to the rule of the Turkish Shahi of Kabul, around 850.

Genetic contribution[edit]

Portraits from the site of Hadda, 3rd century CE.

Limited population genetics studies have been made on genetic markers such as Y-DNA in the populations of the Indian subcontinent, to estimate the contribution of the Greeks to the genetic pool. Although some of the markers which are present in a large proportion of Greeks today have not been found, the Greek/European genetic contribution to the Punjab region has been estimated between 0%–15%:

"The political influence of Seleucid and Bactrian dynastic Greeks over northwest India, for example, persisted for several centuries after the invasion of the army of Alexander the Great (Tarn 1951). However, we have not found, in Punjab or anywhere else in India, Y chromosomes with the M170 or M35 mutations that together account for 30% in Greeks and Macedonians today (Semino et al. 2000). Given the sample size of 325 Indian Y chromosomes examined, however, it can be said that the Greek homeland (or European, more generally, where these markers are spread) contribution has been 0%–3% for the total population or 0%–15% for Punjab in particular. Such broad estimates are preliminary, at best. It will take larger sample sizes, more populations, and increased molecular resolution to determine the likely modest impact of historic gene flows to India on its pre-existing large populations."

—Kivisild et al. "Origins of Indian Casts and Tribes".[52]

Some pockets of Greek populations probably remained for some time, and to this day, some communities in the Hindu Kush claim to be descendants of the Greeks, such as the Kalash and Hunza in Pakistan, and the neighbouring Nuristani in Afghanistan.[53][not in citation given]

Greco-Roman exchanges with India[edit]

Although the political power of the Greeks had waned in the north, mainly due to nomadic invasions, trade relations between the Mediterranean and India continued for several centuries. The trade started by Eudoxus of Cyzicus in 130 BCE kept on increasing, and according to Strabo (II.5.12), by the time of Augustus, up to 120 ships were setting sail every year from Myos Hormos to India. So much gold was used for this trade, and apparently recycled by the Kushans for their own coinage, that Pliny (NH VI.101) complained about the drain of specie to India. In practice, this trade was still handled by Greek middlemen, as all the recorded names of ship captains for the period are Greek.

Also various exchanges are recorded between India and Rome during this period. In particular, embassies from India, as well as several missions from "Sramanas" to the Roman emperors are known (see Buddhism and the Roman world). Finally, Roman goods and works of art found their way to the Kushans, as archaeological finds in Begram have confirmed.

Artistic legacy[edit]

Iconographical evolution from the Greek god Herakles to the Japanese god Shukongōshin. From left to right:
1) Herakles (Louvre Museum).
2) Herakles on coin of Greco-Bactrian king Demetrius I.
3) Vajrapani, the protector of the Buddha, depicted as Herakles in the Greco-Buddhist art of Gandhara.
4) Shukongōshin, manifestation of Vajrapani, as protector deity of Buddhist temples in Japan.

The "Kanishka casket", dated to the first year of Kanishka's reign in 127 CE, was signed by a Greek artist named Agesilas, who oversaw work at Kanishka's stupas (caitya), confirming the direct involvement of Greeks with Buddhist realizations at such a late date.[54][55][56][57][58]

Greek representations and artistic styles, with some possible admixtures from the Roman world, continued to maintain a strong identity down to the 3rd–4th century, as indicated by the archaeological remains of such sites as Hadda in eastern Afghanistan.[59]

The Greco-Buddhist image of the Buddha was transmitted progressively through Central Asia and China until it reached Japan in the 6th century.[60]

Numerous elements of Greek mythology and iconography, introduced in northwestern India by the Indo-Greeks through their coinage at the very least, were then adopted throughout Asia within a Buddhist context, especially along the Silk Road. The Japanese Buddhist deity Shukongoshin, one of the wrath-filled protector deities of Buddhist temples in Japan, is an interesting case of transmission of the image of the famous Greek god Herakles to the Far-East along the Silk Road. The image of Herakles was introduced in India with the coinage of Demetrius and several of his successors, used in Greco-Buddhist art to represent Vajrapani the protector of the Buddha, and was then used in Central Asia, China and Japan to depict the protector gods of Buddhist temples.[61]

Intellectual and religious legacy[edit]

Main article: Greco-Buddhism
The Zeus-like Vajrapani was chosen as a protector of the Buddha, art of Gandhara, Guimet Museum.

The impact of the Indo-Greeks on Indian thought and religion is unknown, although many influences have been suggested. Scholars believe that Mahayana Buddhism as a distinct movement began around the 1st century BCE in the North-western Indian subcontinent, corresponding to the time and place of Indo-Greek florescence. Intense multi-cultural influences have indeed been suggested in the appearance of Mahayana. According to Richard Foltz, "Key formative influences on the early development of the Mahayana and Pure Land movements, which became so much part of East Asian civilization, are to be sought in Buddhism's earlier encounters along the Silk Road".[62] As Mahayana Buddhism emerged, it received "influences from popular Hindu devotional cults (bhakti), Persian and Greco-Roman theologies which filtered into India from the northwest".[63] Many of the early Mahayana theories of reality and knowledge can be related to Greek philosophical schools of thought: Mahayana Buddhism has been described as "the form of Buddhism which (regardless of how Hinduized its later forms became) seems to have originated in the Greco-Buddhist communities of India, through a conflation of the Greek Democritean-Sophistic-Skeptical tradition with the rudimentary and unformalized empirical and skeptical elements already present in early Buddhism".[64] However, this view can hardly explain the origin of the bodhisattva ideal, already delineated in the Aagamas, which also already contained a well-developed theory of selflessness (anaatman) and emptiness (shunyaata), none of these essential Mahayaana tenets being traceable to Greek roots.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ "Though the Indo-Greek monarchies seem to have ended in the first century BC, the Greek presence in India and Bactria remained strong", McEvilley, p.379
  2. ^ Boppearachchi, "Monnaies Indo-Grecques"
  3. ^ McEvilley, p385
  4. ^ David Pingree, "The Yavanajataka of Sphujidhvaja", p4. Quotes in McEvilley, p385
  5. ^ Comments given in Rapson "Catalogue of the Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc...", Rapson, p LXVIII:
    "These must, no doubt, belong to some dynasty of Greek descent, but it is impossible to determine which dynasty this could have been"
    The full list, with comments, is given in Rapson "Catalogue of the Indian coins in the British Museum. Andhras etc...", Rapson, p LXVIII:
    • 7 other Andhras kings (called "Andhrabhrytias", or "Servant of the Andhras", probably the Chutus in the Western and Southern districts.
    • 10 Abhira kings, who ruled in the area of Nasik.
    • 7 Gardabhila kings, who ruled in the area of Ujjain
    • 18 Saka kings, probably the Western Satraps.
    • 8 Yavana kings, thought to be some dynasty of Greek descent.
    • 14 Tusara kings (also called Tuhkara, Tuskara), thought to be the Kushans (who are called "Turuska" in the Rajatarangini).
    • 13 Murunda or Gurunda kings.
    • 21 Huna kings (also called Maunas), probably the Indo-Hephthalites.
  6. ^ Dr. Lewis Rice, S. R. Sharma and M. V. Krishna Rao Arthikaje, Mangalore. "History of Karnataka-Gangas of Talkad". 1998-2000 OurKarnataka. Com, Inc. Retrieved 2007-01-18. 
  7. ^ Dr. Lewis's theory, based on the similarity of names, has not found general acceptance because the Pallavas were in constant conflict with the Kadambas, prior to the rise of Chalukyas, according to Dr. Suryanath U. Kamath (2001), "A Concise History of Karnataka from pre-historic times to the present", Jupiter books, MCC (Reprinted 2002), p57
  8. ^ Pande, L.V.; Varadpande, M.L. (1987). History of Indian Theatre 1. Abhinav Publications. p. 235. ISBN 9788170172215. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  9. ^ From Rapson, "Indian coins in the British Museum". Following the above quote, Rapson writes: "The Kashtriyas are the native Indian princes, the Rajputs of Rajputana, Gujarat and Central India; and the Sakas, Yavanas, and Pahavas are respectively Scythian, Greeks and Persian invaders from the north, who established kingdoms in various districts of Northern and Western India", p.xxxvii Rapson
  10. ^ "Afghanistan, les trésors retrouvés", Guimet Museum, item 79
  11. ^ (1.54.21-23; 1.55.2-3).
    taih asit samvrita bhuumih Shakaih-Yavana mishritaih || 1.54-21 ||
    taih taih Yavana-Kamboja barbarah ca akulii kritaah || 1-54-23 ||
    tasya humkaarato jatah Kamboja ravi sannibhah |
    udhasah tu atha sanjatah Pahlavah shastra panayah || 1-55-2 ||
    yoni deshaat ca Yavanah Shakri deshat Shakah tathaa |
    roma kupesu Mlecchah ca Haritah sa Kiratakah || 1-55-3 ||
    (Ramayana 1.54.21-23; 1.55.2-3)
  12. ^ The Śakas in India, 1981, p 12, Satya Shrava; Journal, 1920, p 175, University of Calcutta. Department of Letters; Political History of India from the Accession of Parikshit to the Coronation of Bimbisara, 1923, Page iii, Hemchandra Raychaudhuri; Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 4, Raychaudhury; Indological Studies, 1950, p 4, Dr B. C. Law.
  13. ^ Political History of Ancient India, 1996, p 3-4.
  14. ^ Cf also: 'Numerous Hindu references show, that there was a great inflow of foreign nations into India in the centuries before and after the Christian. The incorporation of foreign nations -- the Sakas, Yavanas, Kambojas, Pahlavas & the Paradas is mentioned in the Vishnu Purana (Indian Antiquary, IV, 166; Bombay Gazetteer, 1882, p 413, Bombay (India : State), Bombay (Presidency), Harivamsa, Vayu Purana and numerous other Puranic texts. The invading hordes referenced in the Gazetteer are the Yavanas, Kambojas, Sakas, Pahlavas, etc. (See: Bombay Gazett. Presidency, 1901, p 448). Mahabharata mentions the great hordes of the Sakas and Yavanas helping the Kambojas (See: Bombay Gazett. Presidency, 1901, p 461, fn 2). In the Army of Nahapana (130 CE), the great Pahlava conqueror of Malwa and north Daccan, the supporting military hordes were the Kshaharatas (i.e. the Kambojas per Dr T. L. Shah), Pahlavas, Sakas and Yavanas' (Cf: Bombay Gazett, 1901, p 461, fn 2; Journal B.B. R.A., Soc., VIII, p 236).
  15. ^
    viparite tada loke purvarupa.n kshayasya tat. 28.
    bahavo mechchha rajanah prithivyam manujadhipa.
    mithyanushasinah papa mrishavadaparayanah. 29.
    Andhrah ShakAh Pulindashcha Yavanashcha naradhipah.
    Kamboja Aurnikah Shudrastathabhira narottama. 30.
    (MBH 23/187/28-30)
  16. ^ "After the disintegration of Mauryan empire, the insecured frontier region of north-western part of India invited several foreign invaders i.e. Yavasnas, Sakas, Kambojas, Pahlavas from western and Central Asia who came in India through migrations and invasions. …The moral and social degradation in the Indian society is indicated due to foreign invasions. Mahabharata states that Andhara, Sakas, Kambojas, Pulinda, Yavans, Vahlikas, Sudras, Abhiras, Mlechchas, will rule over the land and also will be addicted to falsehood" (Ref: Social Justice: Problems & Perspectives :{Seminar Proceedings of March 5–7, 1995}, Edition 1996, P 173, Jhinkoo Yadav, Dr Suman Gupta, Chandrajeet Yadav); See also: Ancient Kamboja People and the Country, 1981, Dr J. L. Kamboj.
  17. ^
    ata shrivikramadityo helya nirjitakhilah|:
    Mlechchana Kambojan Yavanan Neecan Hunan Sabarbran||
    Tushara Parsikaanshcha tayakatacharan vishrankhalan|
    hatya bhrubhangamatreyanah bhuvo bharamavarayate||
    (Brahata Katha, 10/1/285-86, Kshmendra)
  18. ^ Kathasritsagara 18.1.76-78.
  19. ^ Cf:"In the story contained in Kathasaritsagara, king Vikarmaditya, is said to have destroyed all the barbarous tribes such as the Kambojas, Yavanas, Hunas, Tokharas and the Persians"(See: Ref: Reappraising the Gupta History, 1992, p 169, B. C. Chhabra, Sri Ram; Cf also: Vikrama Volume, 1948, p xxv, Vikramāditya Śakāri; cf: Anatomii͡a i fiziologii͡a selʹskokhozi͡a ĭstvennykh zhivotnykh, 1946, p 264, Arthur John Arberry, Louis Renou, B. K. Hindse, A. V. Leontovich, National Council of Teachers of English Committee on Recreational Reading - Sanskrit language.
  20. ^ Quoted in Tarn, "The Greeks in Bactria and India", p376, based on Weber, B. Liebich, O. Stein.
  21. ^ enter "mela" http://webapps.uni-koeln.de/tamil/
  22. ^ "Google Translate". translate.google.com. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  23. ^ "Google Translate". translate.google.com. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  24. ^ "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.de. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  25. ^ Schäfer, G.H. (1822). Homeri Ilias: Nova editio accvrata in vsvm praelectionvm academicarvm et scholarvm .... svmtibvs J.A.G. Weigelii. pp. 2–213. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  26. ^ "khalina -". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  27. ^ Benfey, T. (1866). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: With References to the Best Edition of Sanskrit Author and Etymologies and Camparisons of Cognate Words Chiefly in Greek, Latin, Gothic, and Anglo-Saxon. Asian Educational Services. pp. 1–166. ISBN 9788120603707. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  28. ^ "Sanskrit Dictionary for Spoken Sanskrit". spokensanskrit.de. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  29. ^ "Online Etymology Dictionary". etymonline.com. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  30. ^ "kendra -". dsal.uchicago.edu. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  31. ^ a b c A Sanskrit-English Dictionary By Theodor Benfey
  32. ^ a b "Google Translate". translate.google.com. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  33. ^ Benfey, T. (1866). A Sanskrit-English Dictionary: With References to the Best Edition of Sanskrit Author and Etymologies and Camparisons of Cognate Words Chiefly in Greek, Latin, Gothic, and Anglo-Saxon. Asian Educational Services. ISBN 9788120603707. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  34. ^ Avaca inscription: Journal of the American Oriental Society, Vol. 102, No. 1 (Jan. - Mar., 1982), pp. 59–68
  35. ^ Description of the Hellenistic urbanism of Taxila:
    • "Taxila, they tell us, is about as big as Nineveh, and was fortified fairly well after the manner of Greek cities" (Life of Apollonius Tyana, II 20)
    • "I have already described the way in which the city is walled, but they say that it was divided up into narrow streets in the same irregular manner as in Athens, and that the houses were built in such a way that if you look at them from outside they had only one story, while if you went into one of them, you at once found subterranean chambers extending as far below the level of the earth as did the chambers above." (Life of Apollonius Tyana, II 23)
  36. ^ Jona Lendering. "Flavius Philostratus: The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, II 29". livius.org. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  37. ^ Jona Lendering. "Flavius Philostratus: The Life of Apollonius of Tyana, II 31". livius.org. Retrieved 2014-12-13. 
  38. ^ "Afghanistan, carrefour en l'Est et l'Ouest" p.373. Also Senior 2003
  39. ^ See Chronology of Indian eras
  40. ^ "Afghanistan, carrefour en l'Est et l'Ouest" p.373
  41. ^ Tarn, p.494
  42. ^ Mario Bussagli, "L'art du Gandhara", p187
  43. ^ McEvilley, p.384-386
  44. ^ Indian sources on Yavana learning:
    • A comment in "Brihat-Samhita" by the mathematician Varahamihira says:
      "The Greeks, though impure, must be honored since they were trained in sciences and therein, excelled others....." ("mleccha hi yavanah tesu samyak shastram kdamsthitam/ rsivat te 'p i pujyante kim punar daivavid dvijah" (Brihat-Samhita 2.15)).
    • Also the Mahabharata compliments the Greeks as "the all-knowing Yavanas" (sarvajnaa yavanaa):
      "The Yavanas, O king, are omniscient; the Suras are particularly so. The mlecchas are wedded to the creations of their own fancy." ("sarvajnaa yavanaa rajan shuraaz caiva vishesatah/ mlecchah svasamjnaa niyataanaanukta itaro janah (Mahabharata VIII (Karna Parva).45.35))
  45. ^ Tarn, p.324-325
  46. ^ Rapson, clxxxvi-
  47. ^ Whitehead, p.91-97
  48. ^ Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. p.cix
  49. ^ "It was their (the Indo-Greek's) commercial success that led the western Satraps to imitate them." Narain, The Indo-Greeks, p.115
  50. ^ Whitehead, p.171-177
  51. ^ "Evidence of the conquest of Saurastra during the reign of Chandragupta II is to be seen in his rare silver coins which are more directly imitated from those of the Western Satraps... they retain some traces of the old inscriptions in Greek characters, while on the reverse, they substitute the Gupta type (a peacock) for the chaitya with crescent and star." in Rapson "A catalogue of Indian coins in the British Museum. The Andhras etc...", p.cli
  52. ^ Greek impact on the genetics of India (last paragraph):Text
  53. ^ Tarn, p.408
  54. ^ Tarn, p.355
  55. ^ The Greeks in Bactria & India By William Woodthorpe Tarn
  56. ^ Early History of North India, from the Fall of the Mauryas to the Death of ... By Sudhakar
  57. ^ Trade and Commerce of Ancient India, C. 200 B. C.-c. 650 A. D. By Haripada Chakraborti
  58. ^ http://books.google.com/books?ei=7oj_SIT1M6DKzQSY_4TTDQ&id=fvVGRYnqr2wC&dq=Tarn+agesilas&q=agesilas&pgis=1#search
  59. ^ Boardman, p.141-144
  60. ^ "Needless to say, the influence of Greek art on Japanese Buddhist art, via the Buddhist art of Gandhara and India, was already partly known in, for example, the comparison of the wavy drapery of the Buddha images, in what was, originally, a typical Greek style" (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p19)
  61. ^ "The origin of the image of Vajrapani should be explained. This deity is the protector and guide of the Buddha Sakyamuni. His image was modelled after that of Hercules. (...) The Gandharan Vajrapani was transformed in Central Asia and China and afterwards transmitted to Japan, where it exerted stylistic influences on the wrestler-like statues of the Guardian Deities (Nio)." (Katsumi Tanabe, "Alexander the Great, East-West cultural contacts from Greece to Japan", p23)
  62. ^ Foltz, "Religions of the Silk Road", p9.
  63. ^ Tom Lowenstein, "The Vision of the Buddha, p63.
  64. ^ McEvilley, "The Shape of Ancient Thought", p503.

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