Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada
The Legislative Assembly of the Province of Canada was the lower house of the legislature for the Province of Canada, which consisted of the former provinces of Lower Canada, then known as Canada East and later the province of Quebec, and Upper Canada, then known as Canada West and later the province of Ontario. It was created by The Union Act of 1840. Canada East and Canada West each elected 42 members to the assembly. The upper house of the legislature was called the Legislative Council.
The first session of parliament began in Kingston in Canada West in 1841.
The second parliament and the first sessions of the third parliament were held in Montreal. On April 25, 1849, rioters protesting the Rebellion Losses Bill burned the parliament buildings. The remaining sessions of the third parliament were held in Toronto. Subsequent parliaments were held in Quebec City and Toronto, except for the last session in 1866 of the eight and final parliament, which was held in Ottawa, the capital chosen for the Dominion of Canada.
The British North America Act of 1867 divided the Province of Canada into the provinces of Ontario and Quebec, each province having its own Legislative Assembly, as well as representation in the Parliament of Canada.
Parliament for the United Provinces of Canada drifted around the cities of Toronto, Kingston, Montreal, Quebec City and Ottawa:
- 1841-1843 three sessions were held at the 3 storey Kingston General Hospital
- 1843 Parliament moves to Montreal and sites at renovated St. Anne's Market; burned down in 1849; rebuilt as market only and burned down again in 1902; site later was a parking lot and now public square called Place d'Youville.
- 1849 temporary sites for Parliament at Bonsecours Market and the Freemason's Hall, Montreal for single session.
- 1849-1850 Parliament returns to Toronto to the site of the Third Parliament Buildings at Front and Simcoe Streets.
- 1851 Parliament relocates to Quebec City in 1851 to the Quebec Parliament Building until fire in destroys the building in 1854.
- 1854-1859 Parliament remains in Quebec City and relocates to Quebec Music Hall and Quebec City Courthouse.
- 1859 Parliament return to Toronto to the site of the last parliament held there in 1849-1851 sessions.
- 1860-1865 Parliament returns to Quebec to the newly re-built Parliament Buildings, Quebec at Parc Montmercy; re-used as Parliament of the Province of Quebec 1867-1883
- 1866-1867 Parliament locates in Ottawa on Parliament Hill to the completed and original Centre Block for one sitting, as well as the East and West Block; Centre Block was later destroyed by fire
List of Parliaments
- 1st Parliament of the Province of Canada 1841–1843
- 2nd Parliament of the Province of Canada 1844–1847
- 3rd Parliament of the Province of Canada 1848–1851
- 4th Parliament of the Province of Canada 1852–1854
- 5th Parliament of the Province of Canada 1854–1857
- 6th Parliament of the Province of Canada 1858–1861
- 7th Parliament of the Province of Canada 1861–1863
- 8th Parliament of the Province of Canada 1863–1866
The role of speaker began a tradition of alternating between English and French Canada. This tradition carried onto the role of the Speaker of the Canadian House of Commons.
|Austin Cuvillier||1841–1843||1st||Parti canadien||Canada East|
|Sir Allan Napier MacNab||1844–1847||2nd||Reformer||Canada West|
|Augustin-Norbert Morin||1848–1851||3rd||Parti patriote||Canada East|
|John Sandfield Macdonald||1852–1853||4th||Liberal-Conservative||Canada West|
|Louis-Victor Sicotte||1854–1857||5th||N/A||Canada East|
|Sir Henry Smith||1858–1861||6th||Tory||Canada West|
|Joseph-Édouard Turcotte||1862–1863||7th||Reformer||Canada East|
|Lewis Wallbridge||1863–1866||8th||N/A||Canada West|
- Legislative Assembly of Lower Canada - Legislature replaced by the Legislature of the Province of Canada
- Legislative Assembly of Upper Canada - Legislature replaced by the Legislature of the Province of Canada
- Legislative Assembly of Ontario - succeeding legislature for Canada West
- Legislative Assembly of Quebec - succeeding legislature for Canada East
- Canadian House of Commons - succeeding parliament replacing the Legislature of the Province of Canada
- List of by-elections in the Province of Canada
- Upper Canadian politics in the 1850's, Underhill (and others), University of Toronto Press (1967)
- Ontario's parliament buildings ; or, A century of legislation, 1792-1892 : a historical sketch
- Assemblée nationale du Québec (French)
- CBC.ca - Canada's 1st Parliament dig - unearthing of the old building in Montreal