Legal Sea Foods

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Legal Sea Foods
Industry Restaurants
Founded Cambridge, Massachusetts, fish market (1950); restaurant (1968)
Founder George Berkowitz
Headquarters Boston, Massachusetts, United States
Number of locations
35 restaurants[1]
Key people
Roger Berkowitz, President & CEO
Rich Vellante, Executive Chef
Sandy Block, MW, VP of Beverage
Products seafood, restaurants
Number of employees

Legal Sea Foods is an American restaurant chain[2][3] of upscale casual-dining seafood restaurants operating in seven Eastern states and the District of Columbia, though most are in the Greater Boston area.[4] The company was founded by George Berkowitz who opened the Legal Cash Market grocery store in 1950 in Cambridge, Massachusetts and he opened the first restaurant next door to the market in 1968. The current company headquarters is located in Boston and as August 6, 2014, the group operates 35 restaurants.[4] Legal Sea Foods also operates an online fish market and ships fresh fish anywhere in the contiguous United States as well as a retail products division.


In 1904, Harry Berkowitz opened the "Legal Cash Market" in the Inman Square neighborhood of Cambridge, Massachusetts and the name for the market came from the "Legal Stamps", also known as trading stamps, given to loyal customers. The store provided a good living for Harry and his family up until the late 1940's, when chain grocery stores like Stop & Shop and others entered the picture and provided stiff competition for the family business.[5]

In 1950, George Berkowitz, the son of Harry, opened a fish market adjacent to his father's grocery store and named it Legal Sea Foods. This was done to add a degree of specialty to the grocery business by offering customers a fish counter where they could get fresh fish.[5] From the early 1950s the market sold fresh fish as well as fish and chips that could only be taken to-go. In 1968, the Berkowitz family decided to open a restaurant in the adjacent space. They served mainly fish and chips, fried clams, fried shrimp, and fried scallops served on paper plates while the customers sat on picnic tables.[5]

In 1975, the restaurant expanded to a more traditional restaurant at the site of the former S.S. Pierce building in Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts.[6] In 1980, the original Inman Square restaurant is destroyed in a fire.[7] With the help of this two sons, Marc and Roger, they opened their flagship location in the Park Plaza Hotel in the Boston Theater District of downtown Boston.


At the first inauguration of Ronald Reagan in 1981, Legal Sea Foods clam chowder was chosen to represent the state of Massachusetts and has been served at every presidential inauguration since.[8] Also in 1981, the restaurant established one of the first quality control centers for fish processing and distribution.

In 1986, Legal Sea Foods was the named "Best Seafood Restaurant in America" by NBC's Today Show.[9]


In 1990, the restaurant partnered with the United States Department of Commerce in developing a hazard analysis and critical control points (HACCP) program and establishing a landmark fishing industry standard for freshness and food safety.[10]

In 1992, Roger Berkowitz, the son of George, takes over as CEO of the private restaurant business. Roger has worked in the family business since the age of ten and is a graduate of the S. I. Newhouse School of Public Communications at Syracuse University.[11] During this time Roger became the company spokesman and voice many of the Legal Sea Foods radio commercials, including the award-winning “Fresh Insights” radio campaign.[12]

In March 1994, Food Arts Magazine awarded the Silver Spoon Award to George and Roger Berkowitz for sterling performance and raising Americans' consciousness about seafood for 30 years.[13] Legal also opened their first airport restaurant at Logan International Airport's Terminal C. The restaurant later opened locations in Logan Airport and in the Philadelphia International Airport. Also in 1994, the restaurant invited chefs from China to fuse Asian cuisine into the menu at the restaurants. This program was called "Cusineast" and some dishes created are still on the current menu.[14]

At the Super Bowl XXXI, hungry fans in New Orleans were treated to New England clam chowder from Legal's Chowda van.[15]

In 1998, Roger Berkowitz is invited to join the Harvard School of Public Health Nutrition Roundtable,[16] a group of people with personal and professional interests in nutrition.[17] It was during 1998, when Bon Appétit magazine named Legal Sea Food one of the Top Ten Tried and True restaurants in America.[18] Rich Vellante also becomes the restaurant group's Executive Chef in 1998 and is currently still in this position.[19]

In 1999, The International Food Manufacturers Association awards Roger Bekowitz with the Silver Plate award for the best full-service, multi-unit restaurant operator in America. This award is the food industry’s highest honor.[20]


In 2000, the American Institute of Food and Wine sponsor Legal Sea Food's 50th birthday with celebrity chefs and Julia Child in attendance.[7] The CBS news program, Eye on America, focused on Legal Sea Food restaurant's quality control program with a segment on food safety.

In 2003, Legal Sea Food restaurants became one of America's first restaurants to go trans-fat free.[21] This was done well before it became a national issue. The New Legal Sea Foods Cookbook is published.[22]

Legal Sea Foods Quality Control Center and corporate headquarters as seen from Boston Harbor in 2014
Legal Sea Foods Quality Control Center and corporate headquarters as seen from Boston Harbor (2014).

In 2005, a new type of restaurant, Legal Test Kitchen (LTK), opened with a menu that is 50 - 60 percent non-seafood and a lower price than their more traditional locations.[23] Also in 2005, Legal begins to offer gluten-free options on the menu for the first time, giving patrons with celiac disease more dining options.

In 2006, the free-standing Legal Test Kitchen (LTK) opens in the newly developed South Boston WaterfrontDistrict in Boston and offers multicultural dining options.[24][25] In 2006, Legal is one of the first restaurants in the United States to allow diners to pay their bill using a table-side device to self-pay.[25]

In 2008, Legal Sea Foods is awarded “#1 Best Family Restaurant” by Parents magazine. And later in the year, Roger Berkowitz is inducted into the Nation’s Restaurant News MenuMasters Hall of Fame.[26] and Legal open a new restaurant in Atlanta, Georgia.

In 2009, Legal C Bar opens in Dedham, Massachusetts focused on serving casual seafood and custom cocktails.[27] Also this year, Cheers magazine gives Legal Sea Foods the two top awards for their outstanding beverage program.


In 2010, Legal Sea Food celebrates sixty years in business. The restaurant celebrated by offering clam chowder for 60 cents a cup.

in 2011, Legal opens their new flagship restaurant, Legal Harborside on the Boston waterfront[28] and is named "Best New Restaurant" by Esquire magazine.

In 2013, Legal Sea Foods announced they would be opening a restaurant in the Downtown Crossing section Boston and the name would be Legal Crossing (LX).

On February 22, 2014, a carbon monoxide leak killed the manager of the Legal Sea Foods at the Walt Whitman Shops in Huntington Station, New York and sickened 27 others. The leak was reportedly caused by a faulty flue pipe attached to a gas water heater. President & CEO of Legal Sea Foods, Roger Berkowitz, said that the company would install carbon monoxide detectors and conduct comprehensive safety audits at all locations. He also pledged to be at the forefront of legislative efforts to require the use of carbon monoxide detectors in commercial buildings.[29][30]


The menus vary by location, season and concept, but they all include a wide variety of specialty seafood entrees, appetizers, salads and desserts. Over 40 varieties of fresh fish and shellfish, simply prepared according to New England tradition, are featured throughout the year. Most popular items include: lobster, clam chowder, fried clams, crab cakes, shrimp cocktail, tuna burgers, baked scrod, surf and turf and grilled fish fillets. Extensive wine lists and full-service bars are also available at all locations and have garnered recognition for its philosophy of offering value at all price points. The restaurant offers separate lunch and dinner menus as well as a gluten-free menu and award-winning kids’ menu.

By buying directly from day boat fishing operations, the company markets itself as having the freshest fish. The company also made industry advances on fish handling and has worked with the federal agencies on developing Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP).[31]

In the media[edit]

Bon Appétit magazine touts a meal at Legal Sea Foods as among America’s “Top Ten Tried-and-True” dining experiences.[18] Legal is also included in Patricia Schultz’s popular guidebook, "1,000 Places to See Before You Die."[32] During 2008 it ran a series of humorous radio advertisements, created by its advertising agency DeVito/Verdi, capping with its aforementioned motto as well as a 'really fresh fish' ad campaign on Boston's trolleys that won industry awards.[33]

The Legal Sea Foods dining room at their restaurant in the South Boston Waterfront
The Legal Harborside first floor dining room at their restaurant in the South Boston Waterfront.

The Boston, Massachusetts Legal Sea Foods restaurant sponsored a January 2011 dinner that featured several species of fish which were listed by the advocacy organization Seafood Watch as ones to avoid for sustainability reasons.[34] Legal Sea Foods CEO, Roger Berkowitz said in a statement that much of the science around sustainable fisheries was "flawed" and "outdated."[35] While the protest was criticized by several environmental organizations, it was praised by others, including some in the media. Representatives of fishermen in Gloucester supported the choice to use locally sourced fish.[36]

Legal Sea Foods has been voted "Boston's Most Popular Restaurant" by Zagat, 2012/2011 and every year since 2003/2004.


In 2013, Legal Sea Foods had more than 30 locations,[37] in addition to retail and mail order divisions, and has garnered critical accolades for its status as a mid-sized seafood chain.[38] Legal Sea Foods also operates Legal Test Kitchen (LTK) and Legal C Bar concepts and in spring of 2011 opened Legal Harborside, a 20,000 square feet (1,900 m2) flagship restaurant on the South Boston Waterfront. In 2014, three neighborhood restaurants, Legal Crossing, Legal Oysteria and Legal on the Mystic debuted.

District of Columbia[edit]



  • Boston - Copley Place
  • Boston - Legal C Bar, Logan Airport Terminal B
  • Boston - Legal Harborside
  • Boston - Legal Test Kitchen, Logan Airport Terminal A
  • Boston - Legal Test Kitchen, South Boston Waterfront
  • Boston - Logan Airport Terminal B

New Jersey[edit]


Rhode Island[edit]


Advertising and marketing[edit]

In the late summer of 2014, Legal began running print and television spots in six states, and the District of Columbia that argue that its seafood restaurants should never be called a chain. The series of advertisements, created by the New York advertising firm DeVito/Verdi, uses the restaurant's chief executive, Roger Berkowitz to explain why his seafood restaurants should not be called a chain.[1]

In March of 2015, Legal partnered with the ride-sharing company Uber on a promotion to deliver bowls of clam chowder anywhere in the city of Boston. The chowder cost $10 with $1 being donated to the Greater Boston Food Bank.[41]


See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b Newman, Andrew Adam (2014-07-06). "Call It What You Like, but Not a Chain". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2014-10-29. 
  2. ^ "Hook & Ladder". The Improper Bostonian. Retrieved 12 August 2014. 
  3. ^ "Most Popular Boston Restaurant" - Zagat, 2012/2013. New York, NY: Zagat. 2012. 
  4. ^ a b "Restaurants By State". Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  5. ^ a b c Playfair, Susan R. (2005). Vanishing Species: Saving the Fish, Sacrificing the Fisherman. UPNE. ISBN 978-1584654520. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  6. ^ "The Street Timeline: 1950 - Present". Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  7. ^ a b Arnett, Alison (2000-11-13). "MAKING IT LEGAL ON ITS 50TH ANNIVERSARY, THE BOSTON LANDMARK IS TESTING NEW WATERS". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  8. ^ DeCanio, Lisa (2012-02-20). "Legal Sea Foods' Presidential Clam Chowder & 8 Other Presidents Day Facts About the Hub". BostInno. Streetwise Media. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  9. ^ Krumroy, Robert E. (2002). Brilliant Strategies and Fatal Blunders: How Small Businesses Survive and Thrive in an Overcrowded Market. Identity Branding Inc. ISBN 978-0967866116. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  10. ^ Unknown (1995). Food-service East, Volumes 70-71. HSI, Incorporated. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  11. ^ "ROGER BERKOWITZ, PRESIDENT & CEO". Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  12. ^ "Fresh Insights from Roger Berkowitz - Legal Sea Foods". Maydream, Inc. Retrieved 2013-12-30. 
  13. ^ Mariani, John (March 1994). "George & Roger Berkowitz". Food Arts (Food Arts). Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  14. ^ "Legal Sea Food Cusineast". Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  15. ^ Bickelhaupt, Susan; Maureen Dezell (1997-01-25). "In New Orleans, it's not all jambalaya . . .". The Boston Globe. 
  16. ^ Berkowitz, Roger; Leigh Buchanan (2008-07-01). "The Way I Work: Roger Berkowitz". Inc. (magazine). Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  17. ^ "Leadership Council Members Make Significant Gifts for Asthma, Obesity, Nutrition Efforts". Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  18. ^ a b Elia, Richard L. Quarterly Review of Wines. 24-25. Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  19. ^ "RICH VELLANTE, EXECUTIVE CHEF". Retrieved 2013-12-07. 
  20. ^ "Past Gold & Silver Plate Winners" (PDF). Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  21. ^ Adamy, Janet; Steven Gray (2006-09-26). "New York Trans-Fat Plan Could Spur Nationwide Oil Change". Wall Street Journal. Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  22. ^ Berkowitz, Roger; Doerfer, Jane (2003). [http: / The New Legal Sea Foods Cookbook]. Random House LLC. ISBN 978-0767906913. Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  23. ^ "Businesses set for opening of Logan terminal". Boston Business Journal. 2005-03-05. Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  24. ^ Cutler, Kim-Mai (2006-06-16). "Waterfront Luring Eateries". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  25. ^ a b "WELCOME TO LTK". Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  26. ^ "2008 Winners". Retrieved 2013-12-08. 
  27. ^ Wilder, Joan (2010-02-28). "Legals chain extends reach, casually". The Boston Globe. Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  28. ^ Pratt, Mary K. (2012-03-02). "Seaport: Vision pans out in former hardscrabble neighborhood". Boston Business Journal (American City Business Journals). Retrieved 2013-12-10. 
  29. ^ Southall, Ashley (2014-02-23). "Faulty Pipe Led to Deadly Gas in Restaurant". The New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  30. ^ Field, Alexandra (2014-02-24). "One dead from carbon monoxide poisoning". CNN.Com (Turner Broadcasting System, Inc.). Retrieved 2014-03-03. 
  31. ^ Apple, R.W., Jr., "In the Quest for Safer Seafood, One Company Follows Its Nose", The New York Times, November 29, 2000
  32. ^ Schultz, Patricia (2003). 1,000 Places to See Before You Die: A Traveler's Life List. Workman Publishing Company. ISBN 978-0-7611-0484-1. 
  33. ^ redOrbit, "Stirring Up Trouble, Without Even Trying ", June 24, 2008, retrieved 18 June 2009
  34. ^ First, Devra (January 22, 2011). "Fish and chippiness are on the menu". The Boston Globe. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  35. ^ Byrne, Kerry J. (January 24, 2011). "Berkowitz vs. Bloggers in Legal Sea Foods' "blacklisted" dinner flap". Boston Herald. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  36. ^ Gaines, Richard (January 5, 2011). "Legal 'blacklist' meal backs fishermen". Gloucester Daily Times. Retrieved January 27, 2011. 
  37. ^ (official website)
  38. ^ 2007/2008 Zagat Boston Overview (The Boston Globe, Apr. 2007)
  39. ^ Luna, Taryn (2014-03-12). "Legal Sea Foods debuts neighborhood concept". The Boston Globe (BOSTON GLOBE MEDIA PARTNERS, LLC). Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  40. ^ Luna, Taryn (2014-07-15). "With Oysteria, Legal goes Italian route". The Boston Globe (BOSTON GLOBE MEDIA PARTNERS, LLC). Retrieved 2014-08-06. 
  41. ^ Boroyan, Nate (2015-03-15). "Uber Is Delivering Legal Sea Foods Clam Chowder Today". BostInno (Streetwise Media). Retrieved 2015-03-25. 
  42. ^ "10 Best seafood restaurants: Readers' Choice winners". USA Today (Gannett). 2013-10-04. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  43. ^ a b Goodspeed, Linda (2013-03-01). "Most Admired - Restaurants". Boston Business Journal (American City Business Journal). Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  44. ^ "Best Restaurant for Kids". Philadelphia (Metro Corp.). 2013-11-01. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  45. ^ Mariani, John (2011). "Esquire's Best New Restaurants 2011". Esquire (magazine) (Hearst Communications, Inc.). Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  46. ^ Schultz, Patricia (2003). 1,000 Places to See Before You Die. Workman Publishing. pp. 902, 938. ISBN 978-0761104841. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 
  47. ^ "Best Clam Chowder In Boston". WBZ CBS Boston (CBS Local Media). 2012-07-03. Retrieved 2013-12-09. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]