Legislative Council of Hong Kong
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|Legislative Council of Hong Kong
Hēunggóng Laahpfaat Wúih
|5th Legislative Council|
|President||Jasper Tsang, DAB
Since 8 October 2008
|Last election||9 September 2012|
|Legislative Council Complex, 1 Legislative Council Road, Central, Hong Kong
|The Legislative Council Complex, from 2011|
|Name before 1997|
The meetings of the Legislative Council is held at Legislative Council Complex since 2011; with 70 members in which 35 returned from the geographical constituency direct elections and 35 returned from the functional constituency indirect elections.
Under the Articles 66 to 79 of the Basic Law of Hong Kong, the main functions of the Legislative Council are to enact, amend or repeal laws; examine and approve budgets, taxation and public expenditure; and raise questions on the work of the government. In addition, the Legislative Council is also given the power to endorse the appointment and removal of the judges of the Court of Final Appeal and the Chief Judge of the High Court, as well as the power to impeach the Chief Executive.
The Article 68 of the Basic Law states the ultimate aim is the election of all the members of the Legislative Council by universal suffrage. Together with the similar article for Chief Executive, the universal suffrage of the Legislative Council and Chief Executive has become the most dominant issue of the Hong Kong politics.
The Legislative Council of Hong Kong was set up in 1843 as a colonial legislature under British rule. Hong Kong's first constitution, in the form of Queen Victoria's Letters Patent which was entitled the Charter of the Colony of Hong Kong, authorized the establishment of the Legislative Council to advise the Governor's administration on 27 June 1843. The Council had four Official members including the Governor who was President and Member when it was first established. The Letters Patent of 1917, which replaced the 1843 Charter, added the significant words "and consent" after the words "with the advice". The Legislative Council was initially set up as the advisory body to the Governor, for the most of the time, it consisted about half of the official members who were the government officials seating in the Council; and the other half were the unofficial members appointed by the Governor.
As the Sino-British Joint Declaration was signed on 19 December 1984 in which the United Kingdom agreed to transfer the sovereignty of Hong Kong to the People's Republic of China on 1 July 1997, the Hong Kong colonial government decided to start the process of democratisation in Hong Kong based on the consultative document, Green Paper: The Further Development of Representative Government in Hong Kong on 18 July 1984. The first ever elections to the Council were held in 1985, following by the first direct elections of the Legislative Council were held in 1991. The Legislative Council became a fully elected legislature for the first time in its history in 1995.
To prepare for the handover of the sovereignty of Hong Kong from the British government to the Chinese government, a Provisional Legislative Council was established by the Preparatory Committee for the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region (HKSAR) under the National People's Congress of the People's Republic of China in 1996. The Provisional Legislative Council, in operation from January 1997 to June 1998, initially held its meetings in Shenzhen. The Legislative Council of the HKSAR was established in 1998 under The Basic Law of the HKSAR. The first meeting of the Council was held in July of the same year in Hong Kong. Since The Basic Law came into effect, four Legislative Council elections have been held, with the most recent election being held on 9 September 2012.
The Legislative Council Building 
The Legislative Council of Hong Kong was housed in the Old Supreme Court building in Central Hong Kong from 1985 to November 2011. Beginning in December 2011, the Legco convenes at the Legislative Block of the Central Government Complex, Tamar.
Unlike many other former and current Commonwealth legislatures, the Hong Kong Legislative Council does not have a ceremonial mace placed in its chambers. However, the high courts of Hong Kong use a mace to open sessions, and it represents the authority and powers of the court.
To provide a long-term solution to the space shortage problem facing both the Government and the Legislative Council, the Government commissioned the Tamar Development for the design and construction of the Central Government Complex, the Legislative Council Complex and other ancillary facilities in 2008. The Legislative Council Complex comprises a low block and a high block: the low block, which will be named the Council Block, mainly houses conference facilities including the Chamber, major conference rooms, and communal facilities such as library, cafeteria and education facilities. The range of education facilities for visit by the public includes video corner, visitors' sharing area, exhibition area, children's corner, viewing gallery and access corridors, memory lane, education activities rooms and education galleries. The high block, which will be named as the Office Block, mainly houses offices for members and staff of the Legislative Council Secretariat. Officially opened on 1 August 2011, administrative staff had already taken occupation from 15 January 2011.
Powers and functions 
The major functions of the Legislative Council are to enact, amend or repeal laws, examine and approve budgets, approve taxation and public expenditure, and monitor the work of the government. Under The Basic Law (Article 73), the Legislative Council is given an additional power to endorse the appointment and removal of the judges of the Court of Final Appeal and the Chief Judge of the High Court, and to impeach the Chief Executive if he or she has committed serious breach of law or dereliction of duty.
Membership composition 
The Legislative Council consists of 70 elected members. The term of office of a member is four years, except for the first term (1998 to 2000) when it was set to be two years (Article 69 of The Basic Law).
In both the 2008 and 2004 elections, 30 members were directly elected by universal suffrage from geographical constituencies (GCs) and 30 were elected from functional constituencies (FCs). In the 2000 election, 24 were directly elected, six elected from an 800-member electoral college known as the Election Committee of Hong Kong, and 30 elected from FCs. Since the 2012 election, all 70 seats are equally divided between geographical and functional constituencies.
According to The Basic Law, while the method for forming the Legislative Council shall be specified in accordance with the principle of gradual and orderly progress, the ultimate aim is to elect all Council members by universal suffrage (Article 68 of The Basic Law of Hong Kong).
Geographical constituencies 
The GC seats are returned by universal suffrage. The voting system adopted in the electoral districts is a system of party-list proportional representation, with seats allocated by the largest remainder method using the Hare quota as the quota for election.
The party-list proportional representation system is the most widely used form of proportional representation systems to facilitate the formation of a representative legislature. There were 3.37 million registered electors in the 2008 election.
|Geographical constituencies||No. of Seats|
|Hong Kong Island||4||5||6||6||7|
|New Territories East||5||5||7||7||9|
|New Territories West||5||6||8||8||9|
Functional constituencies 
There are 29 FCs in the Legislative Council, representing various sectors of the community which are considered playing a crucial role in the development of Hong Kong.
Since the 2012 election, 27 FCs have returned one member, except for the Labour FC which has returned three members and District Council (second) FC which has returned five members, giving a total of 35 FC seats.
- Heung Yee Kuk
- Agriculture and Fisheries
- Health Services
- Architectural, Surveying and Planning
- Social Welfare
- Real Estate and Construction
- Commercial (First)
- Commercial (Second)
- Industrial (First)
- Industrial (Second)
- Financial Services
- Sports, Performing Arts, Culture and Publication
- Import and Export
- Textiles and Garment
- Wholesale and Retail
- Information Technology
- District Council (First)
- District Council (Second)
A simple plurality system is adopted for 23 FCs, with an eligible voter casting one vote only. The exceptions are the Labour FC in which a voter may cast up to three votes, thereby creating a block vote[disambiguation needed], and the Heung Yee Kuk, Agriculture and Fisheries, Insurance, and Transport FCs where a preferential elimination system is used due to the small number of voters. In the preferential elimination system, a voter must indicate preferences rather than approval/disapproval or a single choice. District Council (Second) uses the same voting rule in Geographical constituencies for the 5 seats.
Until year 2012, both Heung Yee Kuk and Commercial (Second) FC are yet to have an actual election as being uncontested since their FC's establishment.
President of the Legislative Council 
From the establishment of the Legislative Council in 1843 to 1993, the Governor was the President and a member of the Council, and until 1917 the Governor was required to act with the advice but not necessary the consent of the Legislative Council. The Letters Patent of 1917 changed such practice by requiring the Governor to act "with advice and consent" of the Legislative Council.
Under The Basic Law (Article 72), the President has the powers and functions to preside over meetings, decide on the agenda, including giving priority to government bills for inclusion in the agenda, decide on the time of meetings, call special sessions during the recess, call emergency sessions on the request of the Chief Executive, and exercise other powers and functions as prescribed in the rules of procedure of the Legislative Council.
The President of the Legislative Council has to meet the eligibility requirements set out in The Basic Law that he or she shall be a Chinese citizen of not less than 40 years of age, who is a permanent resident of the HKSAR with no right of abode in any foreign country and has ordinarily resided in Hong Kong for a continuous period of not less than 20 years.
The President is elected by and from among Council members. The first President (1997–2008) is Mrs Rita Fan, who is also the first female President of the Legislative Council. The incumbent President is Mr Tsang Yok-sing of the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong since 2008.
Elections of the Legislative Council 
The latest election was held on 9 September 2012. The Pro-Beijing camp remained control of the Legislative Council with the Democratic Alliance for the Betterment and Progress of Hong Kong (DAB) as the largest party.
|% of Votes
% of vote
|Geographical Constituencies||District Council (Second) FC|
|Total for Pro-democrats||1,018,552||56.24||-3.26||18||6||807,480||50.73||3||27||+4|
|Civil Force[table 1] [table 2]||23,988||1.32||N/A||0||-||-||-||-||0||0|
|New Forum[table 2]||-||-||-||-||1||-||-||-||1||+1|
|Total for Pro-Beijing camp||772,487||42.66||+2.91||17||24||723,071||45.43||2||43||+6|
- Note: the votes gained by Lau Kong-wah who represents both DAB and Civil Force banner is counted into DAB in this table.
- Note: the votes gained by Scarlett Pong who represents both Civil Force and New Century Forum is counted into Civil Force in this table.
Procedures for voting on bills and motions 
Traditionally, the President does not vote. However, this convention is not a constitutional requirement.
Private members' bills and motions have to be passed by majorities of members returned from GCs (GCs and ECs until 2004) and members returned from FCs respectively. This arrangement, however, is not applicable to government bills, where only a simple majority is required to secure passage.
Amendments to The Basic Law require a two-thirds vote in the Legislative Council, without a specific requirement in each group of constituencies. After passing the Council, the Basic Law amendment must obtain the consent of two-thirds of Hong Kong's deputies to the National People's Congress, and also the Chief Executive (the Chief Executive is vested with the veto power).
Seating arrangement 
In a typical Council meeting in old Legislative room, members were seated to the left and front of the President's chair in the Chamber. The three rows to the right were reserved for government officials and other people attending the meetings.
At the new Legco site at Tamar, members sit facing the President (and council officers) in an arc seating arrangement.
Officers of the Legislative Council 
Services to members were originally provided by the Office of the Clerk to the Legislative Council which was part of the Government Secretariat. Additional support later came from other administrative units, i.e. the Unofficial Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils (UMELCO) Secretariat and its variants, in consideration of the gradually rising volume of work in Council business.
With the establishment of UMELCO in 1963, public officers were seconded to UMELCO to assist members to deal with public complaints and build up public relations with the local community. During their secondments, public officers took instructions only from Council members. The practice remained when the Office of the Members of the Executive and Legislative Councils (OMELCO) replaced UMELCO in 1986. In 1991, the OMELCO Secretariat was incorporated. As a result of the complete separation of membership of the Executive and Legislative Councils, OMELCO was renamed the Office of Members of Legislative Council (OMLEGCO).
The Legislative Council Commission, a statutory body independent of the Government, was established under The Legislative Council Commission Ordinance on 1 April 1994. The Commission integrated the administrative support and services to the Council by the Office of the Clerk to the Legislative Council and the OMLEGCO Secretariat into an independent Legislative Council Secretariat. The Commission replaced all civil servants by contract staff in the 1994–1995 session.
At present, the Secretariat, headed by the Secretary General, provides administrative support and services to the Council through its ten divisions. In addition to being the chief executive of the Secretariat, the Secretary General is also the Clerk to the Legislative Council responsible for advising the President on all matters relating to the procedure of the Council.
See also 
- Provisional Legislative Council
- Politics of Hong Kong
- Executive Council of Hong Kong
- Senior Unofficial Member
- Senior Chinese Unofficial Member