Leonard Ornstein

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Leonard Ornstein
L.S.Ornstein.JPG
Leonard Salomon Ornstein (1880-1941).
Born November 12, 1880
Nijmegen, the Netherlands
Died May 20, 1941
Utrecht, the Netherlands
Residence Netherlands
Nationality Dutch
Fields Physicist
Institutions University of Utrecht
Alma mater University of Leiden
Doctoral advisor Hendrik Lorentz
Doctoral students Marcel Minnaert
H. C. Hamaker
Hendrik Dorgelo
Arie Andries Kruithof[1]
Known for Ornstein-Zernike equation
Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process

Leonard Salomon Ornstein (November 12, 1880, Nijmegen, the Netherlands — May 20, 1941, Utrecht, the Netherlands)[2] was a Dutch physicist.

Biography[edit]

He studied theoretical physics with Hendrik Antoon Lorentz at University of Leiden. He subsequently carried out Ph.D. research under the supervision of Lorentz, concerning an application of the statistical mechanics of Gibbs to molecular problems.[3]

In 1914 he was appointed professor of physics, as successor of Peter Debye, at University of Utrecht. Among his doctoral students was Jan Frederik Schouten. In 1922 he became director of Physical Laboratory (Fysisch Laboratorium) and extended his research interests to experimental subjects. His measurements concerning intensities of spectral lines brought Physical Laboratory in the international limelight.

He is also remembered for the Ornstein-Zernike theory (named after Ornstein and Frederik Zernike) concerning correlation functions[4] and the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process a stochastic process.

Together with Gilles Holst,[5] director of Philips Research Laboratories (Philips Natuurkundig Laboratorium), he was the driving force behind establishing the Dutch Physical Society (Nederlands Natuurkundig Vereniging, NNV) in 1921. From 1939 until November 1940 he was Chairman of this Society. From 1918 until 1922 Ornstein was Chairman of the Dutch Zionist Society (Nederlandse Zionistische Vereniging).

Immediately after the involvement of the Netherlands in the World War II (see Battle of the Netherlands), a friend from the United States of America, the astronomer Peter van de Kamp, offered to bring Ornstein and his family to America. However, Ornstein did not accept this offer, since, as he put it, he would not leave his laboratory in Utrecht. Owing to his Jewish heritage, Ornstein was summarily dismissed from University in September 1940; he was even barred from entering his own laboratory. In November 1940, he was officially dismissed from University. On his own initiative, on November 29, 1940, Ornstein withdrew his membership of the Dutch Physical Society. During this period he increasingly distanced himself from public life, to the degree that he no longer wished to receive guests at home. Ornstein died on May 20, 1941, six months after being barred from University.

One of the five buildings of Department of Physics of University of Utrecht, the Ornstein Laboratorium,[6] is named in his honor.

Publications[edit]

  • Toepassing der statistische mechanica van Gibbs op moleculair-theoretische vraagstukken, Phd Thesis 26 March 1908
  • Problemen der kinetische theorie van de stof, 1915
  • Strahlungsgesetz und Intensität von Mehrfachlinien, 1924
  • Intensität der Komponenten im Zeemaneffekt, 1924
  • On the theory of the Brownian motion, 1930
  • De beteekenis der natuurkunde voor cultuur en maatschappij, 1932

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Arie Andries Kruithof, Mathematics Genealogy Project.
  2. ^ This text is almost entirely based on the article by: de Lang, Herman (October 2006). "Geschiedenis: 'Vuile handen' in eigen boezem" (– Scholar search). Nederlands Tijdschrift voor Natuurkunde (Nederlandse Natuurkundige Vereniging) 72 (10): 334. Retrieved 2007-03-30. [dead link] (in Dutch).
  3. ^ Ornstein, Leonard Salomon (1908-03-26). Toepassing der statistische mechanica van Gibbs op molekulair-theoretische vraagstukken. Leiden: Eduard IJdo. thesis. 
  4. ^ The Ornstein-Zernike equation and integral equations
  5. ^ Gilles Holst, by Albert van Helden, in K. van Berkel, A. van Helden and L. Palm, A History of Science in The Netherlands. Survey, Themes and Reference (Leiden: Brill, 1999), pp. 471-472. Digital Library of Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Sciences.
  6. ^ Ornstein Laboratorium

External links[edit]