Legal education in the Philippines

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Legal education in the Philippines is developed and offered by Philippine law schools, supervised by the Legal Education Board, that has replaced the Commission on Higher Education in respect to legal education. The Supreme Court regulates admission to the Bar and administers the Bar Examinations. Furthermore, the minimum curricular requirements for membership in the Philippine Bar are set forth in the Rules of Court promulgated by the Supreme Court.

Law degree programs are considered graduate programs in the Philippines. As such, admission to law schools requires the completion of a bachelor's degree, with a sufficient number of credits or units in certain subject areas.

Graduation from a Philippine law school constitutes the primary eligibility requirement for the Philippine Bar Examination, the national licensure examination for practicing lawyers in the country. The bar examination is administered by the Supreme Court during the month of September every year.

Members of the bar in the Philippines are required to take mandatory continuing legal education in order to continue practicing their profession.

Legal education in the Philippines normally proceeds along the following route:

  • Undergraduate education (usually 4 years)
  • Law school (usually 4 years)
  • Admission to the bar (usually by taking a Philippine bar exam)
  • Legal practice and mandatory continuing legal education

History[edit]

The University of Santo Tomas established its Faculties of Canon Law and Civil Law in 1733. From 1734 to 1800, of only 3,360 students, only 29 graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 with the degree of Licentiate in Civil Law and 3 with the degree of Doctor of Civil Law in that university.[1]

In 1899, after the Malolos Constitution was ratified, the Universidad Literia de Filipinas was established in Malolos, Bulacan. It offered Law as well as Medicine, Surgery and Notary Public. In 1899, Felipe Calderón founded the Escuela de Derecho de Manila and adopted the name Manila Law College in 1924. The University of the Philippines opened its College of Law in 1910. There were around 50 Filipino and American students.[1] Justice Sherman Moreland of the Supreme Court of the Philippines was named its first Dean, but after he ultimately declined the position, he was replaced by George A. Malcolm, who is recognized as the college's first permanent dean.

Legal Systems[edit]

The Philippine legal system is an amalgamation of the world's major systems. These systems include the Roman civil law which was inherited from Spain; the Anglo-American common law which were derived from the laws of the United States; and Islamic law otherwise known as the Shariah law of the Muslim world.

Law degree programs[edit]

Law degrees in the Philippines may be classified into three types—professional, graduate level, and honorary.

Professional law degrees[edit]

In order to be eligible to take the bar examinations, one must complete one of the two professional degrees: The Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) program or the Juris Doctor (J.D.) program. Advanced degrees are offered by some law schools, but are not requirements for admission to the practice of law in the Philippines.

  • Bachelor of Laws (Ll.B.) - The Ll.B. is the most common law degree offered and conferred by Philippine law schools. It is a standard four-year law program covering all bar exam subjects. Almost all law schools follow a standard LL.B. curriculum, wherein students are exposed to the required bar subjects. Other schools, like the University of the Philippines College of Law, allow students to substitute electives for bar review subjects offered in the fourth year of study.[2]
  • Juris Doctor (J.D.) - The J.D. degree was developed and first conferred in the Philippines by the Ateneo Law School in 1991. The J.D. program is a four-year law program. Like the standard Ll.B. program, the J.D. curriculum covers the core subjects required for the bar examinations. Unlike the Ll.B., the Ateneo J.D. program requires students to finish the core bar subjects in 2½ years, take elective subjects, undergo an apprenticeship, and prepare and defend a thesis.[3] Aside from the Ateneo, other law schools offer the J.D.: the University of Batangas College of Law,[2] and just recently, the University of the Philippines College of Law [4] The change in degree title from Bachelor of Laws (LL.B.) to Juris Doctor (J.D.) degree at the University of the Philippines was approved by its president, Dr. Emerlinda R. Roman, on July 31, 2007. In 2009, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law and the Silliman University College of Law started its own J.D. curriculum.[5][6] The Central Philippine University in Iloilo City will start to offer this degree by second semester of 2010.[7]Juris Doctor (JD) program of Central Philippine University College of Law is the first Juris Doctor (JD) program in any Law schools in the Philippines approved by the Philippine Legal Education Board.

University of St. La Salle in Bacolod city is also offering a J.D. program.[citation needed] Centro Escolar University School of Law and Jurisprudence offers J.D. program in their Makati campus.

Graduate law degrees[edit]

Beyond the J.D. or Ll.B., members of the Philippine bar have the option of pursuing graduate degrees in law.

  • Master of Laws (LL.M.) - The Ll.M. is a graduate law degree offered to holders of basic law degrees (LL.B. and J.D.). It is generally offered to law graduates and lawyers of any nationality. Six Philippine law schools so far conduct the program—the Ateneo Law School, which offers an International Master of Laws program; the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law, which first offered the LLM; University of Manila College of Law; Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law; San Beda Graduate School of Law; and PLM Graduate School of Law of the Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila). LL.M. programs were once offered by the Far Eastern University Institute of Law, the Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation), and the University of the Philippines College of Law but were eventually phased out due to lack of enrollment and funding.[2]
  • Doctor of Civil Law (D.C.L.) - The D.C.L. program is a doctoral program in law offered to holders of the LL.M degree. Candidates who hold only LL.B. degrees may be admitted upon completion of prerequisite LL.M. subjects. The D.C.L. was pioneered by the University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law. Their program structure is highly similar to the D.C.L. offered in the Complutense University of Madrid.[8] The PLM Graduate School of Law has already opened its own D.C.L. program.[9]
  • Doctor of Jurisprudential Science (S.J.D. or J.S.D.) - The S.J.D. or J.S.D. program is currently offered only by the San Beda Graduate School of Law. While the candidate for the degree is required some academic units, the grant of the degree relies on the candidates research output as well as his or her participation in international symposia, seminars and programs as lecturer, panel presenter or paper presenter. The candidate presents a doctoral dissertation that is argued before a Panel of Oral Examiners and then delivers a 'lectio coram' -- a lecture in the presence of legal luminaries. The Graduate School of Law of San Beda College is currently the only graduate school of law in the country offering this degree.

Honorary law degrees[edit]

Some Philippine universities also confer the honorary Doctor of Laws (LL.D.) degree. It is given to famous individuals who, in the discretion of the awarding institution, were found to have made significant contributions to a certain field, or to the improvement of society or development of the conditions of mankind in general. Honorary law doctorates in the past include:

Practicality[edit]

While advanced law degrees (LL.M., D.C.L., S.J.D., LL.D.) may elevate a lawyer's standing in academic settings, the basic law degree (LL.B., J.D.) remains the most important academic qualification to be admitted to the practice of law in the Philippines.[18]

Ecclesiastical law degrees[edit]

A few Roman Catholic seminaries and graduate schools offer degree programs in canon law, an ecclesiastical program that is not required in the Philippine Bar Examinations.The University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law runs the oldest academic programs of this kind. Its Licentiate of Canon Law (J.C.L.) and Doctor of Canon Law (J.C.D.) programs are open to priests, nuns, theologians, and even to lay people (i.e., trial court judges, law deans, family lawyers etc.). Judges of the Roman Catholic Marriage Tribunal typically hold academic degrees in the field.[19] Degrees in canon law, strictly speaking, are not considered law degrees in the Philippines.

Developments[edit]

There is a move among members of the Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS) to convert their Ll.B. programs into J.D. curricula.[3] There are currently two possible directions for the change: First, the conversion of Ll.B. programs through adopting a model substantially similar to the J.D. curriculum introduced by the Ateneo de Manila Law School (the J.D. Programs of the FEU-La Salle consortium and the University of Batangas Law School are of this mold), and second, simply changing the name of the degree conferred from "Ll.B." to "J.D." while essentially retaining the same course offerings as those in the DECS Model Law Curriculum (DECS Order No. 27, series of 1989).[3]

Admission to the practice of law[edit]

The 1987 Constitution of the Philippines has given the Supreme Court the sole power to admit individuals to the practice of law in the Philippines.[20] This power is exercised through a Bar Examination Committee, an ad hoc academic group tasked to formulate questions, administer proceedings, grade examinations, rank candidates, and release the results of the Philippine Bar Examination.

To be eligible to take the national bar exam, a candidate must be a Filipino citizen, at least twenty-one years of age, and holder of a bachelor's degree and a law degree obtained from a government recognized law school in the Philippines. Graduates of law schools from other countries must obtain a law degree from the Philippines to qualify for the Philippine Bar.[21] In March 2010 the Supreme court issued Bar matter 1153 allowing Filipino who are foreign law graduates to take the Bar exam provided that applicant complies with the following conditions: a) completion of all courses leading to the degree of Bachelor of Laws or its equivalent degree; (b) recognition or accreditation of the law school by the proper authority; and (c) completion of all fourth year subjects in the Bachelor of Laws academic program in a law school duly recognized by the Philippine Government d) must have completed a separate bachelors degree."

Philippine Bar Examinations[edit]

The Philippine Bar Examinations is the national licensure exam for admission to the practice of law. It is conducted during the four Sundays of September of every year. It is arguably the hardest and the most media-covered of all government licensure examinations in the country.[22] It is also reputedly one of the hardest bar examinations in the world.[23]

For candidates intending to practice Islamic law in the Philippines, the Special Bar Exams for Shari’a Court Lawyers is given every two years. The Supreme Court Bar Office conducts the exam while the Office of Muslim Affairs determines the qualification and eligibility of candidates to the exams.[24]

Attorneys-at-law[edit]

To be a full-fledged lawyer in the Philippines and be eligible to use the title Attorney, a candidate must graduate from a Philippine law school, take and pass the Philippine Bar Examinations, take the Attorney's Oath, and sign his name in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court.[25]

The full names of lawyers are found in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court, and in a similar list included in a Supreme Court publication entitled Law List.[26]

Legal Education Board[edit]

The Legal Education Board supervises all law schools and continuing legal education providers in the Philippines.[27] The Board is headed by a Chairman who is a retired justice of a collegiate court (i.e., Supreme Court, Court of Appeals, Sandiganbayan, Court of Tax Appeals, etc.). Regular members of the Board include a representative from each of the following:[27]

  • Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP)
  • Philippine Association of Law Schools (PALS)
  • Philippine Association of Law Professors (PALP)
  • active law practitioners
  • bonafide law students

The Board has made legal reforms which include—the stricter selection of law students and law professors; improvements in quality of instruction and facilities of law schools; provisions for legal apprenticeship of law students; and the requirement of attendance to continuing legal education seminars for practicing attorneys.[27]

Mandatory Continuing Legal Education[edit]

Lawyers with names appearing in the Rolls of Attorneys of the Supreme Court, unless disbarred, are all members of the Integrated Bar of the Philippines (IBP).[28]

However, to be IBP members of good standing, lawyers are required to complete, every three years, at least thirty-six hours of continuing legal education seminars approved by the Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Committee (MCLE). Members who fail to comply shall pay a non-compliance fee, and shall be listed as a delinquent member.[29]

The Mandatory Continuing Legal Education Office, established by the Supreme Court, is the official government agency tasked to implement compliance with the MCLE requirement.[29]

The MCLE Office is headed by former Supreme Court Justice Carolina C. Grino-Aquino, widow of former Supreme Court Chief Justice Ramon Aquino. Its office is located at the fourth floor of the IBP Building in Ortigas Center.

Philippine law schools[edit]

There are one-hundred-five (105) law schools[30][31] legitimately operating throughout the Philippines. These include independent law schools, resident colleges, and affiliated units of much larger private and public universities:[32]

Name Location
Adamson University College of Law 900 San Marcelino Street, Ermita, Manila
Aemilianum College, College of Law Rizal Street, Piot, Sorsogon City
Aklan Catholic College College of Law Archbishop Reyes Street, Kalibo, Aklan
Andres Bonifacio College College Park, Dipolog City, Zamboanga del Norte
Aquinas University College of Law 2-S King's Building, JAA Penaranda Street, Legazpi City, Albay
Araullo University College of Law Maharlika Highway, Bitas, Cabanatuan City, Nueva Ecija
Arellano University Law Foundation Taft Avenue & Menlo Street, Pasay City
Ateneo de Davao College of Law Jacinto Street, Davao City
Ateneo Law School 20 Rockwell Drive, Rockwell Center, Makati City
Ateneo de Zamboanga University College of Law La Purisima Street, Zamboanga City Proposed 2011
Basilan State College, College of Law Sumagdang, Isabela City, Basilan
Bicol Colleges Daraga, Albay
Bukidnon State University Fortich Street, Malabalay, Bukidnon
Bulacan State University College of Law McArthur Highway, Malolos City, Bulacan
Cagayan Colleges-Tuguegarao College Avenue, Tuguegarao, Cagayan
Cagayan State University Caritan, Tuguegarao City, Cagayan
Camarines Norte School of Law Itomang, Talisay, Camarines Norte
Central Philippine University College of Law Lopez Jaena Street, Jaro, Iloilo City
Centro Escolar University School of Law and Jurisprudence Sen. Gil Puyat Avenue, Makati City
Christ the King College Magsaysay Blvd., Calbayog City, Samar
Colegio dela Purisima Concepcion 1 Arzobispo Street, Roxas City, Capiz
Cor Jesu College Sacred Heart Avenue, Digos, Davao del Sur
Cordillera College Bugayan, La Trinidad, Benguet
De La Salle University College of Law 2401 Taft Avenue, Malate, Manila
De La Salle Lipa College of Law Lipa, Batangas
Don Mariano Marcos Memorial State University College of Law, Mid-La Union Campus Catbangen, City of San Fernando, La Union
Dr. Vicente Orestes Romualdez Education Foundation, Inc. Real Street, Tacloban City, Leyte
East Central Colleges B. Mendoza Street, San Fernando City, Pampanga
Far Eastern University Institute of Law Nicanor Reyes, Sr. St. (formerly Morayta Street), Sampaloc, Manila
(The La Salle-FEU MBA-JD Program is offered at De La Salle Professional Schools, RCBC Plaza, Ayala Ave., Makati City. It is offered in consortium with the De La Salle Graduate School of Business.)
Fr. Saturnino Urios University College of Law San Francisco St. & J.C. Aquino Avenue, Butuan City, Agusan del Norte
Fernandez College of Arts and Technology Gil Carlos Street, Baliuag, Bulacan
Foundation University College of Law Dr. Miciano Street, Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental
Harvardian Colleges Lourdes Street, San Fernando City, Pampanga
Holy Name University College of Law Lesage & Gallares Streets, Tagbilaran City, Bohol
José Rizal University College of Law 82 Shaw Blvd., Mandaluyong City
Leyte Colleges Zamora St., Tacloban City
Liceo de Cagayan University College of Law Rodolfo N. Pelaez Blvd., Carmen, Cagayan de Oro City
Luna Goco Colleges Lalud, Calapan, Oriental Mindoro
Lyceum of the Philippines University College of Law L.P. Leviste Street, Makati City
Lyceum of the Philippines University-Cavite College of Law Governor's Drive, General Trias, Cavite
Lyceum-Northwestern University College of Law Amado Street, Dagupan City, Pangasinan
Manila Law College Foundation (formerly Escuela de Derecho de Manila) Sales Street, Sta. Cruz, Manila
Manuel L. Quezon University College of Law R. Hidalgo St., Quiapo, Manila
Manuel S. Enverga University Foundation College of Law Foundation St., Lucena City, Quezon
Masbate Colleges Rosero Street, Masbate City, Masbate
Medina Colleges Manengcol, Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental
Mindanao State University College of Law Marawi City, Lanao del Sur
Misamis University College of Law Bonifacio St., Ozamiz City, Misamis Occidental
New Era University College of Law Barangay New Era, Diliman, Quezon City
Negros Oriental State University College of Law Kagawasan Avenue, Dumaguete City
Northeastern College Maharlika Highway, Villasis, Santiago City
Northwestern University College of Law Airport Avenue, Laoag City
Notre Dame University College of Law Notre Dame Avenue, Cotabato City
Pagadian College of Criminology & Sciences Rizal Avenue, Pagadian City, Zamboanga del Norte
Palawan State University College of Law Sta. Monica, Puerto Princesa City, Palawan
Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila College of Law Gen. Luna Street, Intramuros, Manila
Philippine Advent College Dapaon Street, Sindangan, Zamboanga del Norte
Philippine Law School F.B. Harrison Street, Pasay City
Polytechnic University of the Philippines College of Law Santa Mesa, Manila
Saint Paul School of Business and Law Palo, Leyte
Samar College Mabini Avenue, Catbalogan City, Samar
San Beda College of Law Mendiola Street, San Miguel, Manila
San Beda College of Law in Alabang Don Manolo Boulevard, Alabang Hills, Muntinlupa City
San Pablo Colleges Hermanos Belen Street, San Pablo City, Laguna
San Sebastian College - Recoletos College of Law Claro M. Recto Avenue, Manila
Saint Louis College Carlatan, San Fernando City, La Union
Saint Louis University School of Law Bonifacio Street, Baguio City
Saint Mary's University College of Law Ponce Street, Bayombong, Nueva Vizcaya
Silliman University College of Law Hibbard Avenue, Dumaguete City, Negros Oriental
Southwestern University College of Law Urgillo Street, Sambag District, Cebu City
Tabaco Colleges Cabiles Avenue, Tabaco, Albay

University of Baguio School of Law Gen. Luna Rd. Baguio City

University of Batangas College of Law M.H. del Pilar Street, Batangas City
University of Bohol College of Law Maria Clara Street, Tagbilaran City
University of Cebu College of Law Sanciangko St., Cebu City
University of Cebu - Banilad College of Law Banilad, Cebu City
University of the Cordilleras College of Law Harrison Road, Baguio City
University of the East College of Law Claro M. Recto Avenue, Manila
University of Eastern Philippines College of Law University Town, Catarman, Northern Samar
University of Iloilo College of Law Rizal & Iznart Streets, Iloilo City
University of Luzon College of Law Perez Blvd., Dagupan City, Pangasinan
University of Manila College of Law MV delos Santos Street, Sampaloc, Manila
University of Mindanao College of Law Bolton Street, Davao City
University of Negros Occidental-Recoletos School of Law Libertad Street, Bacolod City, Negros Occidental
University of Nueva Caceres College of Law Jaime Hernandez Street, Naga City, Camarines Sur
University of Perpetual Help System DALTA College of Law Alabang-Zapote Road, Pamplona, Las Piñas City
University of Perpetual Help System JONELTA College of Law Santo Niño, Biñan, Laguna
University of San Agustin College of Law Gen. Luna Street, Iloilo City
University of San Carlos College of Law P. del Rosario Street, Cebu City
University of San Jose-Recoletos College of Law Magallanes Street, Cebu City
University of St. La Salle College of Law La Salle Avenue, Bacolod City
University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law España Blvd., Sampaloc, Manila
University of Southern Philippines Foundation College of Law Salinas Drive, Lahug, Cebu City
University of the Philippines College of Law Diliman, Quezon City
University of the Visayas College of Law Colon Street, Cebu City
Virgen de los Remedios College 10 Fontaine St., East Bajac-bajac, Olongapo City
Virgen Milagrosa University Foundation College of Law Martin P. Posadas Avenue, San Carlos City, Pangasinan
Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan College of Law Corrales Ave., Cagayan de Oro City
Western Mindanao State University College of Law Normal Road, Baliwasan, Zamboanga City

Notable law schools[edit]

Oldest law schools[edit]

The fifteen oldest law schools are as follows:[1]

  • University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law, established in 1734, is the oldest law school in the Philippines. In 1734, the University of Santo Tomas opened a Faculty of Civil Law and a Faculty of Canon Law. From 1734 to 1800 (66 years), out of 3,360 students, only 40 students graduated from various law programs: 29 in Bachelor of Civil Law, 8 in Licentiate in Civil Law, and 3 in Doctor of Law, reflecting the rigid training in these courses. The school has produced four Philippine Presidents, three Vice Presidents, and six Chief Justices of the Supreme Court of the Philippines.
  • Universidad Literia Filipinas, established in 1898, was the second oldest law school in the country. It is no longer operating. The university was established in Malolos, Bulacan and offered programs in law and notary public. The school later moved to Tarlac.
  • Escuela de Derecho de Manila (now Manila Law College Foundation) was established in 1899. Don Felipe Calderón, author of the 1899 Malolos Constitution, founded the school. In 1924, the school was renamed the Manila Law School. It was further renamed Manila Law College Foundation.
  • Silliman University College of Law was established in 1935 with a class of 22 freshmen. Carlos P. Garcia, 4th President of the Republic of the Philippines took law subjects in the school before finally proceeding to the Philippine Law School. Atty. Felix Gaudiel, a long serving dean of the college was a member of the 1973 Constitutional Convention.[33][34][35]
  • Southern College of Law was established in 1935. It is no longer operating.
  • University of San Carlos College of Law in Cebu City, was established in 1937. It is the only law school in the Visayas and Mindanao to be granted license by the Supreme Court to have a Clinical Legal Education Program (CLEP), whereby its senior students are allowed to handle actual cases in the court with the assistance and under the guidance of a licensed member of the Bar. Likewise, it is the first law school outside Manila to be accredited by the Supreme Court to conduct Mandatory Continuing Legal Education (MCLE) seminar for lawyers.[36]
  • The Arellano University School of Law, formerly as the Arellano Law College and officially as Arellano Law Foundation, was established in 1938. It formed the early beginnings of Arellano University. Popular broadcaster and former Leyte Representative Ted Failon, former Court of Appeals Presiding Justice Manuel Gaviola, former Senator Francisco Sumulong, and former Congressman Jose Zafra attended the school.
  • Francisco Law School was established in 1940. It is now defunct.
  • Manuel L. Quezon University was established in 1947. The school can look back with understandable pride to its successful alumni who are scattered throughout the Philippines holding responsible positions in the government and in private business organizations and educational institutions. Among them are former Justices Ricardo C. Puno, Sr., Isagani A. Cruz and Sedfrey Ordonez, the late Mayor of Manila, Antonio Villegas, Justice Artemio Tuquero now Dean of the College of Law, Justices Jose Vitug and Jose Melo, Atty. Augusto B. Sunico who became the president of the University, Atty. Norberto Gonzales and Atty. Lorenzo Miravite.
  • San Beda College of Law, was founded in 1948. Famous alumni include former Senator and Education Secretary Raul Roco, former Senator Rene Saguisag, and former Supreme Court Associate Justice Florenz D. Regalado who holds the highest bar exam grade in the history of the Philippine Bar Examinations.

Bar Performance[edit]

Bar passing rate[edit]

The bar passing rate is the proportion of successful bar exam passers in relation to the total number of bar exam takers coming from a particular law school. The national bar passing rate (proportion of all bar exam passers in relation to all bar exam takers) changes every year, and has gone from an all-time high of 75.17% in 1954 to an all-time low of 16.59% in 1999.[37]

The Legal Education Board's ranking for top ten law schools in the Philippines is based on the passing rate from 2001 to 2010:[38]

Excellence in Legal Education (top five)

  1. Ateneo de Manila Law School (89.03)
  2. San Beda College of Law (85.74)
  3. University of the Philippines College of Law (79.84)
  4. Ateneo de Davao College of Law (64.99)
  5. University of San Carlos College of Law (61.23)

Outstanding Law Schools (rest of the top ten)

  1. University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Civil Law (60.22)
  2. Arellano University Law Foundation (42.90)
  3. Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan College of Law (38.90)
  4. Far Eastern University Institute of Law (33.14)
  5. University of San Agustin College of Law (31.63)

Law schools with the highest average bar passing rates from 1996 to 2005 include:

Schools with more than 30 examinees:

Schools with 30 or less examinees:

[40]

In the 2006 bar examinations, Basilan State University's lone bar candidate passed, giving the school a 100% passing rate.[41]

Bar topnotchers[edit]

Bar topnotchers are bar examinees who garnered the highest bar exam grades in a particular year. Every year, the Supreme Court releases the bar top ten list. The list contains the names of bar examinees who obtained the ten highest grades. It is possible for more than ten examinees to place in the top ten because numerical ties in the computation of grades usually occur.[42]

Schools which have produced bar topnotchers (1st placers)[43] include:

Two bar examinees topped the bar exams without graduating from any Philippine law school:

In the past, non-law school graduates were allowed to take the bar. However, the Revised Rules of Court and Supreme Court Circulars allow only Philippine law graduates to take the bar, necessarily excluding non-law graduates and foreign law graduates from taking part in the exercise.

Law schools with prestigious alumni[edit]

The quality of law schools is often measured by the prestige, influence, or wealth of famous law alumni.[22]

Some of the law schools and their famous alumni include:

  • Ateneo de Manila Law School alumni:[44]
    • Teofisto Guingona - former Vice President of the Philippines
    • Claudio Teehankee - former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
    • Adolfo Azcuna - Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
    • Renato Corona - former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
    • Jose Miguel Arroyo - First Gentleman of the Philippines
    • Fr. Joaquin G. Bernas, S.J. - Member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission
    • Alan Peter Cayetano - Senator of the Philippines
    • Ignacio Bunye - Presidential Spokesman
    • Arturo D. Brion - former Secretary of Labor and Employment; Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
    • Rolando Andaya, Jr. - former Secretary of Budget and Management
    • Sergio Apostol - Chief Presidential Legal Counsel
    • Ernesto Maceda - former Senate President
    • Hernando Perez - former Secretary of Justice
    • Merceditas Gutierrez - Ombudsman of the Philippines; former Secretary of Justice
    • Agnes Devanadera - Acting Secretary of Justice; former Solicitor-General; former Government Corporate Counsel
    • Michael P. Elbinias - Associate Justice of the Philippine Court of Appeals
    • Evelio Javier, former Governor of Antique
  • Far Eastern University Institute of Law alumni:[45]
    • Corazon Aquino - former President of the Philippines
    • Artemio Panganiban - former Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines
    • Court of Appeals Presiding Justice and Remedial Law expert Oscar Herrera
    • Jose Nolledo - Member of the 1986 Constitutional Commission, delegate of the 1971 Constitutional Convention
    • Salome Montoya - former Presiding Justice of the Court of Appeals of the Philippines
    • Eliezer R. de los Santos - Associate Justice of the Court of Appeals of the Philippines
    • Juan Q. Enriquez, Jr. - Associate Justice of the Court of Appeals of the Philippines
    • Edilberto Sandoval - Associate Justice of the Sandiganbayan (Philippine Anti-Graft Court)
    • Manuel Collantes - former Secretary of Foreign Affairs and Ambassador to the United Nations
    • Sedfrey Ordonez - former Solicitor General, Secretary of Justice, Ambassador to the United Nations, and Chairman of the Commission on Human Rights
    • Edgar Ilarde - former Senator of the Philippines
    • Wenceslao Lagumbay - former Senator of the Philippines
    • Neptali Gonzales, Jr. - former Mayor of Mandaluyong City and Majority Floor Leader of the Philippine House of Representatives

External links[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Jorge Coquia. The Legal Profession. Rex Book Store, 1993.
  2. ^ a b c d Curriculum models, Philippine Association of Law Schools, 2006.
  3. ^ a b c Cesar Villanueva, Philippine Leadership Crisis and the J.D. Program
  4. ^ [1].
  5. ^ PLM Curricula and Degree Programs.
  6. ^ [The Weekly Sillimanian Vol. LXXXII No.4: SU Law adopts Juris Doctor Program. By: Princess Dianne Kris S. Decierdo]. Published July 15, 2009.
  7. ^ [2]
  8. ^ Official Prospectus, Law Department, University of Santo Tomas Graduate School, 2006.
  9. ^ List of programs, Pamantasan ng Lungsod ng Maynila (University of the City of Manila), 2007.
  10. ^ "History of Xavier University - Ateneo de Cagayan". XU Webteam. Retrieved 2009-12-30. 
  11. ^ a b c d e f Honoris causa list, University of Santo Tomas, 2007.
  12. ^ a b c d e List of Honorary Degree Awardees, Ateneo de Manila University. Last updated 2007.
  13. ^ a b c d e Honoris causa list, University of the East, 2007.
  14. ^ Honoris causa list, University of Iloilo, 2007.
  15. ^ Honoris causa list, Centro Escolar University, 2007.
  16. ^ Honoris causa list, Xavier University, 2007.
  17. ^ "Lopez Group Chair: SU Campus is 'Most Environmentally Friendly'". SU NetNEWS. Retrieved 2010-12-09.
  18. ^ Ricardo B. Teruel. Practical Lawyering in the Philippines. Revised Edition. Central Professional Books, 1999.
  19. ^ Official prospectus, University of Santo Tomas Faculty of Canon Law, 2006.
  20. ^ Section 5, Article VIII, The Philippine Constitution, 1987.
  21. ^ Section 2, 5-6; Rule 138, Revised Rules of Court.
  22. ^ a b Alexander L. Lacson. "A Nation Under Lawyers." The Practice: Business and Leisure Magazine for Lawyers. August–September 2004 Issue.
  23. ^ Reports made by members of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, Session of the Inter-Parliamentary Union, September 2005.
  24. ^ Court En Banc Resolution, Supreme Court of the Philippines, September 20, 1983.
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