Lentinan

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Lentinan
Lentinan.svg
Systematic (IUPAC) name
β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-[β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→6)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranose
Clinical data
AHFS/Drugs.com International Drug Names
Legal status
?
Identifiers
CAS number 37339-90-5 YesY
ATC code L03AX01
PubChem CID 37723
KEGG D01695 YesY
Synonyms (2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[(2S,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6S)-3,5-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)-6-[(2R,3R,4S,5R,6R)-2,3,5-trihydroxy-6-[[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]oxan-4-yl]oxyoxan-4-yl]oxy-3,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-4-yl]oxy-3,5-dihydroxy-6-[[(2R,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxymethyl]oxan-4-yl]oxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxane-3,4,5-triol
Chemical data
Formula C42H72O36 
Mol. mass 1152.99948 g/mol
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Lentinan is an intravenous anti-tumor polysaccharide isolated from the fruit body of shiitake (Lentinula edodes). Lentinan has been approved as an adjuvant for stomach cancer in Japan since 1985.[1] Lentinan is one of the host-mediated anti-cancer drugs which has been shown to affect host defense immune systems.

Chemistry[edit]

Lentinan is a β-1,3 beta-glucan with β-1,6 branching. Molecular weight of lentinan is 500,000 Da. Specific rotation +14-22° (NaOH).

Research[edit]

An in vitro experiment showed lentinan stimulated production of white blood cells in the human cell line U937.[1] A pharmacological blend (MC-S) of lentinan, PSK, Ganoderma lucidum and Astragalus propinquus has also been shown to stimulate white blood cell production in vitro.[2]

An in vivo experiment on mice, revealed lentinan is orally active (since clinical use of the drug is administered through an IV).[3]

Limited clinical studies of cancer patients have associated lentinan with a higher survival rate, higher quality of life, and lower re-occurrence of cancer.[4][5][6][7][8][9][10][11]

Formulations containing Lentinan[edit]

Lentinex is a formulation featuring lentinan and is approved as a safe novel food in the EU.[12]

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Sia GM, Candlish JK. (Mar 1999). "Effects of shiitake (Lentinus edodes) extract on human neutrophils and the U937 monocytic cell line.". Phytother Res. 13 (2): 133–7. doi:10.1002/(SICI)1099-1573(199903)13:2<133::AID-PTR398>3.0.CO;2-O. PMID 10190187. 
  2. ^ Clark D, Adams M. (2007). "Using commercial nutraceutical mixes as immune stimulants: an in vitro proliferation study using Metabolic Cell-Support on non-stimulated human lymphocytes.". Austr. J. Med. Herbal. 19: 108–111. 
  3. ^ Ng ML, Yap AT. (Oct 2002). "Inhibition of human colon carcinoma development by lentinan from shiitake mushrooms (Lentinus edodes).". J Altern Complement Med. (National University of Singapore) 8 (5): 581–9. doi:10.1089/107555302320825093. PMID 12470439. 
  4. ^ Yang P, Liang M, Zhang Y, Shen B. (Aug 2008). "Clinical application of a combination therapy of lentinan, multi-electrode RFA and TACE in HCC.". Adv Ther. 25 (8): 787–94. doi:10.1007/s12325-008-0079-x. PMID 18670743. 
  5. ^ Nimura H, Mitsumori N, Takahashi N, (Jun 2006). "[S-1 combined with lentinan in patients with unresectable or recurrent gastric cancer]". Gan to Kagaku Ryoho. 33 (1): 106–9. PMID 16897983. 
  6. ^ Nakano H, Namatame K, Nemoto H, Motohashi H, Nishiyama K, Kumada K. (1999). "A multi-institutional prospective study of lentinan in advanced gastric cancer patients with unresectable and recurrent diseases: effect on prolongation of survival and improvement of quality of life. Kanagawa Lentinan Research Group.". Hepatogastroenterology. 46 (28): 2662–8. PMID 10522061. 
  7. ^ Oba K, Kobayashi M, Matsui T, Kodera Y, Sakamoto J (July 2009). "Individual Patient Based Meta-analysis of Lentinan for Unresectable/Recurrent Gastric Cancer". Anticancer Res. 29 (7): 2739–45. PMID 19596954. 
  8. ^ Hazama S, Watanabe S, Ohashi M, et al. (July 2009). "Efficacy of Orally Administered Superfine Dispersed Lentinan ({beta}-1,3-Glucan) for the Treatment of Advanced Colorectal Cancer". Anticancer Res. 29 (7): 2611–7. PMID 19596936. 
  9. ^ Kataoka H, Shimura T, Mizoshita T, et al. (2009). "Lentinan with S-1 and paclitaxel for gastric cancer chemotherapy improve patient quality of life". Hepatogastroenterology 56 (90): 547–50. PMID 19579640. 
  10. ^ Isoda N, Eguchi Y, Nukaya H, et al. (2009). "Clinical efficacy of superfine dispersed lentinan (beta-1,3-glucan) in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma". Hepatogastroenterology 56 (90): 437–41. PMID 19579616. 
  11. ^ Shimizu K, Watanabe S, Watanabe S, et al. (2009). "Efficacy of oral administered superfine dispersed lentinan for advanced pancreatic cancer". Hepatogastroenterology 56 (89): 240–4. PMID 19453066. 
  12. ^ EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA). European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy (2010), Scientific Opinion on the safety of "Lentinus edodes extract" (Lentinex®) as a Novel Food ingredient, EFSA Journal 7 (8): 1685, doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2010.1685 

References[edit]

External links[edit]