Legendary early Chola kings

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List of Chola kings
Early Cholas
Ellalan  ·  Ilamcetcenni 
Karikalan  ·  Nedunkilli 
Killivalavan  ·   Kopperuncholan
Kocengannan  ·   Perunarkilli
Interregnum (c.200–848)
Medieval Cholas
Vijayalaya Chola 848–891(?)
Aditya Chola I 891–907
Parantaka Chola I 907–950
Gandaraditya Chola 950–957
Arinjaya Chola 956–957
Sundara Chola 957–970
Uttama Chola 970–985
Rajaraja Chola I 985–1014
Rajendra Chola I 1012–1044
Rajadhiraja Chola 1018–1054
Rajendra Chola II 1051–1063
Virarajendra Chola 1063–1070
Athirajendra Chola 1067–1070
Later Cholas
Kulothunga Chola I 1070–1120
Vikrama Chola 1118–1135
Kulothunga Chola II 1133–1150
Rajaraja Chola II 1146–1173
Rajadhiraja Chola II 1166–1178
Kulothunga Chola III 1178–1218
Rajaraja Chola III 1216–1256
Rajendra Chola III 1246–1279
Chola society
Chola government
Chola military  ·   Chola Navy
Chola art  ·   Chola literature
Solesvara Temples
Poompuhar  ·   Uraiyur
Melakadambur
Gangaikonda Cholapuram
Thanjavur
Tiruvarur   ·  
edit

The lists of legendary early Chola kings are recorded in Tamil literature and in the inscriptions left by the later Chola kings.

Chola Empire[edit]

The genealogy of the Chola empire as found in the Tamil literature and in the many inscriptions left by the later Chola kings contains a number of kings recorded for whom there is no verifiable historic evidence. There are as many versions of this lineage as there are sources for them. The main sources are (a) the Sangam literature – particularly Purananuru, religious literature such as Periapuranam, semi-biographical poems of the later Chola period such as the Kalingathuparani written during the Kulothunga Chola I and in the temple and cave inscription and copper-plate grants left by medieval Cholas.

Irrespective of the source, no list of the kings has a high level of historic fact and, while they generally are similar to each other, no two lists are exactly the same. Modern historians consider these lists not as historically reliable sources but as comprehensive conglomerations of various Hindu deities and Puranic characters attributed to local chieftains and invented ancestry of the Cholas of the Vijayalaya dynasty attempting to re-establish their legitimacy and supremacy in a land they were trying to conquer.

Prehistorical Cholas[edit]

A number of mythical hero and demi-gods found their place in the ancestry claimed by the later Cholas in the long mythical genealogies incorporated into the copper-plate charters and stone inscription of the tenth and eleventh centuries. The earliest version of this is found in the Anbil Plates which gives fifteen names before Vijayalaya Chola including the genuinely historical ones of Karikala, Perunarkilli and Kocengannan. The Thiruvalangadu Plate swells this list to forty-four, and the Kanyakumari Plate runs up to fifty-two.

The Cholas were looked upon as descended from the sun. These myths speak of a Chola king, supposed contemporary of the sage Agastya, whose devotion brought the river Kavery into existence. There is also the story of the king Manu Needhi Cholan who sentenced his son to death for having accidentally killed a calf.He was called thus because he followed the rules of Manu; his real name is not mentioned and is thought to be Elaran according to Maha vamsam who was also attributed with a similar story. King Shibi who rescued a dove from a hawk by giving his own flesh to the hungry hawk was also part of the early Chola legends. King Shibi was also called Sembiyan, a popular title assumed by a number of Chola kings.

Cholas of the Sangam period[edit]

Though legendary and apocryphal, the early Chola kings of the Sangam period and the life of people contributed much to the cultural wealth of the Tamil country. The Sangam literature is full of legends about the mythical Chola kings.

The dates of accession are approximate interpolation of the Hindu Puranic Timeline.

  • Eri Oliyan Vaendhi C. 3020 BCE
  • Maandhuvaazhi C. 2980 BCE
  • El Mei Nannan C. 2945 BCE
  • Keezhai Kinjuvan C. 2995 BCE
  • Vazhisai Nannan C. 2865 BCE
  • Mei Kiyagusi Aerru C. 2820 BCE
  • Aai Kuzhi Agusi Aerru C. 2810 BCE
  • Thizhagan Maandhi C. 2800 BCE
  • Maandhi Vaelan C. 2770 BCE
  • Aai Adumban C. 2725 BCE
  • Aai Nedun jaet chozha thagaiyan C. 2710 BCE
  • El Mei Agguvan a.k.a. Keezh nedu mannan C. 2680 BCE
  • Mudiko Mei Kaalaiyam Thagaiyan C. 2650 BCE
  • Ilangok keezh kaalaiyan thagaiyan a.k.a. Ilangeezh nannan C. 2645 BCE -start of Kadamba lineage by his brother Aai Keezh Nannan
  • Kaalaiyan gudingyan C. 2630 BCE
  • Nedun gaalayan dhagayan C. 2615 BCE
  • Vaengai nedu vael varaiyan C.2614 BCE
  • Vaet kaal kudingyan C. 2600 BCE
  • Maei Ila vael varaiyan C. 2590 BCE
  • Sibi Vendhi C. 2580 BCE
  • Paru nonji chaamazhingyan C. 2535 BCE
  • Vaeqratrtri chembiya chozhan C. 2525 BCE
  • Saamazhi chozhiya vaelaan C. 2515 BCE
  • Uthi ven gaalai thagan C. 2495 BCE
  • Nannan that kaalai thagan C. 2475 BCE
  • Vel vaen mindi C. 2445 BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 2415 BCE
  • Nedu nonji Vendhi C. 2375 BCE
  • Maei Vael paqratrtri C. 2330 BCE
  • Aai Perun thoan nonji C. 2315 BCE
  • Kudiko pungi C. 2275 BCE
  • Perun goep poguvan C. 2250 BCE
  • Koeth thatrtri C. 2195 BCE
  • Vadi sembiyan C. 2160 BCE
  • Aalam poguvan C. 2110 BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 2085 BCE
  • Perum paeyar poguvan C. 2056 BCE
  • Kadun jembiyan C. 2033 BCE
  • Nedun kathan C. 2015 BCE
  • Paru nakkan C. 1960 BCE
  • Vani sembiyan C. 1927 BCE
  • Udha chira mondhuvan C. 1902 BCE
  • Perun kaththan C. 1875 BCE
  • Kadun kandhalan C. 1860 BCE
  • Nakka monjuvan C. 1799 BCE
  • Maarko vael Maandhuvan Aaththikko C. 1786 BCE
  • Musukunthan Vaendhi C. 1753 BCE
  • Peru nakkan Thatrtri C. 1723 BCE
  • Vaer kaththan C. 1703 BCE
  • Ambalaththu Irumundruvan C. 1682 BCE
  • Kaari mondhuvan C. 1640 BCE
  • Vennakkan Thatrtri C. 1615 BCE
  • Maarko chunthuvan C. 1565 BCE
  • Vaer parunthoan mundruvan C. 1520 BCE
  • Udhan kaththan C. 1455 BCE
  • Kaariko sunthuvan C. 1440 BCE
  • Vendri nungunan C. 1396 BCE
  • Mondhuvan Vendhi C. 1376 BCE
  • Kaandhaman C. 1359 BCE
  • Mundruvan Vendhi C. 1337 BCE
  • Kaandhaman C. 1297 BCE
  • Monjuvan Vendhi C. 1276 BCE
  • Ani sembiyan C. 1259 BCE
  • Nungunan Vendhi C. 1245 BCE
  • Maarkop perum Cenni C. 1229 BCE
  • Monjuvan Nanvendhi C. 1180 BCE
  • Kop perunar chenni C. 1170 BCE
  • Monthuvan jembiyan C. 1145 BCE
  • Narchenni C. 1105 BCE
  • Caet chembiyan C. 1095 BCE
  • Nakkar chenni C. 1060 BCE
  • Parun jembiyan C.1045 BCE
  • Venjenni C. 998 BCE
  • Musugunthan C. 989 BCE
  • Maarkop perun jembiyan C. 960 BCE
  • Nedunjenni C.935 BCE
  • Thatchembiyan C. 915 BCE
  • Ambalaththu iruvaer chembiyan C. 895 BCE
  • Kaariko chenni C. 865 BCE
  • Venvaer chenni C. 830 BCE
  • Kaandhaman, C. 788 BCE
  • Kaandhalan C. 721 BCE
  • Caetchenni C. 698 BCE
  • Vani nungunan C. 680 BCE
  • Mudhu sembiyan Vendhi C. 640 BCE
  • Peelan jembiyach chozhiyan C. 615 BCE
  • Maeyan gadungo C. 590 BCE
  • Thiththan C. 570 BCE
  • Perunar killi Porvaiko C. 515 BCE
  • Kadu mundruvan C. 496 BCE
  • Kopperunjozhan C. 495 BCE
  • Narkilli Mudiththalai C. 480 BCE
  • Thevvan go chozhan C. 465 BCE
  • Naran jembiyan C. 455 BCE
  • Nakkam peela valavan C. 440 BCE
  • Iniyan thevvan jenni C. 410 BCE
  • Varcembiyan C. 395BCE
  • Nedun jembiyan C. 386 BCE
  • Nakkan aran jozhan C. 345 BCE
  • Ambalathu irungoch chenni C. 330 BCE
  • Perunar killi C. 316 BCE
  • Kochaet Cenni C. 286 BCE
  • Cerupazhi Erinda Ilanjaetcenni, C. 275 BCE
  • Nedungop perunkilli C. 220 BCE
  • Cenni Ellagan C. 205 BCE
  • Perun gilli C. 165 BCE
  • Kopperun jozhiyav ilanjaetcenni C. 140 BCE
  • Perunar killi Mudiththalai ko C. 120 BCE
  • PerumpootCenni C. 100 BCE
  • Ilam perunjenni C. 100 BCE
  • Perungilli Vendhi aka Karikaalan I C. 70 BCE
  • Nedumudi Killi C. 35 BCE
  • Ilavanthigaipalli Thunjiya Maei Nalangilli Caet Cenni, C. 20 BCE
  • Aai Vaenalangilli C. 15 BCE
  • Uruvapakraer Ilanjaetcenni, C. 10 - 16 CE
  • 16 CE - 30 CE Kingdom ruled by a series of Uraiyur chieftains
  • Karikaalan II Peruvalaththaan, C. 31 CE
  • Vaer paqradakkai Perunar killi, C. 99 CE
  • Perun thiru mavalavan, Kuraapalli Thunjiya C. 99 CE
  • Nalangilli C. 111 CE
  • Perunarkilli, Kula mutrtraththu Thunjiya C. 120 CE
  • Perunarkilli, Irasasuya vaetta C. 143 CE
  • Vael kadunkilli C. 192 CE
  • Kochenganaan C. 220 CE
  • Nalluruththiran C. 245 CE

Genealogy from Chola inscriptions[edit]

There is no concordance between various Chola inscriptions as far as their ancestry is concerned.

The genealogy of the Chola family conveyed by the Thiruvalangadu copperplate grant consists of names that are mostly mythological.

  • Manu
  • Ikshvaku
  • Vikukshi
  • Puranjaya
  • Kakutstha
  • Kakshivat
  • Aryaman
  • Analapratapa
  • Vena
  • Prithu
  • Dhundhumara
  • Yuvanasva
  • Mandhatri
  • Muchukunda
  • Valabha
  • Prithulaksha
  • Parthivachudamani
  • Dirghabahu
  • Chandrajit
  • Sankriti
  • Panchapa
  • Satyavrata
  • Rudrajit
  • Sibi
  • Marutta
  • Dushyanta
  • Bharata
  • Cholavarman
  • Rajakesarivarman
  • Parakesarin
  • Chitraratha
  • Chitrasva
  • Chitradhanvan
  • Suraguru (Mrityujit)
  • Chitraratha
  • Vyaghraketu
  • Narendrapati
  • Vasu (Uparichara)
  • Visvajit
  • Perunatkilli
  • Karikala
  • Kochchengannan